03,2014, 5,72 Mb - Приднестровский Республиканский Банк

ǪǭǹǺǵǰDz
ǷǸǰǬǵǭǹǺǸǶǪǹDzǶǫǶ ǸǭǹǷǻǩdzǰDzǨǵǹDzǶǫǶ ǩǨǵDzǨ
ǰǵǼǶǸǴǨǾǰǶǵǵǶ-ǨǵǨdzǰǺǰǿǭǹDzǶǭ ǰǯǬǨǵǰǭ
ȹ3 (178)
ǴǨǸǺ
2014
ǰȏȌȈȨȚșȧ ș ȈȊȋțșȚȈ 1999 ȋȖȌȈ
ǻȟȘȍȌȐȚȍȓȤ:
ǷȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊșȒȐȑ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȈȕșȒȐȑ ȉȈȕȒ
ǪȍșȚȕȐȒ ǷȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊșȒȖȋȖ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȈȕșȒȖȋȖ ȉȈȕȒȈ: ǰȕȜȖȘȔ.-ȈȕȈȓȐȚ. ȐȏȌȈȕȐȍ/
ǫȓ. ȘȍȌ.: ǯȈȔ.ȗȘȍȌșȍȌȈȚȍȓȧ ǷǸǩ ǹȚȍȗȈȕȖȊ Ǫ.ǰ.; ǷǸǩ [ǻǴǨȐǸǬǶ] – ǺȐȘȈșȗȖȓȤ, ǷǸǩ, 2014 – ȹ3 – 100 ȥȒȏ.
ǨȌȘȍș ȘȍȌȈȒȞȐȐ:
MD-3300, ȋ. ǺȐȘȈșȗȖȓȤ, țȓ. 25 ǶȒȚȧȉȘȧ, 71, ǷǸǩ,
ǻȗȘȈȊȓȍȕȐȍ ȔȈȒȘȖȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȟȍșȒȖȋȖ ȈȕȈȓȐȏȈ Ȑ ȘȍȋțȓȐȘȖȊȈȕȐȧ ȌȍȕȍȎȕȖȋȖ ȖȉȘȈȡȍȕȐȧ
Țȍȓ.: +(373-533) 5-98-11, ȜȈȒș +(373-533) 5-99-07
e-mail: [email protected], [email protected], [email protected]
website: www.cbpmr.net
ǷȘȐ ȗȖȌȋȖȚȖȊȒȍ ȈȕȈȓȐȚȐȟȍșȒȐȝ ȔȈȚȍȘȐȈȓȖȊ ȐșȗȖȓȤȏȖȊȈȓȐșȤ ȖȜȐȞȐȈȓȤȕȣȍ ȌȈȕȕȣȍ
ǫȖșțȌȈȘșȚȊȍȕȕȖȑ șȓțȎȉȣ șȚȈȚȐșȚȐȒȐ ǷǴǸ, ǴȐȕȐșȚȍȘșȚȊȈ ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȟȍșȒȖȋȖ ȘȈȏȊȐȚȐȧ ǷǴǸ,
ǫȖșțȌȈȘșȚȊȍȕȕȖȋȖ ȚȈȔȖȎȍȕȕȖȋȖ ȒȖȔȐȚȍȚȈ ǷǴǸ Ȑ ǴȐȕȐșȚȍȘșȚȊȈ ȜȐȕȈȕșȖȊ ǷǴǸ
Ǫ ȕȍȒȖȚȖȘȣȝ șȓțȟȈȧȝ ȕȍȏȕȈȟȐȚȍȓȤȕȣȍ ȘȈșȝȖȎȌȍȕȐȧ ȔȍȎȌț ȗȖȒȈȏȈȚȍȓȧȔȐ ȖȉȢȧșȕȧȦȚșȧ ȖȒȘțȋȓȍȕȐȍȔ ȌȈȕȕȣȝ
ǷȘȐ ȗȍȘȍȗȍȟȈȚȒȍ ȔȈȚȍȘȐȈȓȖȊ șșȣȓȒȈ ȕȈ «ǪȍșȚȕȐȒ ǷȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊșȒȖȋȖ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȈȕșȒȖȋȖ ȉȈȕȒȈ» ȖȉȧȏȈȚȍȓȤȕȈ
¤ ǷȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊșȒȐȑ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȈȕșȒȐȑ ȉȈȕȒ,
ǻȗȘȈȊȓȍȕȐȍ ȔȈȒȘȖȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȟȍșȒȖȋȖ ȈȕȈȓȐȏȈ
Ȑ ȘȍȋțȓȐȘȖȊȈȕȐȧ ȌȍȕȍȎȕȖȋȖ ȖȉȘȈȡȍȕȐȧ, 2014
DzȘȈȚȒȖ Ȗ ȋȓȈȊȕȖȔ…
Ǫ ȔȈȘȚȍ ȚȍȒțȡȍȋȖ ȋȖȌȈ ȋȓȖȉȈȓȤȕȈȧ ȕȍșȚȈȉȐȓȤȕȖșȚȤ ȗȘȖȌȖȓȎȈȓȈ ȕȈȘȈșȚȈȚȤ. dzȐȝȖȘȈȌȐȓȖ
ȔȐȘȖȊȣȍ ȜȖȕȌȖȊȣȍ ȉȐȘȎȐ, Ȉ ȚȈȒȎȍ ȊȈȓȦȚȕȣȍ ȘȣȕȒȐ ȖȚȌȍȓȤȕȣȝ șȚȘȈȕ. Ǫ ȗȍȘȊțȦ ȖȟȍȘȍȌȤ,
ȥȚȖ ȉȣȓȖ șȊȧȏȈȕȖ ș ȥșȒȈȓȈȞȐȍȑ ȕȈȗȘȧȎȨȕȕȖșȚȐ ȕȈ ǻȒȘȈȐȕȍ Ȑ ȘȈȏȕȣȔȐ ȗȖȌȝȖȌȈȔȐ ȊȍȌțȡȐȝ
ȔȐȘȖȊȣȝ ȌȍȘȎȈȊ Ȓ ȘȈȏȘȍȠȍȕȐȦ șȓȖȎȐȊȠȍȋȖșȧ Ȋ ȥȚȖȑ șȚȘȈȕȍ ȒȘȐȏȐșȈ. ǸȖșșȐȑșȒȈȧ
ǼȍȌȍȘȈȞȐȧ, ȕȍșȔȖȚȘȧ ȕȈ țȋȘȖȏȣ Ȗ ȊȊȍȌȍȕȐȐ Ȋ ȖȚȕȖȠȍȕȐȐ ȕȍȨ șȈȕȒȞȐȑ șȖ șȚȖȘȖȕȣ ǹȀǨ Ȑ
ǭȊȘȖșȖȦȏȈ, șȌȍȓȈȓȈ ȐșȚȖȘȐȟȍșȒȐȑ ȠȈȋ Ȑ ȗȘȐȏȕȈȓȈ șȖșȚȖȧȊȠȐȑșȧ Ȋ DzȘȣȔț ȘȍȜȍȘȍȕȌțȔ, ȚȍȔ
șȈȔȣȔ ȟȨȚȒȖ ȗȘȖȌȍȔȖȕșȚȘȐȘȖȊȈȊ ȕȈȔȍȘȍȕȐȍ ȏȈȡȐȡȈȚȤ ȗȘȈȊȈ șȖȖȚȍȟȍșȚȊȍȕȕȐȒȖȊ Ȋ ȓȦȉȖȑ
ȚȖȟȒȍ ȔȐȘȈ.
ȅȚȖȚ șȐȋȕȈȓ ȖȚȔȍȚȐȓȐ Ȑ Ȋ ǷȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊȤȍ, ȒȖȚȖȘȖȍ ȌȈȎȍ Ȋ ȕȣȕȍȠȕȐȝ ȕȍȗȘȖșȚȣȝ
țșȓȖȊȐȧȝ, ȋȘȈȕȐȟȈ ș ȋȖșțȌȈȘșȚȊȈȔȐ, ȐȌțȡȐȔȐ ȗȖ ȗțȚȐ ȘȈșȠȐȘȍȕȐȧ ȍȊȘȖȐȕȚȍȋȘȈȞȐȐ,
ȗȖșȓȍȌȖȊȈȚȍȓȤȕȖ ȘȍȈȓȐȏțȍȚ șȊȖȑ ȗȘȖȍȊȘȈȏȐȑșȒȐȑ ȊȍȒȚȖȘ ȘȈȏȊȐȚȐȧ. ȅȚȖȚ ȗțȚȤ ȕȍ ȔȖȎȍȚ
ȉȣȚȤ ȋȓȈȌȒȐȔ, ȕȖ Ȗȕ ȧȊȓȧȍȚșȧ ȍȌȐȕșȚȊȍȕȕȖ ȊȍȘȕȣȔ, ȚȈȒ ȒȈȒ ȗȘȍȌȖșȚȈȊȓȧȍȚ ȠȈȕș ȈȒȚȐȊȕȖȋȖ
țȟȈșȚȐȧ Ȋ ȜȖȘȔȐȘȖȊȈȕȐȐ ȗȖȓȕȖȞȍȕȕȖȋȖ ȍȊȘȈȏȐȑșȒȖȋȖ ȞȍȕȚȘȈ ȊȓȐȧȕȐȧ Ȋ șȖȊȘȍȔȍȕȕȖȔ
ȔȐȘȍ. ǴȕȖȋȖȗȖȓȧȘȕȖșȚȤ – ȥȚȖ ȘȍȈȓȤȕȖșȚȤ șȍȋȖȌȕȧȠȕȍȋȖ Ȍȕȧ Ȑ ȕȍȎȍȓȈȕȐȍ ȗȘȈȊȧȡȐȝ
ȗȖȓȐȚȐȟȍșȒȐȝ ȒȘțȋȖȊ Ȋ ǹȀǨ ȗȘȐȏȕȈȊȈȚȤ ȌȈȕȕȣȑ ȜȈȒȚ, șȖȏȌȈȨȚ țȋȘȖȏȣ, ȗȘȍȎȌȍ ȊșȍȋȖ, Ȍȓȧ
ȈȔȍȘȐȒȈȕșȒȖȑ ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȒȐ. ǭȨ țȧȏȊȐȔȖșȚȤ ȏȈȒȓȦȟȈȍȚșȧ Ȋ ȉȖȓȤȠȖȑ ȏȈȊȐșȐȔȖșȚȐ ȖȚ
ȌȐȕȈȔȐȒȐ ȗȖȚȖȒȖȊ ȒȈȗȐȚȈȓȖȊ, ȗȖȊȍȌȍȕȐȧ ȐȕȊȍșȚȖȘȖȊ Ȑ ȒȘȍȌȐȚȖȘȖȊ. ǹȚȘȍȔȧșȤ ȗȖȊȣșȐȚȤ
șȖȉșȚȊȍȕȕțȦ ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȟȍșȒțȦ ȉȍȏȖȗȈșȕȖșȚȤ, ȊșȨ ȉȖȓȤȠȍ șȚȘȈȕ ȗȍȘȍȝȖȌȧȚ ȕȈ ȘȈșȟȨȚȣ Ȋ
ȕȈȞȐȖȕȈȓȤȕȣȝ ȊȈȓȦȚȈȝ. ǫȍȋȍȔȖȕȐȧ ȌȖȓȓȈȘȈ ȧȊȕȖ ȗȖȌȝȖȌȐȚ Ȓ ȒȖȕȞț, ȥȚȖ șȊȍȘȠȐȊȠȐȑșȧ
ȜȈȒȚ.
Ǭȓȧ ǷȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊȤȧ ȊȈȎȕȣȔ ȧȊȓȧȍȚșȧ ȊȣșȚȘȈȐȊȈȕȐȍ ȈȌȍȒȊȈȚȕȖȑ șȐșȚȍȔȣ
ȘȍȈȋȐȘȖȊȈȕȐȧ ȕȈ ȊȖȏȕȐȒȈȦȡȐȍ ȊȣȏȖȊȣ, ȖȉȍșȗȍȟȍȕȐȍ ȒȖȕșȖȓȐȌȈȞȐȐ ȕȈ Ȋșȍȝ țȘȖȊȕȧȝ
ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȟȍșȒȖȑ Ȑ ȗȖȓȐȚȐȟȍșȒȖȑ șȐșȚȍȔ. ǷȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊșȒȐȑ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȈȕșȒȐȑ ȉȈȕȒ Ȋ ȥȚȖȔ
ȒȖȕȚȍȒșȚȍ șȖșȘȍȌȖȚȖȟȐȓ țșȐȓȐȧ ȕȈ ȌȖșȚȐȎȍȕȐȐ Ȟȍȓȍȑ, ȊȔȍȕȨȕȕȣȝ ȍȔț ȌȍȑșȚȊțȦȡȐȔ
ȏȈȒȖȕȖȌȈȚȍȓȤșȚȊȖȔ, – ȗȖȌȌȍȘȎȈȕȐȍ șȚȈȉȐȓȤȕȖșȚȐ Ȑ ȘȈȏȊȐȚȐȍ ȉȈȕȒȖȊșȒȖȑ șȐșȚȍȔȣ,
ȥȜȜȍȒȚȐȊȕȖȍ Ȑ ȉȍșȗȍȘȍȉȖȑȕȖȍ ȜțȕȒȞȐȖȕȐȘȖȊȈȕȐȍ ȗȓȈȚȨȎȕȖȑ șȐșȚȍȔȣ, ȖȉȍșȗȍȟȍȕȐȍ
țșȚȖȑȟȐȊȖșȚȐ ȌȍȕȍȎȕȖȑ ȍȌȐȕȐȞȣ ǷȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊșȒȖȑ ǴȖȓȌȈȊșȒȖȑ ǸȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȐ. ǺȖȓȤȒȖ
ȉȓȈȋȖȌȈȘȧ ȊȏȊȍȠȍȕȕȖȔț ȗȖȌȝȖȌț, ȕȍ ȗȘȐȕȐȔȈȧ ȖȗȘȖȔȍȚȟȐȊȣȝ ȘȍȠȍȕȐȑ, Ȕȣ șȔȖȎȍȔ
ȗȘȍȖȌȖȓȍȚȤ ȥȚȖȚ ȗȍȘȐȖȌ ȗȍȘȍȕȈșȚȘȖȑȒȐ ȔȐȘȖȊȣȝ ȊȏȈȐȔȖȖȚȕȖȠȍȕȐȑ.
ǷȘȍȌșȍȌȈȚȍȓȤ
ǷȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊșȒȖȋȖ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȈȕșȒȖȋȖ ȉȈȕȒȈ
ȅ.Ǩ. DzȖșȖȊșȒȐȑ
Вестник Приднестровского республиканского банка №3’2014
СОДЕРЖАНИЕ
МАКРОЭКОНОМИКА
4
Социально-экономическая ситуация в 2013 году
МИРОВАЯ ЭКОНОМИКА
Обзор экономического развития стран – основных торговых партнёров ПМР
за 2013 год
14
ПО МАТЕРИАЛАМ КОНФЕРЕНЦИЙ
Современное состояние и перспективы
Приднестровской Молдавской Республики
развития
банковской
системы
22
ОБЗОРНАЯ ИНФОРМАЦИЯ
Мониторинг как новая форма налогового контроля
32
К 20-ЛЕТИЮ РУБЛЯ ПМР: ФАКТЫ О БАНКНОТАХ И МОНЕТАХ
Центробанки против фальшивомонетчиков
40
ЕЖЕМЕСЯЧНЫЙ ОБЗОР
Экономическая ситуация в феврале 2014 года
Инфляция
Банковская система
Денежный рынок
Валютный рынок
Ставки депозитно-кредитного рынка
СТАТИСТИЧЕСКАЯ ИНФОРМАЦИЯ
46
46
47
48
49
51
ǴȈȒȘȖȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȒȈ
ǹǶǾǰǨdzȄǵǶ-ȅDzǶǵǶǴǰǿǭǹDzǨȇ ǹǰǺǻǨǾǰȇ
Ǫ 2013 ǫǶǬǻ1
ǹȐȚțȈȞȐȧ Ȋ ȖȚȟȨȚȕȖȔ ȗȍȘȐȖȌȍ ȝȈȘȈȒȚȍȘȐȏȖȊȈȓȈșȤ ȉȖȓȍȍ țșȚȖȑȟȐȊȣȔ ȗȖȓȖȎȍȕȐȍȔ
ȝȖȏȧȑșȚȊțȦȡȐȝ șțȉȢȍȒȚȖȊ, ȖȘȐȍȕȚȐȘȖȊȈȕȕȣȝ ȕȈ ȊȕțȚȘȍȕȕȐȑ ȘȣȕȖȒ. ȅȚȖ
ȗȖȌȒȘȍȗȓȧȓȖșȤ ȘȖșȚȖȔ ȗȖȒțȗȈȚȍȓȤȕȖȑ șȗȖșȖȉȕȖșȚȐ ȕȈșȍȓȍȕȐȧ, ȕȐȏȒȖȑ ȐȕȜȓȧȞȐȍȑ,
Ȉ ȚȈȒȎȍ ȉȓȈȋȖȗȘȐȧȚȕȣȔȐ ȗȖȋȖȌȕȣȔȐ țșȓȖȊȐȧȔȐ Ȍȓȧ ȌȍȧȚȍȓȤȕȖșȚȐ ȈȋȘȈȘȕȖȋȖ
șȍȒȚȖȘȈ.
Ǭȓȧ ȥȒșȗȖȘȚȖȖȘȐȍȕȚȐȘȖȊȈȕȕȣȝ ȗȘȍȌȗȘȐȧȚȐȑ ȖșȖȉȍȕȕȖ șȓȖȎȕȈȧ ȖȉșȚȈȕȖȊȒȈ
șȒȓȈȌȣȊȈȓȈșȤ Ȋ I ȗȖȓțȋȖȌȐȐ. ǶȌȕȈȒȖ ȔȍȘȣ, ȗȘȍȌȗȘȐȕȧȚȣȍ șȖȊȔȍșȚȕȖ ȋȖșțȌȈȘșȚȊȖȔ
Ȑ ȉȐȏȕȍșȖȔ, ȗȖȏȊȖȓȐȓȐ ȊȖ ȊȚȖȘȖȑ ȗȖȓȖȊȐȕȍ 2013 ȋȖȌȈ ȗȘȍȖȌȖȓȍȚȤ ȕȍȋȈȚȐȊȕȣȍ
ȚȍȕȌȍȕȞȐȐ, ȟȚȖ ȖȚȘȈȏȐȓȖșȤ ȕȈ ȖȉȢȨȔȈȝ ȗȘȖȐȏȊȖȌșȚȊȈ, țȘȖȊȕȍ ȐȕȊȍșȚȐȞȐȑ, șȖșȚȖȧȕȐȐ
ȊȕȍȠȕȍȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȟȍșȒȖȑ șȜȍȘȣ.
ǷȘȖȔȣȠȓȍȕȕȖȍ ȗȘȖȐȏȊȖȌșȚȊȖ
ǹȖȋȓȈșȕȖ ȌȈȕȕȣȔ ǫȖșțȌȈȘșȚȊȍȕȕȖȑ șȓțȎȉȣ șȚȈȚȐșȚȐȒȐ ǷǴǸ, ȖȉȢȨȔ ȗȘȖȐȏȊȖȌșȚȊȈ
ȗȘȖȔȣȠȓȍȕȕȖȑ ȗȘȖȌțȒȞȐȐ ȗȖ ȐȚȖȋȈȔ 2013 ȋȖȌȈ șȖșȚȈȊȐȓ 8 192,7 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ., ȟȚȖ Ȋ ȚȍȒțȡȐȝ ȞȍȕȈȝ ȕȈ
14,3% ȕȐȎȍ țȘȖȊȕȧ 2012 ȋȖȌȈ, Ȉ Ȋ șȖȗȖșȚȈȊȐȔȖȑ ȖȞȍȕȒȍ – ȕȈ 17,7% (ȚȈȉȓ. 1).
