Management I/09 Management

8th edition
Steven P. Robbins
Mary Coulter
What Is Communication?
The transfer and understanding of meaning.
 Transfer
means the message is transmitted in a form
that can be interpreted* by the receiver.
is “getting the picture”; it is not the
same as simply receiving or agreeing with the message.
 Understanding
*Interpretation = A mental representation of the meaning.
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Slide 2
What Is Communication?
Interpersonal
Communication
Communication
between two or
more people
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Organizational
Communication
All
the patterns,
networks, and
systems of
communication
within an
organization
Slide 3
Interpersonal Communication Process
The seven elements of the communication
process:
Source
Message
Encoding
Channel
Decoding
Receiver
Feedback
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Slide 4
Interpersonal Communication Process
• Source
 The sender who initiates the message.
• Message
 The intended meaning or purpose to be conveyed.
• Encoding
 The message converted into symbolic form. In
written/printed, verbal or nonverbal actions.
• Channel
 The medium used to transmit the message. (faceto-face, e-mail, telephone, etc…)
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Slide 5
Interpersonal Communication Process
• Decoding
 The receiver’s retranslation of the symbols (visual
and/or auditive) into a form that he/she can
understand.
• Receiver
 The individual to whom the message is directed.
• Feedback
 The response from the receiver to the sender that
provides knowledge on whether understanding has
been achieved.
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Slide 6
Interpersonal Communication Process
The entire process is likely to be affected by
Noise:
Anything that distorts the message and interferes
with understanding. E.g.….
 Illegible
print
 Inattention
by the receiver
 Background
 Limited
sounds
writing, oral, or listening skills
 Attitudes
 Sociocultural
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differences
Slide 7
The Interpersonal Communication Process
Exhibit 10.1
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Slide 8
Interpersonal Communication Methods
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Face-to-face
Telephone
Group meetings
Formal presentations
Memos
Traditional Mail
Fax machines
Employee publications
Bulletin boards
Audio- and videotapes
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•
•
•
•
•
•
Hotlines
E-mail
Computer conferencing
Voice mail
Teleconferences
Videoconferences
Slide 9
Interpersonal Communication
Nonverbal Communication:
• Communication that is transmitted without
words.
 Body language: Gestures, facial expressions, and
other body movements that convey meaning.
 Situational
 Clothing
 Images
behaviors that convey meaning
and physical surroundings that imply status
that control or encourage behaviors
 Verbal intonation: Emphasis that a speaker gives to
certain words or phrases that conveys meaning.
 It
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is not “what” you say, but “how” you say it!
Slide 10
Barriers to Effective Interpersonal
Communication
• Filtering
 The deliberate manipulation of information to make
it appear more favorable to the receiver.
• Emotions
 Interpreting messages differently, depending on
whether we’re happy or distressed.
• Information Overload
 The quantity of information we have to work with
exceeds our capacity to process it.
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Slide 11
Barriers to Effective Interpersonal
Communication
• Defensiveness
 When feeling threatened, people react in ways that
reduce their ability to achieve mutual understanding.
• Language
 Words mean different things to different people.
Senders tend to assume that words they use mean
the same to the receiver as they do to them.
• National Culture
 Culture influences the form and patterns of
communication and affect the ways managers
communicate.
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Slide 12
Interpersonal Communication Barriers
National
Culture
Language
Filtering
Emotions
Interpersonal
Communication
Information
Overload
Defensiveness
Slide 13
Overcoming the Barriers to Effective
Interpersonal Communications
• Use Feedback
• Simplify Language
• Constrain Emotions
• Watch Nonverbal Cues
• Listen Actively
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Slide 14
Overcoming the Barriers to Effective
Interpersonal Communications
• Use Feedback
 Feedback
can be verbal or nonverbal
 Ask questions
 Look for general comments
• Simplify Language
 Choose
words, and structure messages to
make them understandable to the receiver
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Slide 15
Overcoming the Barriers to Effective
Interpersonal Communications
• Constrain Emotions
 When
upset, refrain from communicating
until you have regained calmness
• Watch Nonverbal Cues
 Watch
your actions and gestures (cues) to
make sure they convey the desired message
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Slide 16
Overcoming the Barriers to Effective
Interpersonal Communications
• Listen Actively
 Place
yourself in the sender’s position to
improve understanding of the message content
 Listen to full meaning without making premature
(too soon) interpretations (a mental representation of the
meaning).
 The average person speaks at a rate of 125 to
200 words per minute. The average listener can
comprehend up to 400 words per minute. That
leaves a lot of time for the mind to be distracted.
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Slide 17
Active Listening Behaviors
Source: Based on P.L. Hunsaker, Training in Management
Skills (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2001).
