Teacher Environ07

Teacher Personal
Styles and
Environments
Student Perspectives
1. Elementary studentts like school
more
2. Middle school like school less
and perceive less choice, interest,
and enjoyment
4. Girls like school more than boys
5. Rural reported less interest and
challenge and liked it less than urban
6. Gifted kids in magnet schools
more challenged than GT and nonGT
in regular school
Teacher-Control
Style
Teacher Control Style
Control-orientation
A. HIGH CONTROL = Punitive methods
of classroom control
Removal from class
Threats
Denial of privledges
Less positive attention
B. MEDIUM CONTROL = Teacher-led
C. LOW CONTROL
Choices
Opportunities for
student interaction
Teacher STYLE leading to failure
 BRICKWALL  DICTATOR:
 1. Punisher
 2. Guilter

Classroom procedures and rules
are enforced without student
input
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Teacher
style leading to failure
JELLYFISHDisengaged
No structure, rules, or
guidelines
Inconsistent responses
that tend to be reactive
and more punishing

Students have complete
independence over classroom
management with only
institutional constraints
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Teacher
style leading to success
BACKBONE
 1. Buddy
 2. Monitor
 3. Manager
Encourages students to
devise their own
classroom policies
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Where do Teachers’
Need for Control
come from?
Collected Experiences
Educational and Work Background
Personality Traits
Views and Ideas on What Education
Should Be
 Views on Roles of the Teacher vs. the
Student




Reciprocal Control
View
Family History of
Control
Teacher controlling
Student controlling
CLASSROOM
Opportunities for Control
Teachers’ Perceived
Feelings of Being in
Control
SELF- EFFICACY
I Can!
An individual’s
perception of their
ability to perform a
task
 Kauffman and Wong, 1991
HIGH SELF- EFFICACY
I Can!
 Allows teachers to
perceive students
as worthy of effort
and attention!!
Kauffman and Wong, 1991
LOW SELF-EFFICACY
I Can’t
 Reduced efforts or
giving up entirely
 Avoid challenges
Kauffman and Wong, 1991
Teachers Who Lack Confidence
 Low: ability to set up effective
behavior management plans
 Lower: adjusting lessons/materials
 Lowest: ability to manage classroom
stress
Bussing et al., 2002
Teacher Perspectives
•Result of past experience
• Modifiable with success
•Directly influences students’
behavior and attitudes
Effectiveness Questions?
Does structure help learning
or inhibit independence?
Versus
“Attainment of higher level
learning objectives will
not be achieved with
relative ease through
discovery learning;
instead, it will require
considerable instruction
by a skilled teacher”
 Brophy (1986) –in Heward, W. L. (2003)-
“Students’ minds are allowed
very little freedom when
specific psychological
processes academic skills,
and cognitive strategies are
structured for them… the
more structured the
curriculum, the more passive
become our students” Poplin
(1988)
Selfdirected
learning
Drill &
Practice
Versus
•Students take
responsibility for their
learning, which reduces
behavior problems
•Works for all students,
especially those with
BD(Merriam & Caffarella, 1999)
Development of
basic knowledge
and skills to levels
of automatic and
errorless
performance Brophy
(1986) –in Heward, W. L. (2003)-
Are multiple methods the
answer?
 A defining characteristic of a good special
educator is knowledge and skill in using a
variety of instructional methods

Fuchs & Fuchs (2000); Lovitt (1996)
Is Frequent Assessment
Important?
Versus
 SPED teachers indicated it
is “important” to collect
performance data
 Greenwood & Maheady
(1997) –in Heward, W. L.
(2003)
 Direct, objective and
frequent measurement of
the student performance
is one of the hallmarks in
Special Education
 But 85% stated
that they “never”
or “seldom”
collected and
charted students
performance data
to make
instructional
decisions
Does Praise increase or
decrease Motivation?
Versus
Praise, approval
and other forms
of positive
reinforcement
have positive
effects on
student behavior
and achievement
Alber & Heward
(2003); Maag
(2001)
Praise increases pressure to “live up
to” praise w/ unrealistic expectations
of future success,
establishes a power imbalance,
insults people if rewarded for
unchallenging behaviors
 undermines intrinsic motivation
Kohn (1993) -in Heward, W. L. (2003)
 Factors that contribute to low rates of
teacher praise in classroom (Heward,
2003)
1.will students will come to expect it?
2. students should learn for “intrinsic”
reasons.
3.praising takes too much time
4.it is unnatural to praise
Do we build self-esteem or
achievement?
Versus
Teachers who worked to
Self-esteem is more
build student selflikely a product of
confidence had
high achievement
students with better
and
academic performance
& emotional health
accomplishments
 Heward (2003)
(Stough & Palmer, 2003)
Teaching Practices with:
Students w/ BD
1.Cooperative practices=
1. increase of on-task
behavior
2. Information explicitness=
2. benefits BD students in sm.
group settings
3. High rates of choice=
3. less activity & better
attention
4. Support (caringness)
4. valued by students
Beyda, Zentall, & Ferko, 2002
Yes!! High Expectations
The most successful EBD teachers
have “high expectations for
students’ academic performance
and conduct”
 They can also, “readily bring a
student’s behavior into line with
their standards and tolerance”.
• Reflective teachers had
higher expectations
M.Daugherty et al. (2003)Wong, Kauffman, &
Lloyd, 1991
Not Patience?
 Patience is a positive and valued
trait in the classroom, but special
education teachers often translate
it into:
 Slowed-down instruction
 Lowered expectations for
performance
 Fewer opportunities to
respond
 Fewer in class assignments
 Fewer homework assignments