ǺȈȉȓȐȞȈ 1
ǬȐȕȈȔȐȒȈ ȖȉȢȨȔȖȊ ȗȘȖȐȏȊȖȌșȚȊȈ ȗȖ ȖȚȘȈșȓȧȔ ȗȘȖȔȣȠȓȍȕȕȖșȚȐ ȏȈ 2013 ȋȖȌ
ǷȘȖȔȣȠȓȍȕȕȖșȚȤ
Ȋ ȚȖȔ ȟȐșȓȍ:
ȥȓȍȒȚȘȖȥȕȍȘȋȍȚȐȒȈ
ȟȨȘȕȈȧ ȔȍȚȈȓȓțȘȋȐȧ
ȝȐȔȐȟȍșȒȈȧ ȗȘȖȔȣȠȓȍȕȕȖșȚȤ
ȔȈȠȐȕȖșȚȘȖȍȕȐȍ Ȑ ȔȍȚȈȓȓȖȖȉȘȈȉȖȚȒȈ
ȥȓȍȒȚȘȖȚȍȝȕȐȟȍșȒȈȧ ȗȘȖȔȣȠȓȍȕȕȖșȚȤ
ȌȍȘȍȊȖȖȉȘȈȉȈȚȣȊȈȦȡȈȧ Ȑ ȔȍȉȍȓȤȕȈȧ
ȗȘȖȔȣȠȓȍȕȕȖșȚȤ
ȗȘȖȔȣȠȓȍȕȕȖșȚȤ șȚȘȖȐȚȍȓȤȕȣȝ ȔȈȚȍȘȐȈȓȖȊ
ȓȨȋȒȈȧ ȗȘȖȔȣȠȓȍȕȕȖșȚȤ
ȗȐȡȍȊȈȧ ȗȘȖȔȣȠȓȍȕȕȖșȚȤ
ȔțȒȖȔȖȓȤȕȖ-ȒȘțȗȧȕȈȧ Ȑ ȒȖȔȉȐȒȖȘȔȖȊȈȧ
ȗȘȖȔȣȠȓȍȕȕȖșȚȤ
ȗȖȓȐȋȘȈȜȐȟȍșȒȈȧ ȗȘȖȔȣȠȓȍȕȕȖșȚȤ
ȖȉȢȨȔ
ȗȘȖȐȏȊȖȌșȚȊȈ,
Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ.
8 192,7
100,0
ȚȍȔȗ ȘȖșȚȈ
(Ȋ șȖȗȖșȚȈȊȐȔȣȝ
ȞȍȕȈȝ), %
82,3
2 997,2
1 153,9
204,5
249,4
227,0
36,6
14,1
2,5
3,0
2,8
74,0
48,5
116,9
101,6
80,1
21,4
512,9
1 228,7
1 426,5
0,3
6,3
15,0
17,4
199,8
95,1
108,4
120,0
146,0
25,2
1,8
0,3
125,7
85,0
țȌȍȓȤȕȣȑ
Ȋȍș, %
ǹ țȟȨȚȖȔ ȖȞȍȕȒȐ ȊȣȗțșȒȈ șțȉȢȍȒȚȖȊ ȔȈȓȖȋȖ ȗȘȍȌȗȘȐȕȐȔȈȚȍȓȤșȚȊȈ, ȗȘȖȔȣȠȓȍȕȕȣȝ
ȗȖȌȘȈȏȌȍȓȍȕȐȑ ȗȘȐ ȕȍȗȘȖȔȣȠȓȍȕȕȣȝ ȖȘȋȈȕȐȏȈȞȐȧȝ Ȑ ȌȖȔȈȠȕȐȝ ȝȖȏȧȑșȚȊ ȌȈȕȕȣȑ ȗȖȒȈȏȈȚȍȓȤ
ȌȖșȚȐȋ 8 757,4 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ. (-13,0%). ǷȘȐ ȥȚȖȔ ȐȕȌȍȒș ȜȐȏȐȟȍșȒȖȋȖ ȖȉȢȨȔȈ ȊȣȗțșȒȈ ȊȈȎȕȍȑȠȐȝ ȊȐȌȖȊ
ȗȘȖȌțȒȞȐȐ șȓȖȎȐȓșȧ ȕȈ ȖȚȔȍȚȒȍ 81,5%.
Ǫ ȞȍȓȖȔ ȗȖ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȍ țȊȍȓȐȟȐȓȖ ȊȣȗțșȒ ȗȘȖȔȣȠȓȍȕȕȖȑ ȗȘȖȌțȒȞȐȐ 51 ȗȘȍȌȗȘȐȧȚȐȍ, ȐȓȐ
48,6% ȖȚ Ȑȝ ȟȐșȓȈ, Ȋ ȚȖ ȊȘȍȔȧ ȒȈȒ ȋȖȌȖȔ ȘȈȕȍȍ ȥȚȖ țȌȈȓȖșȤ ȟțȚȤ ȉȖȓȍȍ ȚȘȍȚȐ Ȑȏ ȕȐȝ. ǹȕȐȎȍȕȐȍ
ȖȉȢȨȔȖȊ ȊȣȘȈȉȖȚȒȐ ȉȣȓȖ ȏȈȜȐȒșȐȘȖȊȈȕȖ ȕȈ 41 ȗȘȍȌȗȘȐȧȚȐȐ (Ȋ 2012 ȋȖȌț – ȕȈ 57).
ȕȈ ȖșȕȖȊȍ ȗȘȍȌȊȈȘȐȚȍȓȤȕȣȝ ȌȈȕȕȣȝ Ȗ șȖȞȐȈȓȤȕȖ-ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȟȍșȒȖȔ ȘȈȏȊȐȚȐȐ ǷȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊșȒȖȑ ǴȖȓȌȈȊșȒȖȑ
ǸȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȐ Ȋ 2013 ȋȖȌț
1
4
ǪȍșȚȕȐȒ ǷȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊșȒȖȋȖ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȈȕșȒȖȋȖ ȉȈȕȒȈ ȹ3’2014
ǴȈȒȘȖȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȒȈ
ǪȚȖȘȈȧ ȗȖȓȖȊȐȕȈ ȋȖȌȈ ȖȒȈȏȈȓȈșȤ ȉȖȓȍȍ țșȗȍȠȕȖȑ Ȍȓȧ ȗȘȖȔȣȠȓȍȕȕȐȒȖȊ: țȘȖȊȍȕȤ I ȗȖȓțȋȖȌȐȧ Ȋ
șȖȊȖȒțȗȕȖșȚȐ ȉȣȓ ȗȘȍȊȣȠȍȕ Ȋ 1,5 ȘȈȏȈ, Ȉ ȗȖ ȖȚȌȍȓȤȕȣȔ ȖȚȘȈșȓȧȔ (ȌȍȘȍȊȖȖȉȘȈȉȖȚȒȈ Ȑ
ȗȘȖȔȣȠȓȍȕȕȖșȚȤ șȚȘȖȐȚȍȓȤȕȣȝ ȔȈȚȍȘȐȈȓȖȊ) Ȋ 2 ȘȈȏȈ.
2012 ȋȖȌ (ȓȍȊȈȧ ȖșȤ)
2013 ȋȖȌ (ȓȍȊȈȧ ȖșȤ)
ȌȍȒȈȉȘȤ
ȕȖȧȉȘȤ
ȖȒȚȧȉȘȤ
-50,0
șȍȕȚȧȉȘȤ
0,0
ȈȊȋțșȚ
-25,0
ȐȦȓȤ
300,0
ȐȦȕȤ
0,0
ȔȈȑ
600,0
ȈȗȘȍȓȤ
25,0
ȔȈȘȚ
900,0
ȜȍȊȘȈȓȤ
50,0
ȧȕȊȈȘȤ
1 200,0
ȚȍȔȗ ȗȘȐȘȖșȚȈ (ȗȘȈȊȈȧ ȖșȤ), %
ǸȐș. 1. ǬȐȕȈȔȐȒȈ ȖȉȢȨȔȖȊ ȗȘȖȔȣȠȓȍȕȕȖȋȖ ȗȘȖȐȏȊȖȌșȚȊȈ Ȋ 2012-2013 ȋȋ. Ȋ ȚȍȒțȡȐȝ ȞȍȕȈȝ, Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ.
ǷȖȔȍșȧȟȕȈȧ ȌȐȕȈȔȐȒȈ ȊȣȗțșȒȈ ȖȚȘȈȎȈȍȚ ȕȍțșȚȖȑȟȐȊȣȑ ȚȘȍȕȌ ȗȘȖȔȣȠȓȍȕȕȖȋȖ ȗȘȖȐȏȊȖȌșȚȊȈ,
ȝȈȘȈȒȚȍȘȐȏțȦȡȐȑșȧ ȏȈȔȍȚȕȣȔ ȘȖșȚȖȔ Ȋ ȕȈȟȈȓȍ ȋȖȌȈ (+6-12%), șȔȍȕȐȊȠȐȔșȧ Ȋ ȊȍșȍȕȕȐȍ Ȑ ȓȍȚȕȐȍ
ȔȍșȧȞȣ ȋȓțȉȖȒȐȔ șȗȈȌȖȔ ȗȖ ȖȚȕȖȠȍȕȐȦ Ȓ ȉȈȏȐșȕȣȔ ȗȖȒȈȏȈȚȍȓȧȔ (ȌȖ -42%), Ȑ ȊȖșșȚȈȕȖȊȐȚȍȓȤȕȖȑ
ȈȒȚȐȊȕȖșȚȤȦ Ȋ ȗȖșȓȍȌȕȐȍ ȗȧȚȤ ȔȍșȧȞȍȊ ȖȚȟȨȚȕȖȋȖ ȋȖȌȈ (ȘȐș. 1). ǵȈȟȐȕȈȧ ș ȈȊȋțșȚȈ (ȊȖȏȖȉȕȖȊȓȍȕȐȍ
ȘȈȉȖȚȣ ȔȍȚȈȓȓțȘȋȐȟȍșȒȖȋȖ ȏȈȊȖȌȈ) șȐȚțȈȞȐȧ Ȋ ȗȘȖȔȣȠȓȍȕȕȖșȚȐ țȓțȟȠȈȓȈșȤ – ȍȎȍȔȍșȧȟȕȣȍ
ȖȉȢȨȔȣ ȊȣȘȈȉȖȚȒȐ ȊȣȘȖșȓȐ ș ȗȖȘȧȌȒȈ 500 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ. ȌȖ 830 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ. Ȑ ȉȖȓȍȍ. ǶȌȕȈȒȖ ȗȖ ȐȚȖȋȈȔ
ȗȍȘȐȖȌȈ ȌȖșȚȐȟȤ țȘȖȊȕȧ 2012 ȋȖȌȈ ȚȈȒ Ȑ ȕȍ țȌȈȓȖșȤ – ȘȈșȝȖȎȌȍȕȐȍ șȖșȚȈȊȐȓȖ -14,3%.
ǬȓȐȚȍȓȤȕȖȍ ȗȘȖșȚȈȐȊȈȕȐȍ ȘȧȌȈ ȒȘțȗȕȣȝ ȗȘȍȌȗȘȐȧȚȐȑ ȗȘȐȊȍȓȖ Ȓ ȖȡțȚȐȔȣȔ ȐȏȔȍȕȍȕȐȧȔ Ȋ
ȖȚȘȈșȓȍȊȖȑ șȚȘțȒȚțȘȍ ȗȘȖȔȣȠȓȍȕȕȖșȚȐ. ǹțȡȍșȚȊȍȕȕȖ șȖȒȘȈȚȐȓȖșȤ țȌȍȓȤȕȖȍ ȗȘȍȌșȚȈȊȓȍȕȐȍ
ȟȨȘȕȖȑ ȔȍȚȈȓȓțȘȋȐȐ – ȊȗȍȘȊȣȍ ȕȈ ȍȨ ȌȖȓȦ ȗȘȐȠȓȖșȤ ȓȐȠȤ 14,1% ȖȉȢȨȔȈ ȐȕȌțșȚȘȐȈȓȤȕȖȋȖ
ȗȘȖȐȏȊȖȌșȚȊȈ (-11,5 ȗ.ȗ. Ȓ ȉȈȏȐșȕȖȑ ȖȚȔȍȚȒȍ). ǶȌȕȖȊȘȍȔȍȕȕȖ ș ȥȚȐȔ ȊȖȏȘȖș ȊȒȓȈȌ ȓȨȋȒȖȑ Ȑ ȗȐȡȍȊȖȑ
ȗȘȖȔȣȠȓȍȕȕȖșȚȍȑ: ș 11,3 Ȑ 12,1% ȌȖ 15,0 Ȑ 17,4% șȖȖȚȊȍȚșȚȊȍȕȕȖ. dzȐȌȐȘțȦȡțȦ ȗȖȏȐȞȐȦ, ȒȈȒ Ȑ Ȋ
2012 ȋȖȌț, ȏȈȕȧȓȈ ȥȓȍȒȚȘȖȥȕȍȘȋȍȚȐȒȈ, șȜȖȘȔȐȘȖȊȈȊȠȈȧ ȉȖȓȍȍ ȚȘȍȚȐ șȖȊȖȒțȗȕȖȋȖ ȊȣȗțșȒȈ (ȘȐș. 2).
2012 ȋȖȌ
12,1%
8,5%
2013 ȋȖȌ
17,4%
25,6%
6,3%
5,8%
10,6%
14,1%
15,0%
11,3%
36,7%
ȟȨȘȕȈȧ ȔȍȚȈȓȓțȘȋȐȧ
ȥȓȍȒȚȘȖȥȕȍȘȋȍȚȐȒȈ
ȓȨȋȒȈȧ ȗȘȖȔȣȠȓȍȕȕȖșȚȤ
36,6%
ȗȘȖȔȣȠȓȍȕȕȖșȚȤ șȚȘȖȐȚȍȓȤȕȣȝ ȔȈȚȍȘȐȈȓȖȊ
ȗȐȡȍȊȈȧ ȗȘȖȔȣȠȓȍȕȕȖșȚȤ
ȗȘȖȟȐȍ
ǸȐș. 2. ǹȚȘțȒȚțȘȈ ȗȘȖȔȣȠȓȍȕȕȖȋȖ ȗȘȖȐȏȊȖȌșȚȊȈ Ȋ 2012-2013 ȋȋ.
ǷȘȐ ȥȚȖȔ șȖȝȘȈȕȍȕȐȍ ȌȖȔȐȕȐȘțȦȡȍȑ ȘȖȓȐ ȥȓȍȒȚȘȖȥȕȍȘȋȍȚȐȒȐ ȗȘȖȐșȝȖȌȐȓȖ ȕȈ ȜȖȕȍ șțȎȍȕȐȧ
ȖȉȢȨȔȖȊ ȖȚȘȈșȓȍȊȖȑ ȊȣȘȈȉȖȚȒȐ ȉȖȓȍȍ ȟȍȔ ȕȈ ȟȍȚȊȍȘȚȤ. ǶȚșȚȈȊȈȕȐȍ ȖȚ ȉȈȏȐșȕȣȝ ȏȕȈȟȍȕȐȑ
ȖȉțșȓȖȊȓȍȕȖ ȒȖȕȢȦȕȒȚțȘȖȑ ȕȈ ȊȕȍȠȕȍȔ ȘȣȕȒȍ ȥȕȍȘȋȖȕȖșȐȚȍȓȍȑ, Ȋ ȟȈșȚȕȖșȚȐ, ȗȘȍȒȘȈȡȍȕȐȍȔ ș
ȔȈȘȚȈ ȗȖșȚȈȊȖȒ ȥȓȍȒȚȘȖȥȕȍȘȋȐȐ Ȋ ǸțȔȣȕȐȦ Ȑ țȔȍȕȤȠȍȕȐȍȔ ȍȨ ȥȒșȗȖȘȚȈ Ȋ ǴȖȓȌȖȊț Ȋ șȍȘȍȌȐȕȍ
ȋȖȌȈ. Ǫ ȘȍȏțȓȤȚȈȚȍ, țȘȖȊȍȕȤ ȐșȗȖȓȤȏȖȊȈȕȐȧ țșȚȈȕȖȊȓȍȕȕȖȑ ȔȖȡȕȖșȚȐ ȖșȕȖȊȕȖȋȖ ȗȘȍȌȗȘȐȧȚȐȧ
ȖȚȘȈșȓȐ (ǴȖȓȌȈȊșȒȖȑ ǫǸȅǹ), șȕȐȏȐȓșȧ ȌȖ ȖȚȔȍȚȒȐ 13,8% ȗȘȖȚȐȊ 19,8% Ȋ 2012 ȋȖȌț. ǵȈȐȉȖȓȤȠȍȍ
șȖȒȘȈȡȍȕȐȍ ȖȉȢȨȔȖȊ ȗȘȖȐȏȊȖȌșȚȊȈ ȏȈȜȐȒșȐȘȖȊȈȕȖ Ȋ ȔȈȍ-ȐȦȓȍ 2013 ȋȖȌȈ (ȕȈ ȉȖȓȍȍ ȟȍȔ 60% Ȓ
șȘȍȌȕȍȔȍșȧȟȕȖȔț țȘȖȊȕȦ). ǹ ȒȖȕȞȈ ȈȊȋțșȚȈ ǴǫǸȅǹ țȊȍȓȐȟȐȓȈ ȗȖșȚȈȊȒȐ ȕȈ ȔȖȓȌȈȊșȒȐȑ ȘȣȕȖȒ Ȑ
ǪȍșȚȕȐȒ ǷȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊșȒȖȋȖ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȈȕșȒȖȋȖ ȉȈȕȒȈ ȹ3’2014
5
ǴȈȒȘȖȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȒȈ
ȊȣȠȓȈ ȕȈ ȍȎȍȔȍșȧȟȕȣȍ ȖȉȢȨȔȣ, ȉȓȐȏȒȐȍ Ȓ 400 Ȕȓȕ ȒǪȚ/ȟ Ȓ ȒȖȕȞț ȋȖȌȈ. Ǫ ȞȍȓȖȔ ȏȈ ȋȖȌ ȉȣȓȖ
ȊȣȘȈȉȖȚȈȕȖ 3 600 Ȕȓȕ ȒǪȚ/ȟ ȥȓȍȒȚȘȖȥȕȍȘȋȐȐ Ȑ 1,6 Ȕȓȕ ǫȒȈȓ ȚȍȗȓȖȥȕȍȘȋȐȐ. Ǫ ȌȍȕȍȎȕȖȔ ȊȣȘȈȎȍȕȐȐ
ȗȈȘȈȔȍȚȘȣ ȊȣȗțșȒȈ șȓȖȎȐȓȐșȤ Ȋ ȗȘȍȌȍȓȈȝ 3,0 ȔȓȘȌ Șțȉ., șȕȐȏȐȊȠȐșȤ Ȓ țȘȖȊȕȦ 2012 ȋȖȌȈ Ȋ
ȚȍȒțȡȐȝ ȞȍȕȈȝ ȕȈ 14,7%, Ȋ șȖȗȖșȚȈȊȐȔȖȑ ȖȞȍȕȒȍ – ȕȈ 26,0%.