Page 206
Exhibit 10.4
Slide 18
Types of Organizational Communication
• Formal
Communication
 Communication that
follows the official
chain of command
or is part of the
communication
required to do one’s
job.
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• Informal
Communication
 Communication that is
not defined by the
organization’s hierarchy.
Permits employees to
satisfy their need for
social interaction.
 Can improve an
organization’s
performance by creating
faster and more effective
channels of
communication.

Slide 19
Direction of Communication Flow
• Downward Communication
 Communication that flow from managers to
employees.
 To
inform, direct, coordinate, and evaluate employees.
• Upward Communication
 Communication that flow from employees to
managers.
 It
keeps managers aware of employees’ needs, how
they feel about their jobs and how things can be
improved.
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Slide 20
Direction of Communication Flow
• Lateral (Horizontal) Communication
 Communication that takes place among any
employees on the same organizational level.
 It
saves time and facilitates coordination.
 Cross-functional teams rely on this form of
communication.
Diagonal Communication
 Communication that cuts across both work areas
and organizational levels.
 It
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improves efficiency and speed.
Slide 21
Communication Flows
U
p
w
a
r
d
Lateral
D
o
w
n
w
a
r
d
Slide 22
Types of Communication Networks
• Chain Network
 Communication flows according to the formal
chain of command, both downward and upward.
• Wheel Network
 Communication flows to and from a leader to
others in a work team.
• All-Channel Network
 Communication flows freely among all members
of a work team.
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Slide 23
Three Common Organizational Communication
Networks and How They Rate on Effectiveness
Criteria
Exhibit 10.5
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Slide 24
The Grapevine
• An informal network of communication that is
active in almost every organization.
 It helps managers identify issues that concern
employees.
 Managers can in turn use the grapevine to
disseminate information they consider important
 Managers can minimize the negative consequences
of rumors by communicating openly and honestly
with employees in situations where they may not
like managerial actions.
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Slide 25
Current Communication Issues
• Gripe Sites:
A gripe site or “complaint” site is a website
devoted to criticisms and complaints of an
organization.
Managers should view them as a source of
information.
 They
can uncover employee important issues.
 They provide a way to judge the mood of the
workforce.
 They can be viewed as a means of upward
communication.
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Slide 26
Current Communication Issues
• Gripe Sites
Managers might respond by posting
messages on the gripe site to clarify
misinformation.
Managers might take actions to correct
problems that have been written about.
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Slide 27
Current Communication Issues
• Managing the Organization’s Knowledge
Resources
 Making
it easy for employees to communicate and share
their knowledge so they can learn from each other ways
to do their jobs more effectively and efficiently.
 Build online information databases that employees
can access.
 Create “communities of practice”.
 Groups
of people who share a concern, a set of
problems or interest about a topic and who interact with
each other regularly to improve their knowledge and
expertise in that area. Strong interaction can be
maintained through web sites, e-mail and videoconferencing.
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Slide 28
Communication and Customer Service
Communication has a significant impact on a
customer’s satisfaction with the service.
 Managers need to make sure that employees who
interact with customers are communicating effectively
with those customers.
 Train employees to listen actively and respond to
the customer.
 Make sure information needed to deal with
customers issues is readily available.
 Managers need to develop a strong service culture
focused on the personalization of service to each
customer.
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Slide 29
“Politically Correct” Communication
Certain words can stereotype, intimidate and
insult individuals. How to communicate with
someone who isn’t like us?
We must be sensitive to how certain words might
offend others
However, choose words carefully to maintain as
much clarity as possible in communicating.
Sears tells its employees that when talking with a
customer in a wheelchair, employees place
themselves at the customer’s eye level by
sitting down to make it more comfortable
for everyone.
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Slide 30
C H A P T E R R E V I E W 1/3
Understanding Communications (slides 2, 3)
• What are the two important parts of the definition of
communication?
• Differentiate between interpersonal and organizational
communication.
The Process of Interpersonal Communications (slides 5, 6,
9~12, 14)
•
•
•
•
Describe the seven elements of the communication process.
List the communication methods managers might use.
Describe nonverbal communication an how it takes place.
Explain the barriers to effective interpersonal communication and
how to overcome them.
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Slide 31
C H A P T E R R E V I E W 2/3
Organizational Communication (slides 19~21,
23, 25)
• Contrast formal and informal communication.
• Explain how communication can flow in an organization.
• Describe the three common communication networks.
• Discuss how managers should handle the grapevine.
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Slide 32
C H A P T E R R E V I E W 3/3
Communication Issues in Today’s Organization (slides 26~30)
• Discuss how Internet employee gripe sites affect communication.
• Explain how organizations can manage knowledge.
• Explain why communicating with customers is an important
managerial issue.
• Describe how political correctness is affecting communication.
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Slide 33