Heward (2003)
 Frequent opportunities to
respond, high
expectations, and fastpaced instruction are
especially important for
students with learning and
behavioral problems,
because to catch up they
must be taught more in
less time, otherwise the
gap between a normal and
a disabled student
becomes even greater.
 Kame’enui & Simmons (1990)
But also Not DEMANDING!
 Low tolerance for misbehavior
 High standards of appropriate
behavior
 These teachers were also the most
resistant to having a disabled
student in their class
Walker& Rankin (cited in Kauffman & Wong, 1991)
Is Emotional Climate
Important?
 Negative= fewer student
gains
 Positive= improved student
self- concept and attitude
toward school
 Morsink, Soar, Soar, & Thomas, 1986
Transactional Analysis
TA
Theory
 Goal of TA: to understand
clearly what took place during
the transaction and how to
sustain mature transactions.
Components of Transactions
 Three ego states ( more readily
understood and applied than
Freudian id, superego and ego.
 The Child
 The Parent
 The Adult
The Child
(before the age of 5)
 Impulsive, demanding, whining.
 “I’m not OK and you are” (child, anxious dependency of the
immature, withdrawn, depressed).
 Conflict with desire to win parent approval and desire to
explore, touch, and test the world.
 Non-verbal - tears, quivering lip, pouting, temper tantrums, high
pitched, whining voice, rolling eyes, shrugging shoulders,
downcast eyes, teasing, delight, laughter, hand-raising for
permission to speak, nail-biting, nose-thumbing, squirming and
giggling.
 Verbal - “I wish, I want, I dunno, I gonna, I don’t care, I guess,
when I grow up bigger, biggest, better, best, (and many similar
superlatives).”
The Parent
 Shaped by external events, represents lifesaving, talks with
imperatives, directives, judgmental, extremes, rules, “truths”
recorded from childhood, controls and nurtures
 Non-verbal - furrowed brow, pursed lips, pointing index finger,
head-wagging, horrified look, foot-tapping, hands on hips, arms
folded across chest, wringing hands, tongue-clicking, sighing,
patting another on the head.
 Verbal - “I am going to put a stop to this once and for all,” “Now,
always remember,” Evaluative words such as: “stupid, naughty,
ridiculous, disgusting, shocking, asinine, lazy, nonsense,
absurd, poor thing, poor dear, no! no!, sonny, honey, How dare
you?, cute, there, Now what?, Not again!”
The Adult
 Controls himself and the environment, can predict
future incidents; thinks rationally; generalizes.
 Ability to categorize and generalize. Adult tests or
checks out the rules and information of the parent to
see if they are right. The adult determines when the
feelings of the child can be expressed and knows
when to obey parent rules or child’s spontaneity
 Non-verbal - Listening attentively.
 Verbal - “How much, in what way, comparative, true,
false, probable, possible, unknown, objective, I think,
I see, it is my opinion, why, what, when, who, and
how.”
 “I’m OK - you’re OK” (mature adult at peace with
him/herself and others)
Roles in Transactions
 Four life positions:
 1. Child rules: I’m not O.K., you are O.K.
 2. Parent rules: “I’m OK and you’re not
OK” (parent, criminal, psychopath,
external locus of control, battered kids).
 3. Desirable: I’m O.K., you’re O.K.
Application
 Communication Disruption is the
result of tension among the three
inner forces.
 Parent and Child rule: I’m not O.K.,
and others are not O.K” Everything
is hopeless (suicidal, homicidal).
Personal Style
Translated to Teaching
Some things to ask ourselves…
Which role do we play MOST of the time?
The
director
role?
Weitzman, E (1992)
Some things to ask ourselves…
The rescuer
teacher role?
Weitzman, E (1992)
Some things to ask ourselves…
Ruled by time
role?
Weitzman, E (1992)
Some things to ask ourselves…
The
responsive
teacher role?
Weitzman, E (1992)
Some things to ask ourselves…
The passive
teacher role?
Weitzman, E (1992)
Some things to ask ourselves…
The
entertainer
role?
Weitzman, E (1992)
Some things to ask ourselves…
Are
entertaining or
direction a
child with his
own agenda?
Weitzman, E (1992)
Some things to ask ourselves…
Are we using
a director role
with a
passive child?
Weitzman, E (1992)
Some things to ask ourselves…
The rescuer
role with a
reluctant
child?
Weitzman, E (1992)