ǴȍȚȈȓȓțȘȋȐȟȍșȒȐȑ ȏȈȊȖȌ, ȊȖȏȖȉȕȖȊȐȊ ȘȈȉȖȚț Ȋ ȈȊȋțșȚȍ 2013 ȋȖȌȈ ȗȖșȓȍ ȌȓȐȚȍȓȤȕȖȋȖ ȗȘȖșȚȖȧ,
ȏȈȊȍȘȠȐȓ ȋȖȌ ș ȖȚșȚȈȊȈȕȐȍȔ ȖȚ ȉȈȏȐșȕȣȝ ȗȈȘȈȔȍȚȘȖȊ ȉȖȓȍȍ ȟȍȔ ȕȈ 50% (1 153,9 ȗȘȖȚȐȊ
2 448,6 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ.). ǫȖȌȖȊȖȑ ȖȉȢȨȔ ȗȘȖȐȏȊȖȌșȚȊȈ ȔȍȚȈȓȓțȘȋȐȟȍșȒȖȑ ȗȘȖȔȣȠȓȍȕȕȖșȚȐ ȖȒȈȏȈȓșȧ
ȔȐȕȐȔȈȓȤȕȣȔ ȏȈ ȗȖșȓȍȌȕȐȍ 10 ȓȍȚ, șȖșȚȈȊȐȊ ȊșȍȋȖ 189,9 Țȣș. ȚȖȕȕ șȚȈȓȐ Ȑ 172,6 Țȣș. ȚȖȕȕ
ȔȍȚȈȓȓȖȗȘȖȒȈȚȈ. ǵȍ șȗȖșȖȉșȚȊȖȊȈȓȈ ȘȖșȚț ȗȖȒȈȏȈȚȍȓȍȑ Ȑ ȔȐȘȖȊȈȧ ȒȖȕȢȦȕȒȚțȘȈ, ȌȐȒȚțȦȡȈȧ Ȋ
țșȓȖȊȐȧȝ ȗȍȘȍȐȏȉȣȚȒȈ ȔȖȡȕȖșȚȍȑ Ȑ ȎȨșȚȒȖȑ ȒȖȕȒțȘȍȕȞȐȐ ȗȖȐșȒ ȗțȚȍȑ ȔȐȕȐȔȐȏȈȞȐȐ ȐȏȌȍȘȎȍȒ –
ȞȍȓȤ, ȚȘțȌȕȖȌȖșȚȐȎȐȔțȦ Ȋ țșȓȖȊȐȧȝ ȗȖȊȣȠȍȕȐȧ ȚȈȘȐȜȖȊ ȕȈ ȥȕȍȘȋȖȕȖșȐȚȍȓȐ.
ǭȡȨ ȖȌȕȖȑ ȒȘțȗȕȖȑ ȖȚȘȈșȓȐ ȐȕȌțșȚȘȐȐ – ȗȘȖȔȣȠȓȍȕȕȖșȚȐ șȚȘȖȐȚȍȓȤȕȣȝ ȔȈȚȍȘȐȈȓȖȊ – ȕȍ
țȌȈȓȖșȤ ȌȖșȚȐȟȤ ȏȕȈȟȍȕȐȑ 2012 ȋȖȌȈ (-8,2% Ȋ ȚȍȒțȡȐȝ ȞȍȕȈȝ Ȑ -4,9% Ȋ șȖȗȖșȚȈȊȐȔȖȑ ȖȞȍȕȒȍ).
ǵȈȝȖȌȧșȤ Ȋ ȗȘȖșȚȖȍ Ȋ ȚȍȟȍȕȐȍ ȟȍȚȣȘȨȝ ȔȍșȧȞȍȊ ș ȕȈȟȈȓȈ ȋȖȌȈ, ȞȍȔȍȕȚȕȣȑ ȒȖȔȉȐȕȈȚ,
ȊȖȏȖȉȕȖȊȐȊȠȐȑ ȌȍȧȚȍȓȤȕȖșȚȤ Ȋ ȔȈȍ 2013 ȋȖȌȈ, ȖȗȘȍȌȍȓȐȓ șȖȊȖȒțȗȕțȦ ȌȐȕȈȔȐȒț ȊȣȗțșȒȈ Ȋ ȖȚȘȈșȓȐ
(ȗȖ ȐȚȖȋȈȔ ȋȖȌȈ ȉȣȓȖ ȗȘȖȐȏȊȍȌȍȕȖ ȗȘȖȌțȒȞȐȐ Ȋ ȖȉȢȨȔȍ 512,9 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ., 70% ȒȖȚȖȘȣȝ ȗȘȐȠȓȖșȤ ȕȈ
II ȗȖȓțȋȖȌȐȍ). Ǫ ȞȍȓȖȔ ȏȈ ȖȚȟȨȚȕȣȑ ȗȍȘȐȖȌ ȉȣȓȖ ȗȘȖȐȏȊȍȌȍȕȖ 383,9 Țȣș. ȚȖȕȕ ȞȍȔȍȕȚȈ (-20,2%),
ȒȐȘȗȐȟȈ – 14,6 Ȕȓȕ ȠȚ. (-0,3%); ȕȍȘțȌȕȣȝ șȚȘȖȐȚȍȓȤȕȣȝ ȔȈȚȍȘȐȈȓȖȊ 363,8 Țȣș. Ȓțȉ. Ȕ (+36,0%).
ǷȘȐ ȥȚȖȔ ȖȉȢȨȔ ȚȖȊȈȘȕȖȋȖ ȉȍȚȖȕȈ Ȋ 1,7 ȘȈȏȈ ȗȘȍȊȣșȐȓ ȗȘȖȠȓȖȋȖȌȕȦȦ ȖȚȔȍȚȒț (46,3 ȗȘȖȚȐȊ
27,2 Țȣș. Ȓțȉ. Ȕ).
ǬȐȕȈȔȐȟȕȖȍ ȘȈȏȊȐȚȐȍ ȌȍȔȖȕșȚȘȐȘȖȊȈȓȐ ȗȘȍȌȗȘȐȧȚȐȧ ȗȐȡȍȊȖȑ ȗȘȖȔȣȠȓȍȕȕȖșȚȐ, Ȋ ȚȖȔ ȟȐșȓȍ
ȊȖȏȊȘȈȡȨȕȕȣȍ Ȋ ȋȖșțȌȈȘșȚȊȍȕȕțȦ șȖȉșȚȊȍȕȕȖșȚȤ (DzȈȔȍȕșȒȐȑ ȒȖȕșȍȘȊȕȣȑ ȏȈȊȖȌ), ȒȖȚȖȘȣȔȐ ȉȣȓȖ
ȊȣȗțȡȍȕȖ ȗȘȖȌțȒȞȐȐ ȕȈ 1 426,5 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ., ȟȚȖ ȕȈ ȟȍȚȊȍȘȚȤ ȉȖȓȤȠȍ ȉȈȏȐșȕȖȋȖ țȘȖȊȕȧ. ǷȘȖȐȏȖȠȓȖ
ȉȖȓȍȍ ȟȍȔ ȚȘȨȝȒȘȈȚȕȖȍ țȊȍȓȐȟȍȕȐȍ ȊȣȘȈȉȖȚȒȐ șȓȐȊȖȟȕȖȋȖ Ȑ ȘȈșȚȐȚȍȓȤȕȖȋȖ ȔȈșȍȓ (ȌȖ 1,3 Ȑ
11,6 Țȣș. ȚȖȕȕ șȖȖȚȊȍȚșȚȊȍȕȕȖ), ȔȧșȈ (ȌȖ 437 ȚȖȕȕ), ȒȖȕșȍȘȊȖȊ (ȌȖ 13,5 Ȕȓȕ țșȓȖȊȕȣȝ ȉȈȕȖȒ); ȕȈ
31,7% ȊȣȘȖșȓȖ ȗȘȖȐȏȊȖȌșȚȊȖ ȊȐȕȖȋȘȈȌȕȣȝ ȊȐȕ (ȌȖ 216 Țȣș. ȌȈȓ). ǷȘȐȘȖșȚ ȊȣȗțșȒȈ ȔȧșȕȖȑ Ȑ
ȔȖȓȖȟȕȖȑ ȗȘȖȌțȒȞȐȐ ȕȈȝȖȌȐȓșȧ Ȋ ȌȐȈȗȈȏȖȕȍ 8-12%, ȌȖșȚȐȋȈȧ ȗȖ ȖȚȌȍȓȤȕȣȔ ȗȖȏȐȞȐȧȔ
(ȒȖȗȟȨȕȖșȚȐ) ȘȖșȚȈ Ȋ 1,3 ȘȈȏȈ. ǶȉȢȨȔ ȗȘȍȌȓȖȎȍȕȐȧ ȝȓȍȉȈ Ȑ ȝȓȍȉȖȉțȓȖȟȕȣȝ ȐȏȌȍȓȐȑ ȗȘȈȒȚȐȟȍșȒȐ
ȕȍ ȐȏȔȍȕȐȓșȧ – ȗȖȘȧȌȒȈ 33 Țȣș. ȚȖȕȕ. Ǫ ȗȘȍȌȍȓȈȝ ȉȈȏȐșȕȖȑ ȖȚȔȍȚȒȐ ȕȈȝȖȌȐȓȖșȤ ȗȘȖȐȏȊȖȌșȚȊȖ
ȒȖȕȌȐȚȍȘșȒȐȝ ȐȏȌȍȓȐȑ (736 ȚȖȕȕ), ȒȖȕȤȧȒȖȊ Ȑ ȗȐȊȈ (315 Ȑ 902 Țȣș. ȌȈȓ șȖȖȚȊȍȚșȚȊȍȕȕȖ). Ǫ
șȚȖȐȔȖșȚȕȖȑ ȖȞȍȕȒȍ ȊȣȗțșȒ ȊȐȕȕȖ-ȊȖȌȖȟȕȣȝ ȐȏȌȍȓȐȑ Ȑ ȗȐȊȈ țȊȍȓȐȟȐȓșȧ ȕȈ 6,3% ȌȖ
568,9 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ., șȖșȚȈȊȐȊ Ȋ șȖȊȖȒțȗȕȖȔ ȗȖȒȈȏȈȚȍȓȍ ȖȚȘȈșȓȐ ȗȖȘȧȌȒȈ 40%.
ǯȕȈȟȐȚȍȓȤȕȖȍ țȓțȟȠȍȕȐȍ ȗȘȖȐȏȊȖȌșȚȊȍȕȕȣȝ ȗȖȒȈȏȈȚȍȓȍȑ ȝȈȘȈȒȚȍȘȐȏȖȊȈȓȖ ȔțȒȖȔȖȓȤȕȖȒȘțȗȧȕțȦ ȗȘȖȔȣȠȓȍȕȕȖșȚȤ: ȗȖșȓȍ ȗȘȖȠȓȖȋȖȌȕȍȋȖ șȖȒȘȈȡȍȕȐȧ ȕȈ ȟȍȚȊȍȘȚȤ ȖȉȢȨȔȣ ȖȚȘȈșȓȐ
Ȋ 2013 ȋȖȌț ȊȣȘȖșȓȐ Ȋ 1,3 ȘȈȏȈ ȌȖ 146,0 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ. ǩȓȈȋȖȌȈȘȧ ȊȣșȖȒȖȑ țȘȖȎȈȑȕȖșȚȐ ȏȍȘȕȖȊȣȝ
ȗȘȖȐȏȊȖȌșȚȊȖ ȔțȒȐ țȊȍȓȐȟȐȓȖșȤ ȕȈ 38,0% ȌȖ 36,0 Țȣș. ȚȖȕȕ, ȒȘțȗȣ – ȕȈ 4,9% ȌȖ 879 ȚȖȕȕ.
ǸȐȚȔȐȟȕȖșȚȤ ȘȈȉȖȚȣ ș ȕȍȒȖȚȖȘȣȔ ȗȖȊȣȠȍȕȐȍȔ ȗȘȖȐȏȊȖȌșȚȊȍȕȕȖȑ ȈȒȚȐȊȕȖșȚȐ Ȓ ȒȖȕȞț ȋȖȌȈ
ȖȗȘȍȌȍȓȐȓȈ șȐȚțȈȞȐȦ Ȋ ȓȨȋȒȖȑ ȗȘȖȔȣȠȓȍȕȕȖșȚȐ, ȒȖȚȖȘȈȧ ȏȈȊȍȘȠȐȓȈ ȖȚȟȨȚȕȣȑ ȋȖȌ ș
ȗȘȍȊȣȠȍȕȐȍȔ ȉȈȏȐșȕȣȝ ȗȈȘȈȔȍȚȘȖȊ ȕȈ 14%. ǭȎȍȔȍșȧȟȕȣȑ ȊȣȗțșȒ ȕȍ ȖȗțșȒȈȓșȧ ȕȐȎȍ 90 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ.
(ȐșȒȓȦȟȍȕȐȍȔ șȚȈȓ ȔȈȑșȒȐȑ ȗȖȒȈȏȈȚȍȓȤ – 80,4 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ.), ȗȘȐȉȓȐȏȐȊȠȐșȤ Ȓ ȒȖȕȞț ȋȖȌȈ Ȓ ȖȚȔȍȚȒȍ
110-115 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ. Ǫ ȞȍȓȖȔ Ȋ ȚȍȟȍȕȐȍ 12 ȔȍșȧȞȍȊ ȜȐȒșȐȘȖȊȈȓȖșȤ ȗȘȐȘȈȡȍȕȐȍ Ȓ ȗȘȖȠȓȖȋȖȌȕȐȔ
ȏȕȈȟȍȕȐȧȔ, ȟȚȖ ȗȖȏȊȖȓȐȓȖ ȖȚȘȈșȓȐ ȗȖșȓȍ ȗȈȌȍȕȐȧ ȊȣȗțșȒȈ Ȋ 2012 ȋȖȌț (-6,5%), ȗȖ ȐȚȖȋȈȔ
ȖȚȟȨȚȕȖȋȖ ȋȖȌȈ ȗȘȍȊȏȖȑȚȐ țȘȖȊȍȕȤ 2011 ȋȖȌȈ ȕȈ 1,4%, ȗȘȖȐȏȊȍȌȧ ȗȘȖȌțȒȞȐȐ ȕȈ șțȔȔț
1 228,7 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ. ǷȖȊȣȠȍȕȕȣȑ șȗȘȖș șȖȝȘȈȕȐȓșȧ ȕȈ ȝȓȖȗȟȈȚȖȉțȔȈȎȕȣȍ ȚȒȈȕȐ (+34,1%), ȕȈȉȖȘȣ
ȗȖșȚȍȓȤȕȖȋȖ ȉȍȓȤȧ (+10,0%), ȖȉțȊȤ (+8,2%), ȖȚȌȍȓȤȕȣȔ ȗȘȖȐȏȊȖȌȐȚȍȓȧȔ ȒȖȚȖȘȖȑ Ȋ ȖȚȟȨȚȕȖȔ
ȗȍȘȐȖȌȍ țȌȈȓȖșȤ ȕȈȘȈșȚȐȚȤ ȖȉȢȨȔȣ ȗȘȖȐȏȊȖȌșȚȊȈ ȕȈ 40,0% Ȑ ȏȕȈȟȐȚȍȓȤȕȖ ȗȖȊȣșȐȚȤ
ȗȘȖȐȏȊȖȌȐȚȍȓȤȕȖșȚȤ ȚȘțȌȈ (Ȋ 1,5 ȘȈȏȈ). ǵȍ țȌȈȓȖșȤ șȖȝȘȈȕȐȚȤ ȗȘȍȎȕȐȍ ȗȈȘȈȔȍȚȘȣ ȊȣȗțșȒȈ
ȗȘȖȐȏȊȖȌȐȚȍȓȧȔ ȠȊȍȑȕȣȝ Ȑ ȚȘȐȒȖȚȈȎȕȣȝ ȐȏȌȍȓȐȑ (-18,4 Ȑ -36,7% șȖȖȚȊȍȚșȚȊȍȕȕȖ).
6
ǪȍșȚȕȐȒ ǷȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊșȒȖȋȖ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȈȕșȒȖȋȖ ȉȈȕȒȈ ȹ3’2014
ǴȈȒȘȖȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȒȈ
Ǭȓȧ ȗȘȍȌȗȘȐȧȚȐȑ ȔȈȠȐȕȖșȚȘȖȍȕȐȧ Ȑ ȥȓȍȒȚȘȖȚȍȝȕȐȟȍșȒȖȑ ȗȘȖȔȣȠȓȍȕȕȖșȚȐ Ȋ ȞȍȓȖȔ ȉȣȓȖ
ȝȈȘȈȒȚȍȘȕȖ țȓțȟȠȍȕȐȍ ȗȖȒȈȏȈȚȍȓȍȑ Ȓ ȒȖȕȞț ȋȖȌȈ, ȟȚȖ ȧȊȓȧȍȚșȧ șȓȍȌșȚȊȐȍȔ ȊȣȝȖȌȈ ȖȚȘȈșȓȐ Ȑȏ
ȒȘȐȏȐșȈ ȉȓȈȋȖȌȈȘȧ ȖșȊȖȍȕȐȦ ȕȖȊȣȝ ȘȣȕȒȖȊ șȉȣȚȈ Ȑ ȕȈȓȈȎȐȊȈȕȐȦ șȖȚȘțȌȕȐȟȍșȚȊȈ ș ȏȈȒȈȏȟȐȒȈȔȐ.
ǸȈȏȘȈȉȖȚȒȈ ȕȖȊȣȝ ȊȐȌȖȊ ȗȘȖȌțȒȞȐȐ, ȖȗȚȐȔȐȏȈȞȐȧ ȕȍȘȍȕȚȈȉȍȓȤȕȣȝ ȕȈȗȘȈȊȓȍȕȐȑ ȗȖȏȊȖȓȐȓȈ
ȔȈȠȐȕȖșȚȘȖȐȚȍȓȤȕȣȔ ȗȘȍȌȗȘȐȧȚȐȧȔ țȊȍȓȐȟȐȚȤ ȖȉȢȨȔȣ ȗȘȖȐȏȊȖȌșȚȊȈ ȗȖ ȐȚȖȋȈȔ ȗȍȘȐȖȌȈ ȕȈ 5,0%
ȌȖ 249,4 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ., Ȋ ȚȖ Ȏȍ ȊȘȍȔȧ ȊȣȗțșȒ ȥȓȍȒȚȘȖȚȍȝȕȐȟȍșȒȖȑ ȗȘȖȌțȒȞȐȐ, ȒȈȒ Ȑ ȋȖȌȖȔ ȘȈȕȍȍ, ȕȍ
ȌȖșȚȐȋ ȉȈȏȐșȕȖȋȖ țȘȖȊȕȧ, șȓȖȎȐȊȠȐșȤ ȕȈ țȘȖȊȕȍ 91,3%, Ȉ Ȋ șȖȗȖșȚȈȊȐȔȖȑ ȖȞȍȕȒȍ – 80,1% Ȓ
ȗȖȒȈȏȈȚȍȓȦ 2012 ȋȖȌȈ.
ǹȐȚțȈȞȐȧ Ȋ ȗȖȓȐȋȘȈȜȐȟȍșȒȖȑ ȗȘȖȔȣȠȓȍȕȕȖșȚȐ ȊȍșȤ ȋȖȌ șȖȗȘȖȊȖȎȌȈȓȈșȤ ȖȚșȚȈȊȈȕȐȍȔ ȖȚ
ȉȈȏȐșȕȣȝ ȏȕȈȟȍȕȐȑ, ȌȖșȚȐȋȈȊȠȐȔ Ȋ ȖȚȌȍȓȤȕȣȍ ȔȍșȧȞȣ 40%, Ȋ ȘȍȏțȓȤȚȈȚȍ ȟȍȋȖ Ȋ ȖȚȟȨȚȕȖȔ ȗȍȘȐȖȌȍ
ȖȚȘȈșȓȤ țȚȘȈȚȐȓȈ 19,0% ȖȚ ȌȖșȚȐȋȕțȚȖȋȖ Ȋ 2012 ȋȖȌț țȘȖȊȕȧ. ǰȚȖȋȐ ȌȍȧȚȍȓȤȕȖșȚȐ ȉȣȓȐ
ȖȉțșȓȖȊȓȍȕȣ șțȎȍȕȐȍȔ ȊȣȗțșȒȈ ȒȕȐȋ, ȉȘȖȠȦȘ Ȑ ȗȖȚȘȍȉȐȚȍȓȤșȒȖȑ ȚȈȘȣ (ȉȖȓȍȍ ȟȍȔ Ȋ 2 ȘȈȏȈ),
ȗȐșȟȍȑ ȉțȔȈȋȐ (Ȋ 5,5 ȘȈȏ).
