ТДТМА). Впервые проведено тестирование катионного ПАВ

Ostroumov S.A. Response of test-organisms to water pollution with quaternary
ammonia compounds. - Water Resources [Bioassay of cationic surfactant on leeches
Hirudo medicinalis, seedlings Fagopyrum esculentum ] Extended abstracts in English
and in Russian.
Abstract in Russian: Остроумов С.А. Реагирование тест-организмов на
загрязнение водной среды четвертичным аммониевым соединением // Водные
ресурсы. 1991. № 2. С. 112-116. 6 табл. Библиогр. 17 назв. ISSN: 0321-0596. С
целью полнее охарактеризовать возможные последстия загрязнения среды
поверхностно-активными веществам (ПАВ) изучали воздействие на тесторганизмы четвертичного аммониевого соединения – катионного ПАВ
тетрадецилтриметиламмонийбромида
(ТДТМА).
Впервые
проведено
тестирование катионного ПАВ ТДТМА на пиявках Hirudo medicinalis
(выявлены новые эффекты - изменения поведения тест-организмов), а также на
растениях Fagopyrum esculentum (выявлено
ингибирование удлинения
проростков). В этой статье установлено, что сравнительно низкие концентрации
загрязняющего вещества (катионного ПАВ - четвертичного аммониевого
соединения) изменяли поведение тест-организмов (пиявка медицинская Hirudo
medicinalis). Пиявки откреплялись от субстрата, на котором ранее сидели. В
случае реки или ручья такое открепление означает, что пиявок уносит течением
воды. В итоге экосистема будет терять этих пиявок - т.е. окончательный
результат такой же, как если бы они погибли. Получается, что сублетальное
воздействие на организмы ведет к такому же финальному результату, как и
высокотоксичное воздействие больших, летальных концентраций. Потеря
пиявок означает существенное нарушение пищевых цепей, т.е. структуры
экосистем. Ключевые слова: Фитотоксичность, биотест, гидробиология
(hydrobiology). Загрязнение воды (water pollution). Загрязнение окружающей
среды
(Environmental
pollution).
Есть
в
Центральной
научной
сельскохозяйственной библиотеке РАСХН (ЦНСХБ РАСХН). Перевод на англ. яз.:
**Abstract in English: Ostroumov S.A. Response of test-organisms to water pollution
with quaternary ammonia compounds. - Water Resources (USA; ISSN 0097-8078)
1992, v. 18(2) p. 171-175. Bibliogr. 17 refs [without co-authors; Translated from the
Russian original: Reagirovanie test-organizmov na zagrjaznenie vodnoj sredy
chetvertichnym ammonievym soedineniem. - Vodnye Resursy, v. 18 (2), 1991, p.112116; Availability: NAL/USDA (United States of America); Availability number 9176736;
water pollution, quaternary ammonium compounds, testing, Fagopyrum esculentum,
phytotoxicity, leeches, Hirudo medicinalis]. AGRIS record number US9176736.
ABSTRACT. Purpose: To better characterize the possible effects of pollution of water
by surface-active agents (surfactants, detergents). We studied the effects of the
quaternary ammonium compound, cationic surfactant tetradecyltrimethylammonium
bromide (TDTMA) on the test organisms. It is the first study in which the cationic
surfactant TDTMA was tested in leeches Hirudo medicinalis. As a result, we identified
new effects: changes in the behavior of the test organisms (leeches). It is the first
study of the effects of this surfactant on the seedlings of the plants, buckweat
Fagopyrum esculentum. As a result, we revealed some inhibition of seedling
elongation. This paper establishes the following: relatively low concentrations of the
pollutant (the cationic surfactant, quaternary ammonium compound) changed the
behavior of the test organisms (medical leech Hirudo medicinalis). Leeches detached
from the substrate, on which they previously sat. In the case of a river or stream, the
detachment means that the flow of water will carry off the leeches. As a result, the
ecosystem will lose these leeches. Thus, the final result is the same as if they were
killed. It turns out that the sublethal effects on the organisms leads to the same final
result as some large and highly toxic, lethal concentrations. Loss of leeches means a
material breach of the food chain, i.e. a hazard of some harm to the structure of
ecosystems. Keywords: Phytotoxicity, bioassay, Hydrobiology (hydrobiology). Water
pollution (water pollution). Contamination of the environment (Environmental
pollution).
** Comment:
At Moscow State University, Dr. Sergey A. Ostroumov discovered that the official maximum
acceptable concentrations (MACs) of some synthetic surfactants are actually too high to be
environment-friendly. This benefits detergent-producing companies such as Proctor & Gamble. At
concentrations below the MAC level, such surfactants (washing detergents, cosmetics, or toiletries)
do not kill living organisms. However, as Dr. S. Ostroumov discovered, they significantly change
their behavior. His experiments demonstrated that low surfactant concentrations in the water made
freshwater leeches (Hirudo medicinalis) detach from their usual sites of attachment to solid
surfaces. The detachment from the sites of their attachment in a river or a stream means that as a
result, the leeches drift away from their native local ecosystems with the water current. Therefore,
the freshwater ecosystems of rivers and streams lose the leeches, which constitute an important
link of their food chains, and a part of their biodiversity. This example demonstrates the harm that
can be done by relatively low (sublethal) surfactant concentrations to natural ecosystems and their
biodiversity (Ostroumov, 1992).
Key words:
water pollution, quaternary ammonium compounds, testing, Fagopyrum esculentum,
phytotoxicity, leeches, Hirudo medicinalis, Phytotoxicity, bioassay, hydrobiology,
water pollution, Contamination, environment, Environmental pollution,
tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide, TDTMA, available, U.S.A., library,