Ǫ ȝȐȔȐȟȍșȒȖȑ ȗȘȖȔȣȠȓȍȕȕȖșȚȐ ȕȈȘȈȡȐȊȈȕȐȍ ȗȘȖȐȏȊȖȌșȚȊȍȕȕȣȝ ȏȈȒȈȏȖȊ ȗȖȏȊȖȓȐȓȖ ȘȈȉȖȚȈȚȤ Ȋ
ȗȍȘȊȣȍ ȠȍșȚȤ ȔȍșȧȞȍȊ ș ȗȘȍȊȣȠȍȕȐȍȔ ȉȈȏȐșȕȣȝ ȗȈȘȈȔȍȚȘȖȊ Ȋ 1,5 ȘȈȏȈ. ǹȖ ȊȚȖȘȖȑ ȗȖȓȖȊȐȕȣ ȋȖȌȈ
ȜȐȒșȐȘȖȊȈȓȖșȤ ȘȍȏȒȖȍ șȖȒȘȈȡȍȕȐȍ ȊȣȘȈȉȖȚȒȐ ȗȘȖȌțȒȞȐȐ ȖȚȘȈșȓȐ ș ȗȖșȓȍȌțȦȡȐȔ ȊȣȘȈȊȕȐȊȈȕȐȍȔ
șȐȚțȈȞȐȐ Ȋ IV ȒȊȈȘȚȈȓȍ. Ǫ ȞȍȓȖȔ ȗȖ ȐȚȖȋȈȔ ȋȖȌȈ șȖȊȖȒțȗȕȣȑ ȖȉȢȨȔ ȗȘȖȐȏȊȖȌșȚȊȈ șȓȖȎȐȓșȧ ȕȈ
țȘȖȊȕȍ 204,5 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ., ȗȘȍȊȣșȐȊ ȘȍȏțȓȤȚȈȚ 2012 ȋȖȌȈ ȕȈ 17,9%.
ǬȍȘȍȊȖȖȉȘȈȉȈȚȣȊȈȦȡȈȧ ȗȘȖȔȣȠȓȍȕȕȖșȚȤ ȖȒȈȏȈȓȈșȤ șȘȍȌȐ ȓȐȌȍȘȖȊ ȗȖ ȚȍȔȗȈȔ ȘȖșȚȈ
ȗȘȖȐȏȊȖȌșȚȊȈ – ȖȉȢȨȔȣ ȊȖȏȘȖșȓȐ Ȋ 1,9 ȘȈȏȈ ȌȖ 21,4 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ., ¾ ȒȖȚȖȘȣȝ ȉȣȓȐ șȜȖȘȔȐȘȖȊȈȕȣ ȏȈ
șȟȨȚ ȊȣȗțșȒȈ ȔȍȉȍȓȐ.
ǹȍȓȤșȒȖȍ ȝȖȏȧȑșȚȊȖ
DzȖȕȍȟȕȣȍ ȐȚȖȋȐ ȌȍȧȚȍȓȤȕȖșȚȐ ȈȋȘȖȗȘȖȔȣȠȓȍȕȕȖȋȖ ȒȖȔȗȓȍȒșȈ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȐ Ȋ 2013 ȋȖȌț Ȋ
ȞȍȓȖȔ ȗȖȏȊȖȓȧȦȚ ȋȖȊȖȘȐȚȤ Ȗ ȌȖșȚȐȎȍȕȐȐ ȊȣșȖȒȐȝ ȘȍȏțȓȤȚȈȚȖȊ ȘȈȉȖȚȣ șȍȋȔȍȕȚȈ, ȗȘȍȐȔțȡȍșȚȊȍȕȕȖ
ȉȓȈȋȖȌȈȘȧ ȥȜȜȍȒȚȐȊȕȖȔț ȜțȕȒȞȐȖȕȐȘȖȊȈȕȐȦ ȘȈșȚȍȕȐȍȊȖȌȟȍșȒȖȋȖ șȍȒȚȖȘȈ. ǩȓȈȋȖȗȘȐȧȚȕȣȑ
ȗȖȋȖȌȕȣȑ ȜȖȕ ȖȚȟȨȚȕȖȋȖ ȗȍȘȐȖȌȈ șȗȖșȖȉșȚȊȖȊȈȓ ȕȍ ȚȖȓȤȒȖ șȖȝȘȈȕȍȕȐȦ ȗȖȒȈȏȈȚȍȓȍȑ ȕȈ țȘȖȊȕȍ
ȗȘȍȌȣȌțȡȍȋȖ ȋȖȌȈ, ȕȖ Ȑ ȘȖșȚț ȖȉȢȨȔȖȊ șȉȖȘȈ Ȑ ȗȖȊȣȠȍȕȐȦ țȘȖȎȈȑȕȖșȚȐ ȗȘȈȒȚȐȟȍșȒȐ ȗȖ ȊșȍȔ
ȊȐȌȈȔ ȗȘȖȐȏȊȍȌȨȕȕȖȑ ȗȘȖȌțȒȞȐȐ. ǹȖȊȖȒțȗȕȈȧ ȊȍȓȐȟȐȕȈ șȖȉȘȈȕȕȖȑ Ȋ 2013 ȋȖȌț ȗȘȖȌțȒȞȐȐ
ȘȈșȚȍȕȐȍȊȖȌșȚȊȈ șȖșȚȈȊȐȓȈ 644,5 Țȣș. ȚȖȕȕ, ȟȚȖ Ȋ 2,4 ȘȈȏȈ ȉȖȓȤȠȍ ȘȍȏțȓȤȚȈȚȈ ȉȈȏȐșȕȖȋȖ ȗȍȘȐȖȌȈ.
ǷȖ
ȌȈȕȕȣȔ
ǫȖșțȌȈȘșȚȊȍȕȕȖȑ
șȓțȎȉȣ
șȚȈȚȐșȚȐȒȐ
ǷǴǸ,
ȗȖșȍȊȕȈȧ
ȗȓȖȡȈȌȤ
șȍȓȤșȒȖȝȖȏȧȑșȚȊȍȕȕȣȝ ȒțȓȤȚțȘ ȗȖȌ țȘȖȎȈȑ 2013 ȋȖȌȈ ȗȘȍȊȣșȐȓȈ ȉȈȏȐșȕțȦ ȖȚȔȍȚȒț ȕȈ 2,7% Ȑ
ȌȖșȚȐȋȓȈ 193,0 Țȣș. ȋȈ. Ǫ Ȗȉȡȍȑ șȚȘțȒȚțȘȍ ȗȖșȍȊȖȊ ȒȈȘȌȐȕȈȓȤȕȣȝ șȌȊȐȋȖȊ ȕȍ ȖȚȔȍȟȈȓȖșȤ, ȉǗȓȤȠțȦ
ȟȈșȚȤ ȏȈȕȐȔȈȓȐ ȏȍȘȕȖȊȣȍ Ȑ ȏȍȘȕȖȉȖȉȖȊȣȍ ȒțȓȤȚțȘȣ, ȌȖȓȧ ȒȖȚȖȘȣȝ Ȋ șȘȍȌȕȍȔ șȖșȚȈȊȐȓȈ 60,0%,
ȚȖȋȌȈ ȒȈȒ ȗȖȌ ȚȍȝȕȐȟȍșȒȐȍ Ȑ ȒȖȘȔȖȊȣȍ ȊȐȌȣ ȉȣȓȖ ȖȚȊȍȌȍȕȖ ȖȒȖȓȖ 33,0 Ȑ 5,0% șȖȖȚȊȍȚșȚȊȍȕȕȖ.
Ǫ 2013 ȋȖȌț ȗȘȐ ȗȘȖȐȏȊȖȌșȚȊȍ ȖșȕȖȊȕȣȝ ȊȐȌȖȊ ȗȘȖȌțȒȞȐȐ ȘȈșȚȍȕȐȍȊȖȌșȚȊȈ, ȏȈȜȐȒșȐȘȖȊȈȕ
ȘȍȒȖȘȌȕȣȑ șȉȖȘ ȒțȒțȘțȏȣ ȕȈ ȏȍȘȕȖ (ȘȖșȚ Ȋ 8,5 ȘȈȏȈ ȌȖ 124,3 Țȣș. ȚȖȕȕ) Ȑ șȍȔȐȒȘȈȚȕȖȍ țȊȍȓȐȟȍȕȐȍ
ȖȉȢȨȔȖȊ ȘȈȗșȈ (ȌȖ 15,8 Țȣș. ȚȖȕȕ). Ǫ ȌȊȈ ȘȈȏȈ ȉȖȓȤȠȍ, ȟȍȔ Ȋ 2012 ȋȖȌț ȉȣȓȖ șȖȉȘȈȕȖ ȊȐȕȖȋȘȈȌȈ Ȑ
ȗȖȌșȖȓȕȍȟȕȐȒȈ (ȌȖ 23,2 Ȑ 98,0 Țȣș. ȚȖȕȕ șȖȖȚȊȍȚșȚȊȍȕȕȖ), Ȉ ȗȘȖȐȏȊȖȌșȚȊȖ ȏȍȘȕȖȊȣȝ Ȑ ȏȍȘȕȖȉȖȉȖȊȣȝ
ȒțȓȤȚțȘ ȘȈșȠȐȘȐȓȖșȤ ȗȘȈȒȚȐȟȍșȒȐ Ȋ ȚȘȐ ȘȈȏȈ ȌȖ 447,6 Țȣș. ȚȖȕȕ. ǷȘȐ ȥȚȖȔ ȊșȓȍȌșȚȊȐȍ țȊȍȓȐȟȍȕȐȧ
ȒȈȒ ȗȖșȍȊȕȣȝ ȗȓȖȡȈȌȍȑ, ȚȈȒ Ȑ țȘȖȎȈȑȕȖșȚȐ, Ȋ șȘȍȌȕȍȔ Ȋ 2,3 ȘȈȏȈ ȉȖȓȤȠȍ, ȟȍȔ Ȋ 2012 ȋȖȌț, ȉȣȓȖ
ȗȖȓțȟȍȕȖ ȗȠȍȕȐȞȣ (256,2 Țȣș. ȚȖȕȕ), ȧȟȔȍȕȧ (57,5 Țȣș. ȚȖȕȕ) Ȑ ȋȘȍȟȐȝȐ (511,5 ȚȖȕȕ), ȟȚȖ
ȗȖȏȊȖȓȧȍȚ Ȋ ȗȖȓȕȖȔ ȖȉȢȨȔȍ țȌȖȊȓȍȚȊȖȘȐȚȤ șȖȊȖȒțȗȕțȦ ȗȖȚȘȍȉȕȖșȚȤ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȐ Ȋ ȏȍȘȕȍ, Ȉ ȚȈȒȎȍ
șȜȖȘȔȐȘȖȊȈȚȤ ȕȍȖȉȝȖȌȐȔȣȍ ȏȈȗȈșȣ. ǪȔȍșȚȍ ș ȚȍȔ ȕȈ ȜȖȕȍ țȓțȟȠȍȕȐȧ ȒȈȟȍșȚȊȍȕȕȖȋȖ ȗȖȒȈȏȈȚȍȓȧ
(ȒȖȓȐȟȍșȚȊȖ ȗȘȖȌțȒȞȐȐ, șȖȉȘȈȕȕȖȑ ș 1 ȋȈ) ȕȈ 12,8%, ȕȍșȔȖȚȘȧ ȕȈ șțȎȍȕȐȍ ȗȓȖȡȈȌȐ Ȋ
ȗȓȖȌȖȕȖșȧȡȍȔ ȊȖȏȘȈșȚȍ ȉȖȓȍȍ ȟȍȔ ȕȈ 10%, ȖȚȔȍȟȍȕ ȘȖșȚ ȗȘȖȐȏȊȖȌșȚȊȈ ȗȓȖȌȖȊ (+1,2% ȌȖ
11,9 Țȣș. ȚȖȕȕ). ǹȉȖȘ ȋȘȐȉȖȊ, ȗȘȍȐȔțȡȍșȚȊȍȕȕȖ ȠȈȔȗȐȕȤȖȕȖȊ (99,8% Ȋ șȚȘțȒȚțȘȍ), țȊȍȓȐȟȐȓșȧ ș
69,1 ȌȖ 75,1 Ț. (+8,7%).
ǪȍșȚȕȐȒ ǷȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊșȒȖȋȖ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȈȕșȒȖȋȖ ȉȈȕȒȈ ȹ3’2014
7
ǴȈȒȘȖȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȒȈ
ǹȚȖȐȚ ȖȚȔȍȚȐȚȤ, ȟȚȖ Ȋ ȞȍȓȖȔ ȗȖ șȍȒȚȖȘț ȕȈȉȓȦȌȈȓȈșȤ ȖȚȘȐȞȈȚȍȓȤȕȈȧ ȌȐȕȈȔȐȒȈ șȉȖȘȈ
ȒȈȘȚȖȜȍȓȧ, ȖȉțșȓȖȊȓȍȕȕȈȧ ȌȊțȒȘȈȚȕȣȔ șȖȒȘȈȡȍȕȐȍȔ ȖȚȊȍȌȨȕȕȣȝ ȗȓȖȡȈȌȍȑ, Ȉ ȚȈȒȎȍ ȗȈȌȍȕȐȍȔ
țȘȖȎȈȑȕȖșȚȐ. ǷȖ ȌȈȕȕȖȑ ȒȖȔȗȖȕȍȕȚȍ ȕȍ țȌȈȓȖșȤ ȌȖșȚȐȟȤ Ȑ ȗȖȓȖȊȐȕȣ ȖȉȢȨȔȈ, ȗȘȖȐȏȊȍȌȨȕȕȖȋȖ Ȋ
ȗȘȍȌȠȍșȚȊțȦȡȍȔ ȋȖȌț (4,5 ȗȘȖȚȐȊ 9,4 Țȣș. ȚȖȕȕ).
Ǭȓȧ ȏȈȒȓȈȌȒȐ țȘȖȎȈȧ 2014 ȋȖȌȈ ȖȘȋȈȕȐȏȈȞȐȧȔȐ, ȖșțȡȍșȚȊȓȧȦȡȐȔȐ șȍȓȤșȒȖȝȖȏȧȑșȚȊȍȕȕȖȍ
ȗȘȖȐȏȊȖȌșȚȊȖ, ȉȣȓȈ ȗȘȖȐȏȊȍȌȍȕȈ ȊșȗȈȠȒȈ ȏȧȉȐ ȕȈ ȗȓȖȡȈȌȐ 70,5 Țȣș. ȋȈ Ȑ ȏȈșȍȧȕȣ ȗȖȓȧ Ȍȓȧ
ȒțȓȤȚȐȊȐȘȖȊȈȕȐȧ ȖȏȐȔȣȝ (+5,3% ȌȖ 80,2 Țȣș. ȋȈ).
ǪȣȗțșȒ ȖșȕȖȊȕȣȝ ȊȐȌȖȊ ȗȘȖȌțȒȞȐȐ ȎȐȊȖȚȕȖȊȖȌșȚȊȈ2 ȝȈȘȈȒȚȍȘȐȏȖȊȈȓșȧ țȔȍȘȍȕȕȖȑ ȌȐȕȈȔȐȒȖȑ
– ȖȗȍȘȍȌȐȚȤ șȖȗȖșȚȈȊȐȔȣȍ ȗȖȒȈȏȈȚȍȓȐ 2012 ȋȖȌȈ țȌȈȓȖșȤ ȓȐȠȤ ȗȘȐ ȗȘȖȐȏȊȖȌșȚȊȍ ȒțȘȐȕȣȝ ȧȐȞ
(+30,5% ȌȖ 23 852,2 Țȣș. ȠȚțȒ). ǬȈȕȕȣȍ ȘȍȏțȓȤȚȈȚȣ ȉȣȓȐ ȌȖșȚȐȋȕțȚȣ, Ȋ ȗȍȘȊțȦ ȖȟȍȘȍȌȤ, ȏȈ șȟȨȚ
țȓțȟȠȍȕȐȧ ȒȈȟȍșȚȊȍȕȕȣȝ ȝȈȘȈȒȚȍȘȐșȚȐȒ (șȘȍȌȕȧȧ ȧȑȞȍȕȖșȒȖșȚȤ ȊȣȘȖșȓȈ ȕȈ 31,8%), Ȉ ȚȈȒȎȍ ȘȖșȚȈ
ȗȖȋȖȓȖȊȤȧ ȒțȘ-ȕȍșțȠȍȒ ȕȈ 3,2%. ǩȓȐȏȒȐȔȐ Ȓ ȉȈȏȐșȕȖȔț țȘȖȊȕȦ ȖșȚȈȓȐșȤ ȗȖȒȈȏȈȚȍȓȐ ȊȣȘȈȡȍȕȕȖȋȖ
șȒȖȚȈ Ȑ ȗȚȐȞȣ (-0,8% ȌȖ 3,1 Țȣș. ȚȖȕȕ). ǶȉȢȨȔȣ ȘȍȈȓȐȏȈȞȐȐ șȒȖȚȈ Ȑ ȗȚȐȞȣ ȕȈ țȉȖȑ (Ȋ ȎȐȊȖȔ Ȋȍșȍ)
șȕȐȏȐȓȐșȤ ȕȈ 5,8% Ȑ șȖșȚȈȊȐȓȐ 3,3 Țȣș. ȚȖȕȕ. ǵȍȖȉȝȖȌȐȔȖ ȖȚȔȍȚȐȚȤ, ȟȚȖ Ȋ șȖȊȖȒțȗȕȣȝ ȌȈȕȕȣȝ
ȗȘȖȐȏȊȖȌșȚȊȈ ȎȐȊȖȚȕȖȊȖȌșȚȊȈ ȕȈ ȌȖȓȦ ȗȚȐȞȍȊȖȌșȚȊȈ ȗȘȐȠȓȖșȤ 41,7%, șȊȐȕȖȊȖȌșȚȊȈ – 38,9%.
Ǫ ȚȖ Ȏȍ ȊȘȍȔȧ ȖȚȘȐȞȈȚȍȓȤȕȣȍ ȚȍȕȌȍȕȞȐȐ ȏȈȜȐȒșȐȘȖȊȈȕȣ Ȋ ȗȘȖȐȏȊȖȌșȚȊȍ ȔȖȓȖȒȈ – ȗȖ ȥȚȖȑ
ȗȖȏȐȞȐȐ, ȊșȓȍȌșȚȊȐȍ șȖȒȘȈȡȍȕȐȧ ȔȖȓȖȟȕȖȋȖ șȚȈȌȈ ȕȈ 7,6% Ȑ ȍȋȖ ȗȘȖȌțȒȚȐȊȕȖșȚȐ ȕȈ 5,1%,
ȕȈȉȓȦȌȈȓȖșȤ șȈȔȖȍ ȏȕȈȟȐȚȍȓȤȕȖȍ ȖȚșȚȈȊȈȕȐȍ ȖȚ ȉȈȏȐșȕȣȝ ȘȍȏțȓȤȚȈȚȖȊ (-12,4% ȌȖ 6,4 Țȣș. ȚȖȕȕ). Ǫ
șȊȖȦ ȖȟȍȘȍȌȤ, șȖȗȖșȚȈȊȓȧȧ șȘȍȌȕȍșțȚȖȟȕȣȍ țȌȖȐ, ȘȈȏȘȣȊ ȗȖȒȈȏȈȚȍȓȍȑ 2013 Ȑ 2012 ȋȖȌȖȊ șȖșȚȈȊȐȓ
0,5 Ȓȋ Ȋ ȘȈșȟȨȚȍ ȕȈ ȖȌȕț ȒȖȘȖȊț (8,9 ȗȘȖȚȐȊ 9,4 Ȓȋ șȖȖȚȊȍȚșȚȊȍȕȕȖ).
Ǫ ȝȖȏȧȑșȚȊȈȝ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȐ ȏȈ ȖȚȟȨȚȕȣȑ ȗȍȘȐȖȌ ȗȖȟȚȐ ȕȈ 30% șȖȒȘȈȚȐȓșȧ țȓȖȊ Șȣȉȣ. ǪșȍȋȖ ȏȈ
2013 ȋȖȌ ȉȣȓȖ ȊȣȓȖȊȓȍȕȖ 1,1 Țȣș. Ȟ, Ȑȏ ȕȐȝ ȕȈ ȌȖȓȦ ȚȖȓșȚȖȓȖȉȐȒȈ ȗȘȐȠȓȖșȤ 39,5% (-44,5% ȖȚ
ȉȈȏȐșȕȖȋȖ țȘȖȊȕȧ), ȕȈ ȒȈȘȗȈ – 26,2% (ȌȊțȒȘȈȚȕȣȑ ȘȖșȚ ȌȖ 295,0 Ȟ).
ǷȖ șȖșȚȖȧȕȐȦ ȕȈ 1 ȧȕȊȈȘȧ ȚȍȒțȡȍȋȖ ȋȖȌȈ ȈȊȚȖȗȈȘȒ ȚȍȝȕȐȒȐ ȖȘȋȈȕȐȏȈȞȐȑ, ȖșțȡȍșȚȊȓȧȦȡȐȝ
ȗȘȖȐȏȊȖȌșȚȊȖ șȍȓȤșȒȖȝȖȏȧȑșȚȊȍȕȕȖȑ ȗȘȖȌțȒȞȐȐ, șȖșȚȈȊȐȓ 5 656 ȍȌȐȕȐȞ (+2,0%), Ȑȏ ȒȖȚȖȘȣȝ
țȌȍȓȤȕȣȑ Ȋȍș ȐșȗȘȈȊȕȣȝ șȓȖȎȐȓșȧ ȕȈ țȘȖȊȕȍ 76,8%.
ǰȕȊȍșȚȐȞȐȐ
ǰȚȖȋȐ ȖȚȟȨȚȕȖȋȖ ȗȍȘȐȖȌȈ ȖȚȘȈȏȐȓȐ ȊȣșȖȒțȦ ȈȒȚȐȊȕȖșȚȤ Ȋ ȟȈșȚȐ ȒȈȗȐȚȈȓȤȕȣȝ ȊȓȖȎȍȕȐȑ,
ȒȖȚȖȘȣȍ ȗȘȍȊȏȖȠȓȐ ȗȘȖȋȕȖȏȕȣȍ ȖȞȍȕȒȐ ȘȈȏȊȐȚȐȧ șȐȚțȈȞȐȐ Ȋ șȜȍȘȍ ȐȕȊȍșȚȐȞȐȑ. ǺȈȒ, Ȋ
ȖȘȋȈȕȐȏȈȞȐȧȝ, ȖȝȊȈȟȍȕȕȣȝ șȚȈȚȐșȚȐȟȍșȒȐȔ ȕȈȉȓȦȌȍȕȐȍȔ, ȊȓȖȎȍȕȐȧ Ȋ ȖșȕȖȊȕȖȑ ȒȈȗȐȚȈȓ (Ȋ ȟȈșȚȐ
ȕȖȊȣȝ Ȑ ȗȘȐȖȉȘȍȚȨȕȕȣȝ ȗȖ ȐȔȗȖȘȚț ȖșȕȖȊȕȣȝ șȘȍȌșȚȊ) ȌȖșȚȐȋȓȐ 1 546,5 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ., ȟȚȖ ȕȈ 9,5%
ȉȖȓȤȠȍ ȉȈȏȐșȕȖȋȖ ȗȖȒȈȏȈȚȍȓȧ. ǹȖȊȖȒțȗȕȣȑ ȖȉȢȨȔ ȐȕȊȍșȚȐȞȐȑ (ș țȟȨȚȖȔ șțȉȢȍȒȚȖȊ ȔȈȓȖȋȖ
ȗȘȍȌȗȘȐȕȐȔȈȚȍȓȤșȚȊȈ Ȑ ȐȕȌȐȊȐȌțȈȓȤȕȣȝ ȏȈșȚȘȖȑȡȐȒȖȊ) șȖșȚȈȊȐȓ 1 943,6 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ., ȟȚȖ ȕȈ 12,3%
ȊȣȠȍ țȘȖȊȕȧ 2012 ȋȖȌȈ.
Ǫ țșȓȖȊȐȧȝ ȖȋȘȈȕȐȟȍȕȕȖșȚȐ ȌȖȓȋȖșȘȖȟȕȣȝ ȘȍșțȘșȖȊ ȝȖȏȧȑșȚȊțȦȡȐȔȐ șțȉȢȍȒȚȈȔȐ ȗȘȐȖȘȐȚȍȚ
ȖȚȌȈȊȈȓșȧ ȖȉȢȍȒȚȈȔ ȗȘȖȐȏȊȖȌșȚȊȍȕȕȖȋȖ ȕȈȏȕȈȟȍȕȐȧ, ȕȈ ȘȈșȠȐȘȍȕȐȍ Ȑ ȘȍȒȖȕșȚȘțȒȞȐȦ ȒȖȚȖȘȣȝ
ȉȣȓȖ ȕȈȗȘȈȊȓȍȕȖ 85,2% șȘȍȌșȚȊ, ȐȓȐ 1 317,4 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ. (+11,5%). ǷȘȐ ȥȚȖȔ ȏȈ 2013 ȋȖȌ ȊȊȍȌȍȕȖ Ȋ
ȌȍȑșȚȊȐȍ ȖșȕȖȊȕȣȝ șȘȍȌșȚȊ, ȕȍȗȖșȘȍȌșȚȊȍȕȕȖ ȐșȗȖȓȤȏțȍȔȣȝ Ȋ ȗȘȖȐȏȊȖȌșȚȊȍ, ȕȈ șțȔȔț
1 138,4 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ., ȟȚȖ șȖșȚȈȊȐȓȖ 80,0% ȖȚ ȖȉȡȍȋȖ ȖȉȢȨȔȈ ȊȊȍȌȨȕȕȣȝ ȖȉȢȍȒȚȖȊ. ǵȈ ȏȈȒțȗȒț ȔȈȠȐȕ Ȑ
ȖȉȖȘțȌȖȊȈȕȐȧ ȕȍȗȘȖȐȏȊȖȌșȚȊȍȕȕȖȋȖ ȕȈȏȕȈȟȍȕȐȧ, ȒȈȒ Ȑ ȋȖȌȖȔ ȘȈȕȍȍ, ȉȣȓȖ ȗȖȚȘȈȟȍȕȖ ȗȖȘȧȌȒȈ
230 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ. (-0,5%).
ǵȈ ȜȖȕȍ șȖȒȘȈȡȍȕȐȧ ȌȖȓȐ ȉȦȌȎȍȚȕȣȝ ȐȕȊȍșȚȐȞȐȑ (ȕȈ 3,0 ȗ.ȗ. ȌȖ 3,2%) ȖșȕȖȊȕȣȔ ȐșȚȖȟȕȐȒȖȔ
ȜȐȕȈȕșȐȘȖȊȈȕȐȧ ȌȖȓȋȖșȘȖȟȕȣȝ ȗȘȖȍȒȚȖȊ ȖșȚȈȊȈȓȐșȤ șȖȉșȚȊȍȕȕȣȍ șȘȍȌșȚȊȈ ȖȘȋȈȕȐȏȈȞȐȑ (90,4%).
ǷȘȐ ȥȚȖȔ ȋȍȕȍȘȈȚȖȘȖȔ ȘȖșȚȈ șȚȈȓȐ ȒȈȗȐȚȈȓȖȊȓȖȎȍȕȐȧ ȋȖșțȌȈȘșȚȊȍȕȕȣȝ ȗȘȍȌȗȘȐȧȚȐȑ, ȒȖȚȖȘȣȍ
ȘȈșȠȐȘȐȓȐșȤ Ȋ 1,6 ȘȈȏȈ ȌȖ 320,1 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ. (20,7% ȐȚȖȋȖȊȖȋȖ ȗȖȒȈȏȈȚȍȓȧ), Ȋ ȚȖ ȊȘȍȔȧ ȒȈȒ ȖȘȋȈȕȐȏȈȞȐȐ
2
8
ȒȘȖȔȍ ȒȘȍșȚȤȧȕșȒȐȝ (ȜȍȘȔȍȘșȒȐȝ) ȝȖȏȧȑșȚȊ Ȑ șțȉȢȍȒȚȖȊ ȔȈȓȖȋȖ ȗȘȍȌȗȘȐȕȐȔȈȚȍȓȤșȚȊȈ
ǪȍșȚȕȐȒ ǷȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊșȒȖȋȖ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȈȕșȒȖȋȖ ȉȈȕȒȈ ȹ3’2014
ǴȈȒȘȖȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȒȈ
ȟȈșȚȕȖȑ ȜȖȘȔȣ șȖȉșȚȊȍȕȕȖșȚȐ ȌȍȔȖȕșȚȘȐȘȖȊȈȓȐ șȓȈȉȖȊȣȘȈȎȍȕȕțȦ ȗȖȓȖȎȐȚȍȓȤȕțȦ ȌȐȕȈȔȐȒț –
+2,9% ȌȖ 1 158,3 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ.
ǰȕȊȍșȚȐȞȐȖȕȕȈȧ ȈȒȚȐȊȕȖșȚȤ ȝȖȏȧȑșȚȊțȦȡȐȝ șțȉȢȍȒȚȖȊ ȊȖȏȘȈșȚȈȓȈ ȖȚ ȒȊȈȘȚȈȓȈ Ȓ ȒȊȈȘȚȈȓț,
ȗȘȍȊȣșȐȊ Ȋ ȖȒȚȧȉȘȍ-ȌȍȒȈȉȘȍ 570 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ., ȟȚȖ șȖșȚȈȊȐȓȖ 37,2% șȖȊȖȒțȗȕȖȋȖ ȋȖȌȖȊȖȋȖ ȗȖȒȈȏȈȚȍȓȧ.
Ǫ ȗȘȖȔȣȠȓȍȕȕȖșȚȐ, ȕȍșȔȖȚȘȧ ȕȈ ȌȓȐȚȍȓȤȕȖȍ ȗȘȖșȚȈȐȊȈȕȐȍ ȒȘțȗȕȣȝ ȗȘȖȐȏȊȖȌșȚȊ, țȌȈȓȖșȤ
ȕȈȘȈșȚȐȚȤ ȖȉȢȨȔȣ ȊȓȖȎȍȕȐȑ Ȋ ȖșȕȖȊȕȖȑ ȒȈȗȐȚȈȓ ȕȈ 17,1% ȌȖ 736,5 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ., șȜȖȘȔȐȘȖȊȈȊ ȗȖȘȧȌȒȈ
ȗȖȓȖȊȐȕȣ șȖȊȖȒțȗȕȖȋȖ ȗȖȒȈȏȈȚȍȓȧ (ȘȐș. 3). Ǫ ȟȈșȚȕȖșȚȐ, ȥȚȖ șȚȈȓȖ șȓȍȌșȚȊȐȍȔ ȘȖșȚȈ ȒȈȗȐȚȈȓȤȕȣȝ
ȊȓȖȎȍȕȐȑ ȕȈ ȗȘȍȌȗȘȐȧȚȐȧȝ ȔȈȠȐȕȖșȚȘȖȍȕȐȧ, ȘȍȈȓȐȏțȦȡȐȝ ȐȕȕȖȊȈȞȐȖȕȕȣȍ ȗȘȖȍȒȚȣ, Ȉ ȚȈȒȎȍ
ȘȍȏțȓȤȚȈȚȖȔ ȔȖȌȍȘȕȐȏȈȞȐȐ ȖșȕȖȊȕȣȝ ȗȘȖȐȏȊȖȌșȚȊȍȕȕȣȝ ȜȖȕȌȖȊ Ȑ ȗȘȐȖȉȘȍȚȍȕȐȧ ȕȖȊȖȋȖ
ȖȉȖȘțȌȖȊȈȕȐȧ Ȋ ȗȐȡȍȊȖȑ ȗȘȖȔȣȠȓȍȕȕȖșȚȐ. Ǫ ȚȖ Ȏȍ ȊȘȍȔȧ șȓȖȎȐȊȠȐȍșȧ Ȋ 2013 ȋȖȌț ȚȍȔȗȣ ȘȖșȚȈ Ȋ
ȞȍȓȖȔ ȕȍ ȒȖȔȗȍȕșȐȘȖȊȈȓȐ șȊȖȘȈȟȐȊȈȕȐȍ ȐȕȊȍșȚȐȞȐȖȕȕȣȝ ȗȘȖȋȘȈȔȔ ȋȖȌȖȔ ȘȈȕȍȍ, țșȚțȗȐȊ
ȏȕȈȟȍȕȐȦ 2011 ȋȖȌȈ ȗȖȘȧȌȒȈ 30%.
ǹȍȓȤșȒȖȝȖȏȧȑșȚȊȍȕȕȣȍ ȖȘȋȈȕȐȏȈȞȐȐ ȚȈȒȎȍ
1 600,0
țȓțȟȠȐȓȐ ȉȈȏȐșȕȣȍ ȗȖȒȈȏȈȚȍȓȐ ȌȖȓȋȖșȘȖȟȕȖȋȖ
1 200,0
ȘȈȏȊȐȚȐȧ. ǷȖșȓȍ ȌȊțȒȘȈȚȕȖȋȖ șțȎȍȕȐȧ Ȋ
2012 ȋȖȌț Ȋ ȈȕȈȓȐȏȐȘțȍȔȖȔ ȗȍȘȐȖȌȍ ȉȣȓȖ
800,0
ȖșțȡȍșȚȊȓȍȕȖ
ȐȕȊȍșȚȐȞȐȑ
ȕȈ
șțȔȔț
400,0
181,3 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ. (+8,7%).
ǪȖșșȚȈȕȖȊȐȚȍȓȤȕȣȑ ȘȖșȚ ȜȐȕȈȕșȐȘȖȊȈȕȐȧ
0,0
ȕȈȉȓȦȌȈȓșȧ
Ȑ Ȋ șȚȘȖȐȚȍȓȤȕȖȔ șȍȋȔȍȕȚȍ (Ȋ
2012 ȋȖȌ
2013 ȋȖȌ
1,5 ȘȈȏȈ), ȖȌȕȈȒȖ ȖșȊȈȐȊȈȍȔȣȍ Ȋ ȖȚȘȈșȓȐ ȖȉȢȨȔȣ
ȚȖȘȋȖȊȓȧ Ȑ ȖȉȡȍșȚȊȍȕȕȖȍ ȗȐȚȈȕȐȍ
ȘȍșțȘșȖȊ ȗȖ-ȗȘȍȎȕȍȔț ȉȣȓȐ ȕȍȉȖȓȤȠȐȔȐ –
șȍȓȤșȒȖȍ ȝȖȏȧȑșȚȊȖ
Ȕȍȕȍȍ ȖȌȕȖȋȖ ȗȘȖȞȍȕȚȈ Ȋ șȚȘțȒȚțȘȍ șȖȊȖȒțȗȕȣȝ
ȗȘȖȔȣȠȓȍȕȕȖșȚȤ
ȗȘȖȟȐȍ
ȊȓȖȎȍȕȐȑ Ȋ ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȒȍ. ǷȘȐ ȥȚȖȔ Ȋ ȎȐȓȐȡȕȖȔ
ǸȐș. 3. ǹȚȘțȒȚțȘȈ ȐȕȊȍșȚȐȞȐȑ
șȚȘȖȐȚȍȓȤșȚȊȍ
ȏȈȜȐȒșȐȘȖȊȈȕȈ
ȖȉȘȈȚȕȈȧ
Ȋ 2012-2013 ȋȋ., Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ.
ȌȐȕȈȔȐȒȈ – Ȋ ȖȚȟȨȚȕȖȔ ȗȍȘȐȖȌȍ țȌȈȓȖșȤ
ȈȒȒțȔțȓȐȘȖȊȈȚȤ ȓȐȠȤ 40% ȖȚ ȖȉȢȨȔȈ ȐȕȊȍșȚȐȞȐȑ ȉȈȏȐșȕȖȋȖ ȋȖȌȈ (18,7 ȗȘȖȚȐȊ 46,6 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ.). Ǫ ȚȖ
Ȏȍ ȊȘȍȔȧ ȏȈ ȗȘȖȠȍȌȠȐȑ ȋȖȌ Ȋ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȍ ȊȊȍȌȍȕȖ Ȋ ȌȍȑșȚȊȐȍ 38,2 Țȣș. Ȕ2 Ȗȉȡȍȑ ȗȓȖȡȈȌȐ ȎȐȓȣȝ
ȌȖȔȖȊ (+5,6%), Ȑȏ ȒȖȚȖȘȣȝ ȉȖȓȍȍ 73% – ȐȕȌȐȊȐȌțȈȓȤȕȣȔȐ ȏȈșȚȘȖȑȡȐȒȈȔȐ.
ǶȉȢȨȔ ȐȕȊȍșȚȐȞȐȑ ȕȈ ȚȘȈȕșȗȖȘȚȍ ȉȣȓ ȏȈȜȐȒșȐȘȖȊȈȕ ȗȘȈȒȚȐȟȍșȒȐ ȕȈ ȉȈȏȐșȕȖȔ țȘȖȊȕȍ –
85,3 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ., Ȉ Ȋ ȖȚȘȈșȓȐ «șȊȧȏȤ» ȕȈ ȖȉȕȖȊȓȍȕȐȍ ȖșȕȖȊȕȣȝ ȜȖȕȌȖȊ ȗȖȚȘȍȉȖȊȈȓȖșȤ șȘȍȌșȚȊ Ȋ
ȗȘȍȌȍȓȈȝ 78,1 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ., ȟȚȖ ȕȈ 15,5% ȔȍȕȤȠȍ, ȟȍȔ Ȋ 2012 ȋȖȌț. ǵȍ țȌȈȓȖșȤ ȌȖșȚȐȟȤ ȉȈȏȐșȕȖȋȖ
țȘȖȊȕȧ ȊȓȖȎȍȕȐȑ Ȋ ȖșȕȖȊȕȖȑ ȒȈȗȐȚȈȓ ȗȘȍȌȗȘȐȧȚȐȧȔ ȒȖȔȔțȕȈȓȤȕȖȋȖ ȝȖȏȧȑșȚȊȈ (-57,6% ȌȖ
24,4 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ.).
Ǫ ȚȖȘȋȖȊȖȔ șȍȋȔȍȕȚȍ ȗȖșȓȍ ȌȊțȒȘȈȚȕȖȋȖ ȘȈșȠȐȘȍȕȐȧ ȋȖȌ ȕȈȏȈȌ ȗȘȖȌȖȓȎȐȓȖșȤ ȕȈȘȈȡȐȊȈȕȐȍ
ȌȖȓȋȖșȘȖȟȕȣȝ ȊȓȖȎȍȕȐȑ (+12,0% ȌȖ 189,6 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ.). ǬȖșȚȐȟȤ ȚȈȒȐȝ ȚȍȔȗȖȊ țȌȈȓȖșȤ ȊșȓȍȌșȚȊȐȍ
ȘȍȈȓȐȏȈȞȐȐ ȌȖȓȋȖșȘȖȟȕȣȝ ȗȘȖȍȒȚȖȊ Ȋ ȖșȕȖȊȕȖȔ ȊȖ II ȗȖȓțȋȖȌȐȐ.
ǸȖșȚ ȐȕȊȍșȚȐȞȐȑ Ȋ șȖȊȖȒțȗȕȖșȚȐ Ȋ 2,5 ȘȈȏȈ ȉȣȓ ȏȈȜȐȒșȐȘȖȊȈȕ Ȋ șȜȍȘȍ ȏȌȘȈȊȖȖȝȘȈȕȍȕȐȧ Ȑ
ȖȉȘȈȏȖȊȈȕȐȧ, ȟȚȖ șȚȈȓȖ ȊȖȏȔȖȎȕȣȔ ȉȓȈȋȖȌȈȘȧ ȖșțȡȍșȚȊȓȍȕȐȦ ȕȈ ȚȍȘȘȐȚȖȘȐȐ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȐ
ȋțȔȈȕȐȚȈȘȕȣȝ ȗȘȖȍȒȚȖȊ ǸȖșșȐȑșȒȖȑ ǼȍȌȍȘȈȞȐȐ. ǩȖȓȍȍ 100 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ. (ȗȖȘȧȌȒȈ 7% șȖȊȖȒțȗȕȖȋȖ
ȗȖȒȈȏȈȚȍȓȧ) ȉȣȓȖ ȊȓȖȎȍȕȖ Ȋ ȖȉȢȍȒȚȣ șȖȞȐȈȓȤȕȖȑ șȜȍȘȣ, Ȋ ȚȖȔ ȟȐșȓȍ ȕȈ ȗȖȊȣȠȍȕȐȍ
ȖȉȍșȗȍȟȍȕȕȖșȚȐ ȔȍȌțȟȘȍȎȌȍȕȐȑ șȖȊȘȍȔȍȕȕȣȔ ȖȉȖȘțȌȖȊȈȕȐȍȔ Ȑ ȚȍȝȕȐȒȖȑ, ȕȈ ȘȍȔȖȕȚ Ȑ
ȗȍȘȍȖșȕȈȡȍȕȐȍ ǷȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊșȒȖȋȖ ȋȖșțȌȈȘșȚȊȍȕȕȖȋȖ țȕȐȊȍȘșȐȚȍȚȈ ȐȔ Ǻ.ǫ. ȀȍȊȟȍȕȒȖ, ȖȚȒȘȣȚȐȍ
ȕȖȊȖȋȖ ȌȖȠȒȖȓȤȕȖȋȖ țȟȘȍȎȌȍȕȐȧ Ȑ ȌȖȗȖȓȕȐȚȍȓȤȕȣȝ ȋȘțȗȗ Ȋ ȌȍȑșȚȊțȦȡȐȝ ȌȍȚșȒȐȝ șȈȌȈȝ.
ǷȖȚȘȍȉȐȚȍȓȤșȒȐȑ ȘȣȕȖȒ
ǩȓȈȋȖȗȘȐȧȚȕȈȧ ȞȍȕȖȊȈȧ șȐȚțȈȞȐȧ ȕȈ ȊȕțȚȘȍȕȕȍȔ ȘȣȕȒȍ Ȑ ȗȖȊȣȠȍȕȐȍ ȖȗȓȈȚȣ ȚȘțȌȈ Ȑ
șȖȞȐȈȓȤȕȣȝ ȊȣȗȓȈȚ ȖȗȘȍȌȍȓȐȓȐ ȘȈșȠȐȘȍȕȐȍ ȗȖȚȘȍȉȐȚȍȓȤșȒȖȋȖ șȗȘȖșȈ. ǹȖȋȓȈșȕȖ ȖȞȍȕȒȍ
ǪȍșȚȕȐȒ ǷȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊșȒȖȋȖ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȈȕșȒȖȋȖ ȉȈȕȒȈ ȹ3’2014
9
ǴȈȒȘȖȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȒȈ
ǫȖșțȌȈȘșȚȊȍȕȕȖȑ șȓțȎȉȣ șȚȈȚȐșȚȐȒȐ ǷǴǸ, Ȋ 2013 ȋȖȌț ȕȈ ȘȣȕȒȍ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȐ ȕȈșȍȓȍȕȐȍȔ ȉȣȓȖ
ȗȘȐȖȉȘȍȚȍȕȖ ȚȖȊȈȘȖȊ Ȑ țșȓțȋ ȕȈ șțȔȔț 10 017,9 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ., ȟȚȖ Ȋ ȚȍȒțȡȐȝ ȞȍȕȈȝ ȕȈ 9,9% ȉȖȓȤȠȍ
ȉȈȏȐșȕȖȋȖ țȘȖȊȕȧ, Ȉ Ȋ șȖȗȖșȚȈȊȐȔȣȝ – ȕȈ 4,8%. DzȈȒ Ȑ ȋȖȌȖȔ ȘȈȕȍȍ, ȕȈ ȗȘȖȚȧȎȍȕȐȐ ȖȚȟȨȚȕȖȋȖ
ȗȍȘȐȖȌȈ ȜȐȒșȐȘȖȊȈȓșȧ țșȚȖȑȟȐȊȣȑ ȗȖȒȊȈȘȚȈȓȤȕȣȑ ȘȖșȚ țȘȖȊȕȧ ȗȘȖȌȈȎ ȚȖȊȈȘȖȊ Ȑ țșȓțȋ
(ș 2,2 ȔȓȘȌ Șțȉ. Ȋ ȕȈȟȈȓȍ ȋȖȌȈ ȌȖ 2,8 ȔȓȘȌ Șțȉ. Ȋ ȖȒȚȧȉȘȍ-ȌȍȒȈȉȘȍ 2013 ȋȖȌȈ).
Ǫ șȜȍȘȍ ȘȖȏȕȐȟȕȖȑ ȚȖȘȋȖȊȓȐ ȚȖȊȈȘȈȔȐ șțȔȔȈȘȕȈȧ șȚȖȐȔȖșȚȤ ȗȘȐȖȉȘȍȚȨȕȕȣȝ ȕȈșȍȓȍȕȐȍȔ ȉȓȈȋ
ȕȈ 10,3% ȗȘȍȊȣșȐȓȈ ȉȈȏȐșȕțȦ ȖȚȔȍȚȒț (ș țȟȨȚȖȔ ȐȕȜȓȧȞȐȐ – ȕȈ 5,6%), ȌȖșȚȐȋȕțȊ 7 916,9 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ.
ǵȈ ȜȖȕȍ ȗȘȈȒȚȐȟȍșȒȐ ȕȍȐȏȔȍȕȕȣȝ Ȟȍȕ ȕȈ ȕȍȗȘȖȌȖȊȖȓȤșȚȊȍȕȕȣȍ ȚȖȊȈȘȣ Ȑȝ ȗȘȐȖȉȘȍȚȍȕȐȍ
ȕȈșȍȓȍȕȐȍȔ ȊȖȏȘȖșȓȖ ȕȈ 11,4% (Ȋ șȖȗȖșȚȈȊȐȔȖȑ ȖȞȍȕȒȍ) ȌȖ 4 581,8 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ., șȜȖȘȔȐȘȖȊȈȊ Ȋ
șȚȘțȒȚțȘȍ ȘȖȏȕȐȟȕȖȋȖ ȚȖȊȈȘȖȖȉȖȘȖȚȈ 57,9%. ǶȚȕȖșȐȚȍȓȤȕȈȧ ȞȍȕȖȊȈȧ șȚȈȉȐȓȤȕȖșȚȤ ȕȈ ȘȣȕȒȍ
ȗȘȖȌțȒȚȖȊ ȗȐȚȈȕȐȧ ȖȗȘȍȌȍȓȐȓȈ ȗȖȕȐȎȍȕȐȍ ȖȉȢȨȔȈ ȘȍȈȓȐȏȈȞȐȐ ȗȘȖȌȖȊȖȓȤșȚȊȍȕȕȣȝ ȚȖȊȈȘȖȊ ȕȈ
1,8% ȌȖ 3 335,1 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ., ȟȚȖ Ȋ șȘȍȌȕȍȔ ȕȈ ȌțȠț ȕȈșȍȓȍȕȐȧ șȖȖȚȊȍȚșȚȊțȍȚ ȗȖȘȧȌȒȈ
550 Șțȉ. Ȋ ȔȍșȧȞ.
ǹȐȚțȈȞȐȧ Ȋ șȍȋȔȍȕȚȍ ȖȉȡȍșȚȊȍȕȕȖȋȖ ȗȐȚȈȕȐȧ ȝȈȘȈȒȚȍȘȐȏȖȊȈȓȈșȤ șțȎȍȕȐȍȔ șȗȘȖșȈ ȕȈ țșȓțȋȐ
ȖȘȋȈȕȐȏȈȞȐȑ ȖȚȘȈșȓȐ, ȒȖȚȖȘȣȔȐ ȗȖ ȐȚȖȋȈȔ ȗȍȘȐȖȌȈ ȉȣȓȖ ȘȍȈȓȐȏȖȊȈȕȖ ȗȘȖȌțȒȞȐȐ ȕȈ
209,3 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ. (-3,6%). ǺȘȍȚȤ ȊȣȘțȟȒȐ ȖȚ ȖȘȋȈȕȐȏȈȞȐȐ ȗȐȚȈȕȐȧ Ȋȕȍ ȌȖȔȈ ȉȣȓȖ ȗȖȓțȟȍȕȖ
șțȉȢȍȒȚȈȔȐ ȔȈȓȖȋȖ ȉȐȏȕȍșȈ.
10 018,0
10 000,0
7 500,0
5 000,0
2 500,0
0,0
2012 ȋȖȌ
2013 ȋȖȌ
ȕȍȗȘȖȌȖȊȖȓȤșȚȊȍȕȕȣȍ ȚȖȊȈȘȣ
ȗȘȖȌȖȊȖȓȤșȚȊȍȕȕȣȍ ȚȖȊȈȘȣ
ȗȓȈȚȕȣȍ țșȓțȋȐ ȕȈșȍȓȍȕȐȦ
ǸȐș. 4. ǹȚȘțȒȚțȘȈ ȗȖȚȘȍȉȐȚȍȓȤșȒȖȋȖ ȘȣȕȒȈ
Ȋ 2012-2013 ȋȋ., Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ.
ǶȉȢȨȔ
ȗȓȈȚȕȣȝ
țșȓțȋ,
ȖȒȈȏȈȕȕȣȝ
ȕȈșȍȓȍȕȐȦ, ȊȣȘȖș ȕȈ 8,5% (ȕȈ 2,1% Ȋ
șȖȗȖșȚȈȊȐȔȣȝ ȞȍȕȈȝ) ȌȖ 2 101,1 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ. (ȘȐș. 4),
ȐȓȐ 346,6 Șțȉ. Ȋ ȔȍșȧȞ ȕȈ ȌțȠț ȕȈșȍȓȍȕȐȧ.
ǻȟȈșȚȐȍ
ȟȈșȚȕȣȝ
Ȑ
ȋȖșțȌȈȘșȚȊȍȕȕȣȝ
/ȔțȕȐȞȐȗȈȓȤȕȣȝ
ȗȘȍȌȗȘȐȧȚȐȑ
Ȋ
ȌȈȕȕȖȔ
șȍȋȔȍȕȚȍ ȗȖȚȘȍȉȐȚȍȓȤșȒȖȋȖ ȘȣȕȒȈ ȉȣȓȖ ȘȈȊȕȣȔ –
ȗȖ 49%. ǬȖȓȧ ȘȍȈȓȐȏȈȞȐȐ ȘȈȏȓȐȟȕȣȝ țșȓțȋ
ȜȐȏȐȟȍșȒȐȔȐ ȓȐȞȈȔȐ ȖȞȍȕȐȊȈȍȚșȧ ȕȈ țȘȖȊȕȍ
1,6%, ȐȓȐ ȗȖȘȧȌȒȈ 33 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ., 2/3 ȒȖȚȖȘȣȝ
ȖȚȕȖșȐȓȐșȤ Ȓ ȉȣȚȖȊȣȔ. ǪșȍȋȖ ȕȈ ȖȗȓȈȚț ȉȣȚȖȊȣȝ
țșȓțȋ
ȋȘȈȎȌȈȕȈȔȐ
ȉȣȓȖ
ȗȖȚȘȈȟȍȕȖ
Ȋ
șȖȊȖȒțȗȕȖșȚȐ 84,2 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ., ȟȚȖ ȕȈ 15,4% ȉȖȓȤȠȍ,
ȟȍȔ ȋȖȌ ȕȈȏȈȌ.
ǹȖȞȐȈȓȤȕȈȧ șȜȍȘȈ
ǻȔȍȘȍȕȕȣȑ ȝȈȘȈȒȚȍȘ ȐȕȜȓȧȞȐȖȕȕȣȝ ȗȘȖȞȍșșȖȊ, ȖȚȔȍȟȍȕȕȣȑ Ȋ 2013 ȋȖȌț, șȗȖșȖȉșȚȊȖȊȈȓ
ȌȖșȚȐȎȍȕȐȦ ȏȈȔȍȚȕȖȋȖ ȘȖșȚȈ ȉȓȈȋȖșȖșȚȖȧȕȐȧ ȋȘȈȎȌȈȕ. ǺȈȒ, șȖȋȓȈșȕȖ ȌȈȕȕȣȔ ǫȖșțȌȈȘșȚȊȍȕȕȖȑ
șȓțȎȉȣ șȚȈȚȐșȚȐȒȐ ǷǴǸ, ȊȍȓȐȟȐȕȈ ȏȈȘȈȉȖȚȕȖȑ ȗȓȈȚȣ ȖȌȕȖȋȖ ȘȈȉȖȚȕȐȒȈ, ȊȒȓȦȟȈȧ șțȉȢȍȒȚȣ
ȔȈȓȖȋȖ ȗȘȍȌȗȘȐȕȐȔȈȚȍȓȤșȚȊȈ, Ȋ 2013 ȋȖȌț șȖșȚȈȊȐȓȈ 3 735 Șțȉ. (+12,2%), Ȋ ȚȖȔ ȟȐșȓȍ Ȋ ȉȦȌȎȍȚȕȣȝ
ȖȘȋȈȕȐȏȈȞȐȧȝ – 2 505 Șțȉ. (+14,8%). ǺȈȒȐȔ ȖȉȘȈȏȖȔ, Ȋ ȞȍȓȖȔ ȗȖ ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȒȍ țȌȈȓȖșȤ ȌȖșȚȐȋȕțȚȤ
ȘȍȈȓȤȕȖȋȖ ȘȖșȚȈ ȖȗȓȈȚȣ ȚȘțȌȈ ȕȈ 6,3%3 (Ȋ ȉȦȌȎȍȚȕȖȔ șȍȒȚȖȘȍ ȕȈ 8,8%). ǹȖȖȚȊȍȚșȚȊȍȕȕȖ,
ȗȖȒțȗȈȚȍȓȤȕȈȧ șȗȖșȖȉȕȖșȚȤ ȏȈȘȈȉȖȚȕȖȑ ȗȓȈȚȣ țȊȍȓȐȟȐȓȈșȤ ȌȖ 3,0 ȔȐȕȐȔȈȓȤȕȣȝ ȕȈȉȖȘȖȊ ȚȖȊȈȘȖȊ Ȑ
țșȓțȋ, ȕȍȖȉȝȖȌȐȔȣȝ ȟȍȓȖȊȍȒț Ȍȓȧ ȎȐȏȕȍȌȍȧȚȍȓȤȕȖșȚȐ (ȋȖȌ ȕȈȏȈȌ – 2,9 ȕȈȉȖȘȈ). ǷȘȐ ȥȚȖȔ
ȌȐȜȜȍȘȍȕȞȐȈȞȐȧ ȘȈȏȔȍȘȈ ȏȈȘȗȓȈȚ Ȋ ȖȚȘȈșȓȧȝ ȖșȚȈȓȈșȤ ȕȈ ȌȖșȚȈȚȖȟȕȖ ȊȣșȖȒȖȔ țȘȖȊȕȍ – 5,2.
ǶȉȡȈȧ ȟȐșȓȍȕȕȖșȚȤ ȕȈșȍȓȍȕȐȧ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȐ ȗȖ ȐȚȖȋȈȔ 2013 ȋȖȌȈ șȖșȚȈȊȐȓȈ 505,2 Țȣș. ȟȍȓȖȊȍȒ,
ȟȚȖ ȕȈ 0,8% ȔȍȕȤȠȍ ȏȕȈȟȍȕȐȧ ȕȈ 01.01.2013 ȋ. ǷȘȐ ȥȚȖȔ ȒȖȓȐȟȍșȚȊȖ ȓȐȞ, ȗȘȖȎȐȊȈȦȡȐȝ Ȋ ȋȖȘȖȌȈȝ,
șȖșȚȈȊȐȓȖ 349,2 Țȣș. ȟȍȓȖȊȍȒ, Ȉ șȍȓȤșȒȐȝ ȎȐȚȍȓȍȑ – 155,9 Țȣș. ȟȍȓȖȊȍȒ.
3
șȊȖȌȕȣȑ ȐȕȌȍȒș ȗȖȚȘȍȉȐȚȍȓȤșȒȐȝ Ȟȍȕ Ȋ ȋȖȌȖȊȖȔ ȊȣȘȈȎȍȕȐȐ șȖșȚȈȊȐȓ 105,5%
10
ǪȍșȚȕȐȒ ǷȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊșȒȖȋȖ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȈȕșȒȖȋȖ ȉȈȕȒȈ ȹ3’2014
ǴȈȒȘȖȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȒȈ
ǵȈ ȘȣȕȒȍ ȚȘțȌȈ ȏȈȜȐȒșȐȘȖȊȈȕȈ ȖȚȕȖșȐȚȍȓȤȕȈȧ șȚȈȉȐȓȐȏȈȞȐȧ. ǹȘȍȌȕȍșȗȐșȖȟȕȈȧ ȟȐșȓȍȕȕȖșȚȤ
ȘȈȉȖȚȈȦȡȐȝ (ș țȟȨȚȖȔ șțȉȢȍȒȚȖȊ ȔȈȓȖȋȖ ȗȘȍȌȗȘȐȕȐȔȈȚȍȓȤșȚȊȈ) Ȋ ȖȚȟȨȚȕȖȔ ȋȖȌț ȏȈȘȍȋȐșȚȘȐȘȖȊȈȕȈ
ȕȈ țȘȖȊȕȍ 123,4 Țȣș. ȟȍȓ. (-0,1%), ȐȓȐ 24,4% ȖȚ ȘȈșȟȨȚȕȖȑ ȟȐșȓȍȕȕȖșȚȐ ȕȈșȍȓȍȕȐȧ.
ǯȈ 2013 ȋȖȌ ȉȍȏ țȟȨȚȈ șțȉȢȍȒȚȖȊ ȔȈȓȖȋȖ ȉȐȏȕȍșȈ ȉȣȓȖ ȗȘȐȕȧȚȖ ȕȈ ȘȈȉȖȚț 25,8 Țȣș. ȟȍȓȖȊȍȒ, Ȑȏ
ȒȖȚȖȘȣȝ 1,6 Țȣș. ȟȍȓȖȊȍȒ – ȕȈ ȊȕȖȊȤ șȖȏȌȈȕȕȣȍ Ȑ ȌȖȗȖȓȕȐȚȍȓȤȕȖ ȊȊȍȌȨȕȕȣȍ ȘȈȉȖȟȐȍ ȔȍșȚȈ.
Ǫ ȟȐșȓȍ ȗȖșȓȍȌȕȐȝ ȗȖ 0,3 Țȣș. ȟȍȓȖȊȍȒ ȚȘțȌȖțșȚȘȖȍȕȖ ȕȈ ȗȘȍȌȗȘȐȧȚȐȧȝ ȗȘȖȔȣȠȓȍȕȕȖșȚȐ, Ȋ
șȍȓȤșȒȖȝȖȏȧȑșȚȊȍȕȕȣȝ ȖȘȋȈȕȐȏȈȞȐȧȝ Ȑ Ȋ ȚȖȘȋȖȊȓȍ.
ǪșȓȍȌșȚȊȐȍ, Ȋ ȖșȕȖȊȕȖȔ, șȖȉșȚȊȍȕȕȖȑ ȐȕȐȞȐȈȚȐȊȣ, Ȑȏ țȟȘȍȎȌȍȕȐȑ Ȑ ȖȘȋȈȕȐȏȈȞȐȑ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȐ
ȏȈ 2013 ȋȖȌ ȊȣȉȣȓȖ 26,3 Țȣș. ȟȍȓȖȊȍȒ, (-0,5 Țȣș. ȟȍȓȖȊȍȒ), Ȋ ȚȖȔ ȟȐșȓȍ 6,9 Țȣș. ȟȍȓȖȊȍȒ – Ȑȏ
ȗȘȖȔȣȠȓȍȕȕȖșȚȐ, 4,9 Țȣș. ȟȍȓȖȊȍȒ – Ȑȏ ȖȚȘȈșȓȐ «ȖȉȘȈȏȖȊȈȕȐȍ». ǺȈȒȐȔ ȖȉȘȈȏȖȔ, ȒȖȥȜȜȐȞȐȍȕȚ
ȊȖșșȚȈȕȖȊȓȍȕȐȧ ȘȈȉȖȚȕȐȒȖȊ (șȖȖȚȕȖȠȍȕȐȍ ȟȐșȓȈ ȗȘȐȕȧȚȣȝ ȕȈ ȘȈȉȖȚț Ȑ ȊȣȉȣȊȠȐȝ șȖȚȘțȌȕȐȒȖȊ)
șȓȖȎȐȓșȧ ȕȈ ȖȚȔȍȚȒȍ 98,1% (96,3% Ȋ 2012 ȋȖȌț).
ǿȐșȓȖ ȓȐȞ, ȕȈȝȖȌȧȡȐȝșȧ Ȋ ȈȒȚȐȊȕȖȔ ȗȖȐșȒȍ ȘȈȉȖȚȣ, șȖȒȘȈȚȐȓȖșȤ ȕȈ 13,5% (ȕȈ 0,7 Țȣș.
ȟȍȓȖȊȍȒ) ȌȖ 4,3 Țȣș. ȟȍȓȖȊȍȒ4 ȗȖ șȖșȚȖȧȕȐȦ ȕȈ 01.01.2014 ȋ. ǺȈȒȐȔ ȖȉȘȈȏȖȔ, ȒȖȥȜȜȐȞȐȍȕȚ
ȕȈȗȘȧȎȨȕȕȖșȚȐ, ȗȘȍȌșȚȈȊȓȧȦȡȐȑ șȖȉȖȑ șȖȖȚȕȖȠȍȕȐȍ ȒȖȓȐȟȍșȚȊȈ ȓȦȌȍȑ, ȏȈȘȍȋȐșȚȘȐȘȖȊȈȕȕȣȝ ȕȈ
ȉȐȘȎȍ ȚȘțȌȈ, Ȓ ȟȐșȓț ȗȘȍȌȖșȚȈȊȓȍȕȕȣȝ ȘȈȉȖȚȖȌȈȚȍȓȧȔȐ ȊȈȒȈȕșȐȑ, șȕȐȏȐȓșȧ ȌȖ 1,7 (2,2 ȋȖȌ ȕȈȏȈȌ).
ǶȌȕȈȒȖ ȔȖȎȕȖ ȗȘȍȌȗȖȓȖȎȐȚȤ, ȟȚȖ ȘȍȈȓȤȕȣȑ ȌȐșȉȈȓȈȕș șȒȓȈȌȣȊȈȍȚșȧ, șȒȖȘȍȍ, Ȋ ȖȉȘȈȚȕțȦ șȚȖȘȖȕț,
Ȑ ȗȘȐ șțȡȍșȚȊțȦȡȍȑ șȐșȚȍȔȍ ȖȗȓȈȚȣ ȚȘțȌȈ ȗȖȚȘȍȉȕȖșȚȤ ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȒȐ Ȋ ȒȊȈȓȐȜȐȞȐȘȖȊȈȕȕȣȝ ȒȈȌȘȈȝ
ȊȣȠȍ ȟȐșȓȈ ȏȈȐȕȚȍȘȍșȖȊȈȕȕȣȝ Ȋ ȚȘțȌȖțșȚȘȖȑșȚȊȍ ȓȐȞ. Ǫ ȘȍȏțȓȤȚȈȚȍ, ȔȕȖȋȐȍ ȋȘȈȎȌȈȕȍ, ȊȓȈȌȍȦȡȐȍ
ȊȖșȚȘȍȉȖȊȈȕȕȣȔȐ ȗȘȖȜȍșșȐȧȔȐ, ȕȈȝȖȌȧȚ ȘȈȉȖȚț ȏȈ ȗȘȍȌȍȓȈȔȐ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȐ. ǷȘȐ ȥȚȖȔ ȖȚȔȍȚȐȔ, ȟȚȖ
ȗȖȐșȒ ȕȖȊȣȝ șȖȚȘțȌȕȐȒȖȊ ȕȍ șȖșȘȍȌȖȚȈȟȐȊȈȍȚșȧ ȐșȒȓȦȟȐȚȍȓȤȕȖ Ȋ șȓțȎȉȍ ȏȈȕȧȚȖșȚȐ, Ȑ ȟȐșȓȖ
ȚȘȍȉțȍȔȣȝ ȘȈȉȖȚȕȐȒȖȊ ȌȈȎȍ ȉȍȏ țȟȨȚȈ șțȉȢȍȒȚȖȊ ȔȈȓȖȋȖ ȉȐȏȕȍșȈ ȌȖșȚȐȋȈȍȚ 3,4 ȚȣșȧȟȐ5.
ǵȈ ȜȖȕȍ ȚȍȕȌȍȕȞȐȐ șȖȒȘȈȡȍȕȐȧ ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȟȍșȒȐ ȈȒȚȐȊȕȖȋȖ ȕȈșȍȓȍȕȐȧ, ȟȐșȓȖ ȗȍȕșȐȖȕȍȘȖȊ
ȗȘȖȌȖȓȎȈȍȚ ȘȈșȚȐ. ǵȈ ȒȖȕȍȞ 2013 ȋȖȌȈ ȥȚȈ ȒȈȚȍȋȖȘȐȧ ȋȘȈȎȌȈȕ ȘȈșȠȐȘȐȓȈșȤ ȌȖ 139,3 Țȣș. ȟȍȓȖȊȍȒ
(+1,0%). ǺȈȒȐȔ ȖȉȘȈȏȖȔ, șȓȖȎȐȓȈșȤ șȐȚțȈȞȐȧ, ȒȖȋȌȈ ȕȈ 100 ȘȈȉȖȚȈȦȡȐȝ ȟȍȓȖȊȍȒ ȗȘȐȝȖȌȐȚșȧ
113 ȗȍȕșȐȖȕȍȘȖȊ. ǫȖșțȌȈȘșȚȊȍȕȕȈȧ ȗȖȓȐȚȐȒȈ Ȋ șȜȍȘȍ ȗȍȕșȐȖȕȕȖȋȖ ȖȉȍșȗȍȟȍȕȐȧ șȗȖșȖȉșȚȊȖȊȈȓȈ
ȘȖșȚț șȘȍȌȕȍȋȖ ȘȈȏȔȍȘȈ ȗȍȕșȐȐ ȌȖ 1 264,1 Șțȉ. (+12,3%). Ǫ șȖȗȖșȚȈȊȓȍȕȐȐ șȘȍȌȕȍȑ ȗȍȕșȐȐ ș
ȊȍȓȐȟȐȕȖȑ ȗȘȖȎȐȚȖȟȕȖȋȖ ȔȐȕȐȔțȔȈ Ȍȓȧ ȌȈȕȕȖȑ ȒȈȚȍȋȖȘȐȐ (1 008,2 Șțȉ.) ȖȚȔȍȚȐȔ, ȟȚȖ ȗȖȌȌȍȘȎȒȈ
ȗȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊșȒȐȝ ȗȍȕșȐȖȕȍȘȖȊ ȕȍ ȖȋȘȈȕȐȟȍȕȈ ȉȈȏȖȊȣȔȐ ȊȣȗȓȈȚȈȔȐ Ȑ ȊȒȓȦȟȈȍȚ ȒȈȒ
ȌȖȗȖȓȕȐȚȍȓȤȕȣȍ ȌȍȕȍȎȕȣȍ șțȔȔȣ Ȑȏ șȘȍȌșȚȊ ȋțȔȈȕȐȚȈȘȕȖȑ ȗȖȔȖȡȐ ǸǼ Ȑ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȈȕșȒȖȋȖ
ȉȦȌȎȍȚȈ, ȚȈȒ Ȑ ȘȈȏȓȐȟȕȖȋȖ ȘȖȌȈ ȓȤȋȖȚȣ (Ȋ ȚȖȔ ȟȐșȓȍ Ȋ ȚȖȘȋȖȊȖȑ Ȑ ȈȗȚȍȟȕȖȑ șȍȚȧȝ, Ȑ ȚȘȈȕșȗȖȘȚȍ).
ǪȕȍȠȕȧȧ ȚȖȘȋȖȊȓȧ
ǹȐȚțȈȞȐȧ Ȋ ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȒȍ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȐ ȊȖ ȔȕȖȋȖȔ ȖȗȘȍȌȍȓȧȓȈșȤ ȌȐȕȈȔȐȒȖȑ ȊȕȍȠȕȍȚȖȘȋȖȊȣȝ
ȖȗȍȘȈȞȐȑ ȝȖȏȧȑșȚȊțȦȡȐȝ șțȉȢȍȒȚȖȊ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȐ, ȔȈșȠȚȈȉȣ ȒȖȚȖȘȣȝ ȊȗȍȘȊȣȍ ȏȈ ȗȍȘȐȖȌ
ȗȖșȚȒȘȐȏȐșȕȖȋȖ ȊȖșșȚȈȕȖȊȓȍȕȐȧ țșȚțȗȐȓȐ ȉȈȏȐșȕȣȔ ȏȕȈȟȍȕȐȧȔ.
ǷȖ ȌȈȕȕȣȔ ǫǺDz ǷǴǸ, șȖȊȖȒțȗȕȣȑ ȥȒșȗȖȘȚ ȚȖȊȈȘȖȊ ȗȖ ȐȚȖȋȈȔ 2013 ȋȖȌȈ șȕȐȏȐȓșȧ ȕȈ 15,8%,
ȖȗțșȚȐȊȠȐșȤ ȌȖ ȗȈȘȈȔȍȚȘȖȊ ȚȘȨȝȓȍȚȕȍȑ ȌȈȊȕȖșȚȐ – 586,6 Ȕȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ. ǶȚȓȐȟȐȚȍȓȤȕȖȑ ȟȍȘȚȖȑ
ȊȕțȚȘȐȋȖȌȖȊȖȑ ȌȐȕȈȔȐȒȐ șȚȈȓȖ șțȡȍșȚȊȍȕȕȖȍ șțȎȍȕȐȍ ȖȉȢȨȔȖȊ ȘȍȈȓȐȏȈȞȐȐ ȚȖȊȈȘȖȊ Ȋ ȔȈȍ-ȐȦȕȍ,
ȟȚȖ ȗȘȖȐșȝȖȌȐȓȖ Ȋ țȕȐșȖȕ ș ȊȕțȚȘȍȕȕȐȔȐ ȖȉȢȨȔȈȔȐ ȗȘȖȔȣȠȓȍȕȕȖȋȖ ȗȘȖȐȏȊȖȌșȚȊȈ. ǺȈȒ, ȍșȓȐ Ȋ
ȗȖșȓȍȌȕȐȍ ȋȖȌȣ șȚȖȐȔȖșȚȤ ȗȘȖȌȈȕȕȖȑ ȏȈ ȥȚȖȚ ȗȍȘȐȖȌ ȗȘȖȌțȒȞȐȐ ȊȈȘȤȐȘȖȊȈȓȈ Ȋ ȗȘȍȌȍȓȈȝ 110125 Ȕȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ., ȚȖ Ȋ 2013 ȋȖȌț ȖȕȈ ȕȍ ȌȖșȚȐȋȓȈ Ȑ 50 Ȕȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ. ǪȖșșȚȈȕȖȊȓȍȕȐȍ ȖȉȢȨȔȖȊ
ȗȘȖȐȏȊȖȌșȚȊȈ Ȋ ȒȖȕȞȍ ȓȍȚȈ ȗȖȏȊȖȓȐȓȖ ȗȘȐȉȓȐȏȐȚȤ șțȔȔț ȥȒșȗȖȘȚȈ Ȓ ȉȈȏȐșȕȖȑ ȊȍȓȐȟȐȕȍ (-7,6%) Ȑ
țȎȍ ȗȖ ȐȚȖȋȈȔ șȍȕȚȧȉȘȧ ȉȣȓȖ ȏȈȜȐȒșȐȘȖȊȈȕȖ ȍȨ ȗȘȍȊȣȠȍȕȐȍ (+3,2%), șȖȝȘȈȕȧȊȠȍȍșȧ ȊȗȓȖȚȤ ȌȖ
ȌȍȒȈȉȘȧ, ȗȖ ȐȚȖȋȈȔ ȒȖȚȖȘȖȋȖ ȏȈȜȐȒșȐȘȖȊȈȕȖ șȕȐȎȍȕȐȍ ȕȈ 14,4%.
4
5
ȏȈȘȍȋȐșȚȘȐȘȖȊȈȕȕȣȍ Ȋ șȓțȎȉȈȝ ȏȈȕȧȚȖșȚȐ ȋȘȈȎȌȈȕȍ, ȕȍ ȏȈȕȧȚȣȍ ȚȘțȌȖȊȖȑ ȌȍȧȚȍȓȤȕȖșȚȤȦ
șȖȋȓȈșȕȖ ȐȕȜȖȘȔȈȞȐȐ ǫȖșșȓțȎȉȣ șȚȈȚȐșȚȐȒȐ ǷǴǸ
ǪȍșȚȕȐȒ ǷȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊșȒȖȋȖ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȈȕșȒȖȋȖ ȉȈȕȒȈ ȹ3’2014
11
ǴȈȒȘȖȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȒȈ
DzȓȦȟȍȊȣȔ ȜȈȒȚȖȘȖȔ ȗȖȕȐȎȈȚȍȓȤȕȖȑ ȌȐȕȈȔȐȒȐ ȊȕȍȠȕȍȑ ȚȖȘȋȖȊȓȐ ȚȈȒȎȍ șȚȈȓȈ șȐȚțȈȞȐȧ Ȋ
ȔȍȚȈȓȓțȘȋȐȟȍșȒȖȑ ȗȘȖȔȣȠȓȍȕȕȖșȚȐ, ȌȊțȒȘȈȚȕȖ șȖȒȘȈȚȐȊȠȍȑ ȗȖșȚȈȊȒȐ ȗȘȖȌțȒȞȐȐ ȕȈ ȊȕȍȠȕȐȍ
ȘȣȕȒȐ (ȌȖ 114,6 Ȕȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ.). Ǫ ȘȍȏțȓȤȚȈȚȍ, țȌȍȓȤȕȣȑ Ȋȍș ȌȈȕȕȣȝ ȚȖȊȈȘȖȊ, ȌȖȔȐȕȐȘȖȊȈȊȠȐȝ ȋȖȌȖȔ
ȘȈȕȍȍ, ȖȗțșȚȐȓșȧ ȕȈ 13,3 ȗ.ȗ. ȌȖ 19,5%. Ǫ ȗȍȘȐȖȌ ȗȘȖșȚȖȧ ȗȘȖȐȏȊȖȌșȚȊȍȕȕȣȝ ȔȖȡȕȖșȚȍȑ
ǶǨǶ «ǴȖȓȌȈȊșȒȐȑ ȔȍȚȈȓȓțȘȋȐȟȍșȒȐȑ ȏȈȊȖȌ» (ȧȕȊȈȘȤ-ȈȊȋțșȚ) ȍȎȍȔȍșȧȟȕȈȧ șȚȖȐȔȖșȚȤ ȗȘȖȌȈȕȕȣȝ ȏȈ
ȘțȉȍȎȖȔ ȔȍȚȈȓȓȖȊ ȕȍ ȗȘȍȊȣȠȈȓȈ 2 Ȕȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ. Ǫ ȚȖ Ȏȍ ȊȘȍȔȧ ȋȖșȗȖȌȌȍȘȎȒȈ, ȖȒȈȏȈȕȕȈȧ ȏȈȊȖȌț,
ȗȖȏȊȖȓȐȓȈ țȎȍ ȗȖ ȐȚȖȋȈȔ șȍȕȚȧȉȘȧ ȊȣȑȚȐ ȕȈ ȉȈȏȐșȕȣȍ ȗȈȘȈȔȍȚȘȣ (ȗȖȘȧȌȒȈ 22 Ȕȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ.).
DzȘțȗȕȍȑȠȐȔ ȥȒșȗȖȘȚȨȘȖȔ Ȋ 2013 ȋȖȌț șȚȈȓ ȚȖȗȓȐȊȕȖ-ȥȕȍȘȋȍȚȐȟȍșȒȐȑ ȒȖȔȗȓȍȒș,
ȖȉȍșȗȍȟȐȊȠȐȑ ȗȖȟȚȐ ȟȍȚȊȍȘȚȤ șȖȊȖȒțȗȕȖȋȖ ȗȖȒȈȏȈȚȍȓȧ ȗȖ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȍ, ȟȚȖ Ȋ ȈȉșȖȓȦȚȕȖȔ
ȊȣȘȈȎȍȕȐȐ șȖȖȚȊȍȚșȚȊȖȊȈȓȖ 143,6 Ȕȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ. ǶȌȕȈȒȖ, ȒȈȒ ȖȚȔȍȟȈȓȖșȤ ȘȈȕȍȍ, ȊșȓȍȌșȚȊȐȍ
ȗȘȍȒȘȈȡȍȕȐȧ ș ȈȗȘȍȓȧ ȗȖșȚȈȊȖȒ ȥȓȍȒȚȘȖȥȕȍȘȋȐȐ Ȋ ǸțȔȣȕȐȦ Ȑ ȏȕȈȟȐȚȍȓȤȕȖȋȖ șȖȒȘȈȡȍȕȐȧ Ȋ ȔȈȍȈȊȋțșȚȍ ȗȘȖȌȈȎ Ȋ ǸȍșȗțȉȓȐȒț ǴȖȓȌȖȊȈ ȌȖșȚȐȟȤ, Ȉ ȚȍȔ ȉȖȓȍȍ ȗȘȍȊȣșȐȚȤ, țȘȖȊȍȕȤ ȥȒșȗȖȘȚȈ 2012 ȋȖȌȈ
ȕȍ țȌȈȓȖșȤ, ȖȚșȚȈȊȈȕȐȍ șȖșȚȈȊȐȓȖ ȗȖȟȚȐ 26%.
dzȨȋȒȈȧ ȗȘȖȔȣȠȓȍȕȕȖșȚȤ Ȋ 2013 ȋȖȌț ȏȕȈȟȐȚȍȓȤȕȖ țȓțȟȠȐȓȈ Ȑ ȘȍȏțȓȤȚȈȚȣ ȌȍȧȚȍȓȤȕȖșȚȐ, ȕȈ
ȊȕȍȠȕȐȝ ȘȣȕȒȈȝ, ȘȍȈȓȐȏȖȊȈȊ ȗȘȖȌțȒȞȐȐ ȕȈ 140,8 Ȕȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ. (+9,7%) Ȑ șȜȖȘȔȐȘȖȊȈȊ 24,0%
șȖȊȖȒțȗȕȣȝ ȥȒșȗȖȘȚȕȣȝ ȗȖșȚȈȊȖȒ. ǷȖȊȣȠȍȕȕȣȔ șȗȘȖșȖȔ ȗȖȓȤȏȖȊȈȓȐșȤ ȚȍȒșȚȐȓȤȕȣȍ ȐȏȌȍȓȐȧ
(+11,9% ȌȖ 45,3 Ȕȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ.), ȔȈȚȍȘȐȈȓȣ (ȘȖșȚ Ȋ 1,5 ȘȈȏȈ ȌȖ 37,0 Ȕȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ.) Ȑ ȖȉțȊȤ (+20,2% ȌȖ
43,6 Ȕȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ.). ǵȈ ȜȖȕȍ ȗȈȌȍȕȐȧ ȖȉȢȨȔȖȊ ȗȘȖȐȏȊȖȌșȚȊȈ șȕȐȏȐȓȐșȤ ȗȖșȚȈȊȒȐ ȖȌȍȎȌȣ (Ȋ 1,8 ȘȈȏȈ ȌȖ
14,9 Ȕȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ.).
ǬȐȕȈȔȐȒȈ ȌȘțȋȐȝ șȚȘțȒȚțȘȕȣȝ șȖșȚȈȊȓȧȦȡȐȝ Ȋ ȉȖȓȤȠȍȑ ȟȈșȚȐ ȝȈȘȈȒȚȍȘȐȏȖȊȈȓȈșȤ
ȗȖȊȣȠȈȚȍȓȤȕȖȑ ȚȍȕȌȍȕȞȐȍȑ. Ǫ ȟȈșȚȕȖșȚȐ, ȊȖȏȘȖș ȥȒșȗȖȘȚ ȗȘȖȌȖȊȖȓȤșȚȊȍȕȕȣȝ ȚȖȊȈȘȖȊ (Ȋ 1,7 ȘȈȏȈ ȌȖ
102,0 Ȕȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ.) Ȑ ȔȈȠȐȕȖșȚȘȖȐȚȍȓȤȕȖȑ ȗȘȖȌțȒȞȐȐ (+4,8% ȌȖ 32,9 Ȕȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ.). Ǫ ȚȖ Ȏȍ ȊȘȍȔȧ
ȊșȓȍȌșȚȊȐȍ ȖșȚȈȕȖȊȒȐ ȞȍȔȍȕȚȕȖȋȖ ȏȈȊȖȌȈ Ȋ ȕȈȟȈȓȍ ȋȖȌȈ ȕȈȉȓȦȌȈȓȖșȤ șȖȒȘȈȡȍȕȐȍ ȥȒșȗȖȘȚȈ
ȔȐȕȍȘȈȓȤȕȣȝ ȗȘȖȌțȒȚȖȊ (-14,6% ȌȖ 32,2 Ȕȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ.).
ǶșȕȖȊȕȣȔȐ ȗȈȘȚȕȨȘȈȔȐ ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȟȍșȒȐȝ
700,0
ȈȋȍȕȚȖȊ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȐ ȚȘȈȌȐȞȐȖȕȕȖ ȖșȚȈȦȚșȧ
525,0
ȝȖȏȧȑșȚȊțȦȡȐȍ șțȉȢȍȒȚȣ șȚȘȈȕ ǹǵǫ, ȕȈ ȌȖȓȦ
350,0
ȒȖȚȖȘȣȝ ȗȘȐȠȓȖșȤ ȗȖȘȧȌȒȈ 66% șțȔȔȈȘȕȖȋȖ
ȥȒșȗȖȘȚȈ (-17,7% ȌȖ 389,7 Ȕȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ.). Ǫ ȟȐșȓȍ
175,0
ȒȘțȗȕȍȑȠȐȝ ȗȖȒțȗȈȚȍȓȍȑ ȗȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊșȒȖȑ
0,0
ȗȘȖȌțȒȞȐȐ ȗȖ-ȗȘȍȎȕȍȔț ǸȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȈ ǴȖȓȌȖȊȈ
2012 ȋȖȌ
2013 ȋȖȌ
(-5,7%
ȌȖ 234,5 Ȕȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ.), ǸȖșșȐȧ (-33,3% ȌȖ
ǸȖșșȐȑșȒȈȧ ǼȍȌȍȘȈȞȐȧ
ǸȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȈ ǴȖȓȌȖȊȈ
103,1 Ȕȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ.) Ȑ ǻȒȘȈȐȕȈ (-23,2% ȌȖ
ǭȊȘȖșȖȦȏ
45,8 Ȕȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ.). ǹȗȘȖș ȘȍȏȐȌȍȕȚȖȊ șȚȘȈȕ
ȗȘȖȟȐȍ
ǭȊȘȖȗȍȑșȒȖȋȖ șȖȦȏȈ șȖȒȘȈȚȐȓșȧ ȕȈ 12,5% ȌȖ
ǸȐș. 5. ǫȍȖȋȘȈȜȐȧ ȥȒșȗȖȘȚȕȣȝ ȗȖșȚȈȊȖȒ
179,3 Ȕȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ. (ȘȐș. 5). Ǫ ȖșȕȖȊȕȖȔ ȗȖșȚȈȊȒȐ
Ȋ 2012-2013 ȋȋ., Ȕȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ.
ȖșțȡȍșȚȊȓȧȓȐșȤ
Ȋ
ǰȚȈȓȐȦ
(+6,3%
ȌȖ
49,7 Ȕȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ.), ǸțȔȣȕȐȦ (șȗȈȌ Ȋ 2,3 ȘȈȏȈ ȌȖ 45,2 Ȕȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ.) Ȑ ǫȍȘȔȈȕȐȦ (+9,0% ȌȖ
29,8 Ȕȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ.).
ǺȈȔȖȎȍȕȕȈȧ șȚȖȐȔȖșȚȤ ȐȔȗȖȘȚȐȘȖȊȈȕȕȖȑ ȗȘȖȌțȒȞȐȐ șȕȐȏȐȓȈșȤ ȕȈ 8,6% ȌȖ 1 645,9 Ȕȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ.
ǭȨ ȌȐȕȈȔȐȒȈ ȚȘȈȌȐȞȐȖȕȕȖ ȖȗȘȍȌȍȓȧȓȈșȤ ȘȐȚȔȐȟȕȖșȚȤȦ ȘȈȉȖȚȣ ȊȍȌțȡȐȝ ȥȒșȗȖȘȚȨȘȖȊ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȐ.
ǪșȓȍȌșȚȊȐȍ ȥȚȖȋȖ, ȊȖȏȖȉȕȖȊȓȍȕȐȍ Ȑȝ ȌȍȧȚȍȓȤȕȖșȚȐ ȓȍȚȖȔ ȖȉțșȓȖȊȐȓȖ ȕȈȘȈȡȐȊȈȕȐȍ ȏȈȒțȗȖȒ ȚȖȊȈȘȖȊ
ȕȈ ȊȕȍȠȕȐȝ ȘȣȕȒȈȝ ș șȍȘȍȌȐȕȣ ȋȖȌȈ.
ǩóȓȤȠȈȧ ȟȈșȚȤ ȐȔȗȖȘȚȈ ȗȖșȚțȗȈȓȈ Ȑȏ șȚȘȈȕ ǹȖȌȘțȎȍșȚȊȈ (73,9%), ȗȘȐ ȥȚȖȔ ȖȚȕȖșȐȚȍȓȤȕȖ
ȖȚȔȍȚȒȐ 2012 ȋȖȌȈ ȈȉșȖȓȦȚȕȈȧ ȊȍȓȐȟȐȕȈ țȔȍȕȤȠȐȓȈșȤ ȕȈ 13,7% ȌȖ 1 216,5 Ȕȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ. ǷȘȍȖȉȓȈȌȈȓȐ
ȗȖșȚȈȊȒȐ Ȑȏ ǸȖșșȐȐ (-23,8% ȌȖ 695,3 Ȕȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ.), ǻȒȘȈȐȕȣ (ȘȖșȚ Ȋ 1,3 ȘȈȏȈ ȌȖ 288,3 Ȕȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ.),
ǩȍȓȈȘțșȐ (-1,1% ȌȖ 107,3 Ȕȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ.) Ȑ ǴȖȓȌȖȊȣ (-33,7% ȌȖ 82,9 Ȕȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ.). Ǫ ȚȖ Ȏȍ ȊȘȍȔȧ Ȋ
ȖȚȟȨȚȕȖȔ ȋȖȌț ȐȔȗȖȘȚ Ȑȏ șȚȘȈȕ ǭȊȘȖȗȍȑșȒȖȋȖ șȖȦȏȈ ȊȖȏȘȖș ȕȈ 8,1% ȌȖ 306,2 Ȕȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ. (ȘȐș 6). Ǫ
12
ǪȍșȚȕȐȒ ǷȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊșȒȖȋȖ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȈȕșȒȖȋȖ ȉȈȕȒȈ ȹ3’2014
ǴȈȒȘȖȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȒȈ
ȗȖȌȈȊȓȧȦȡȍȑ ȟȈșȚȐ Ȗȕ ȖșțȡȍșȚȊȓȧȓșȧ Ȑȏ ǫȍȘȔȈȕȐȐ (+6,4% ȌȖ 94,7 Ȕȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ.), ǰȚȈȓȐȐ (ȘȖșȚ Ȋ
1,3 ȘȈȏȈ ȌȖ 45,8 Ȕȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ.) Ȑ ǷȖȓȤȠȐ (+7,7% ȌȖ 34,7 Ȕȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ.).
ǹȊȣȠȍ 45% ȐȔȗȖȘȚȈ ȉȣȓȖ ȗȘȍȌșȚȈȊȓȍȕȖ 1 900,0
ȚȖȗȓȐȊȕȖ-ȥȕȍȘȋȍȚȐȟȍșȒȐȔȐ
ȚȖȊȈȘȈȔȐ, 1 425,0
ȊȍȓȐȟȐȕȈ ȒȖȚȖȘȣȝ ȗȖ ȐȚȖȋȈȔ 2013 ȋȖȌȈ
950,0
șȖȒȘȈȚȐȓȈșȤ ȕȈ 17,9% ȌȖ 743,7 Ȕȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ.
475,0
ǶȉȢȨȔȣ ȗȘȐȖȉȘȍȚȨȕȕȣȝ șȣȘȤȍȊȣȝ ȔȈȚȍȘȐȈȓȖȊ
0,0
Ȍȓȧ ȟȨȘȕȖȑ ȔȍȚȈȓȓțȘȋȐȐ țȔȍȕȤȠȐȓȐșȤ ș 228,4
2012 ȋȖȌ
2013 ȋȖȌ
ȌȖ 114,6 Ȕȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ. ǶȌȕȖȊȘȍȔȍȕȕȖ ș ȥȚȐȔ
ǸȖșșȐȑșȒȈȧ ǼȍȌȍȘȈȞȐȧ
ȏȕȈȟȐȚȍȓȤȕȖ
ȊȖȏȘȖș
șȗȘȖș
ȕȈ
ǻȒȘȈȐȕȈ
ǭȊȘȖșȖȦȏ
ȔȈȠȐȕȖșȚȘȖȐȚȍȓȤȕțȦ ȗȘȖȌțȒȞȐȦ (+12,2% ȌȖ
ȗȘȖȟȐȍ
205,8 Ȕȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ.), ȗȘȖȌȖȊȖȓȤșȚȊȍȕȕȣȍ ȚȖȊȈȘȣ
ǸȐș. 6. ǫȍȖȋȘȈȜȐȧ ȐȔȗȖȘȚȕȣȝ ȗȖșȚȈȊȖȒ
(+4,5% ȌȖ 196,6 Ȕȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ.) Ȑ ȐȏȌȍȓȐȧ ȓȨȋȒȖȑ
Ȋ 2012-2013 ȋȋ., Ȕȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ.
ȗȘȖȔȣȠȓȍȕȕȖșȚȐ (+1,3% ȌȖ 76,2 Ȕȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ.).
Ǫ ȘȍȏțȓȤȚȈȚȍ ȚȘȈȕȏȈȒȞȐȑ, ȖșțȡȍșȚȊȓȨȕȕȣȝ ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȟȍșȒȐȔȐ ȈȋȍȕȚȈȔȐ ǷȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊȤȧ Ȋ
2013 ȋȖȌț, ȗȘȍȊȣȠȍȕȐȍ Ȋ șȚȖȐȔȖșȚȕȖȔ ȊȣȘȈȎȍȕȐȐ ȖȉȢȨȔȈ ȐȔȗȖȘȚȐȘȖȊȈȕȕȣȝ ȚȖȊȈȘȖȊ ȕȈȌ
ȥȒșȗȖȘȚȐȘȖȊȈȕȕȣȔȐ șȖșȚȈȊȐȓȖ 1 059,3 Ȕȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ. ȗȘȖȚȐȊ 1 103,7 Ȕȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ. Ȋ 2012 ȋȖȌț.
ǷȖȌȈȊȓȧȦȡȈȧ ȟȈșȚȤ ȖȚȘȐȞȈȚȍȓȤȕȖȋȖ șȈȓȤȌȖ ȉȣȓȈ ȗȘȍȌșȚȈȊȓȍȕȈ șȚȈȚȤȧȔȐ «ȚȖȗȓȐȊȕȖȥȕȍȘȋȍȚȐȟȍșȒȐȍ ȚȖȊȈȘȣ» (-14,1% ȌȖ -611,7 Ȕȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ.) Ȑ «ȔȈȠȐȕȖșȚȘȖȐȚȍȓȤȕȈȧ ȗȘȖȌțȒȞȐȧ» (+13,8%
ȌȖ -172,9 Ȕȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ.). Ǫ ȚȖ Ȏȍ ȊȘȍȔȧ ȖȚȟȈșȚȐ ȕȐȊȍȓȐȘțȦȡȐȑ ȥȜȜȍȒȚ ȖȒȈȏȈȓ ȗȖȓȖȎȐȚȍȓȤȕȣȑ
ȘȍȏțȓȤȚȈȚ, șȜȖȘȔȐȘȖȊȈȕȕȣȑ ȗȖ ȚȖȊȈȘȈȔ ȓȨȋȒȖȑ ȗȘȖȔȣȠȓȍȕȕȖșȚȐ (+21,7% ȌȖ +64,6 Ȕȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ.) Ȑ
ȔȐȕȍȘȈȓȤȕȣȔ ȗȘȖȌțȒȚȈȔ (-12,5% ȌȖ +25,3 Ȕȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ.).
ǪȍșȚȕȐȒ ǷȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊșȒȖȋȖ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȈȕșȒȖȋȖ ȉȈȕȒȈ ȹ3’2014
13
ǴȐȘȖȊȈȧ ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȒȈ
ǶǩǯǶǸ ȅDzǶǵǶǴǰǿǭǹDzǶǫǶ ǸǨǯǪǰǺǰȇ ǹǺǸǨǵ –
ǶǹǵǶǪǵȃǽ ǺǶǸǫǶǪȃǽ ǷǨǸǺǵǚǸǶǪ ǷǴǸ
ǯǨ 2013 ǫǶǬ6
Ǫ ȖȚȟȨȚȕȖȔ ȋȖȌț șȖȝȘȈȕȍȕȐȍ ȚȍȔȗȖȊ ȘȖșȚȈ Ȋ ȘȈȏȊȐȊȈȦȡȐȝșȧ șȚȘȈȕȈȝ șȚȈȓȖ
ȊȖȏȔȖȎȕȣȔ ȉȓȈȋȖȌȈȘȧ ȗȖȓȖȎȐȚȍȓȤȕȖȑ ȌȐȕȈȔȐȒȍ ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȒ șȚȘȈȕ ș ȊȣșȖȒȐȔ
țȘȖȊȕȍȔ ȌȖȝȖȌȖȊ Ȑ DzȐȚȈȧ. ǶȌȕȈȒȖ Ȋ țșȓȖȊȐȧȝ, ȒȖȋȌȈ ǼȍȌȍȘȈȓȤȕȈȧ ȘȍȏȍȘȊȕȈȧ șȐșȚȍȔȈ
ǹȀǨ ȗȘȐșȚțȗȐȓȈ Ȓ șȊȖȘȈȟȐȊȈȕȐȦ ȔȈșȠȚȈȉȕȖȑ ȗȘȖȋȘȈȔȔȣ ȌȍȕȍȎȕȖ-ȒȘȍȌȐȚȕȖȋȖ
șȚȐȔțȓȐȘȖȊȈȕȐȧ, ȗȍȘșȗȍȒȚȐȊȣ ȘȈȏȊȐȚȐȧ ȗȖ-ȗȘȍȎȕȍȔț țȧȏȊȐȔȣ ȗȍȘȍȌ ȖȚȌȍȓȤȕȣȔȐ
ȕȍȉȓȈȋȖȗȘȐȧȚȕȣȔȐ ȜȈȒȚȖȘȈȔȐ, șȊȧȏȈȕȕȣȔȐ ș ȗȖȊȣȠȍȕȐȍȔ ȗȘȖȞȍȕȚȕȣȝ șȚȈȊȖȒ ȕȈ
ȔȐȘȖȊȣȝ ȘȣȕȒȈȝ Ȑ ȗȖȚȍȕȞȐȈȓȤȕȖȑ ȕȍțșȚȖȑȟȐȊȖșȚȤȦ ȗȖȚȖȒȖȊ ȒȈȗȐȚȈȓȈ.
ǶȌȕȐȔ Ȑȏ ȖșȕȖȊȕȣȝ șȖȉȣȚȐȑ 2013 ȋȖȌȈ Ȍȓȧ ȘȧȌȈ ȋȖșțȌȈȘșȚȊ ǹȖȌȘțȎȍșȚȊȈ șȚȈȓ
ǹȈȔȔȐȚ ȊȖșȚȖȟȕȖȋȖ ȗȈȘȚȕȨȘșȚȊȈ Ȑ ȗȖȌȋȖȚȖȊȒȈ Ȓ ȕȍȔț. ǷȖ ȍȋȖ ȐȚȖȋȈȔ ǴȖȓȌȖȊȈ Ȑ
ǫȘțȏȐȧ ȗȈȘȈȜȐȘȖȊȈȓȐ șȖȋȓȈȠȍȕȐȍ Ȗȉ ȈșșȖȞȐȈȞȐȐ ș ǭȊȘȖȗȍȑșȒȐȔ șȖȦȏȖȔ. ǷȘȐ ȥȚȖȔ
ǻȒȘȈȐȕȈ ȖȉȢȧȊȐȓȈ ȖȚȒȈȏ Ȋ ȍȋȖ ȗȖȌȗȐșȈȕȐȐ.
ǷȖ ȐȚȖȋȈȔ 2013 ȋȖȌȈ ȔȐȘȖȊȈȧ ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȒȈ ȗȘȖȌȍȔȖȕșȚȘȐȘȖȊȈȓȈ șȈȔȣȍ ȕȐȏȒȐȍ ș 2009 ȋȖȌȈ ȚȍȔȗȣ
ȗȘȐȘȖșȚȈ ǪǪǷ – 2,1%. ǶșȕȖȊȕȣȔ ȗȘȍȗȧȚșȚȊȐȍȔ Ȍȓȧ țșȒȖȘȍȕȐȧ ȘȖșȚȈ ȖșȚȈȨȚșȧ ȕȐȏȒȈȧ ȈȒȚȐȊȕȖșȚȤ
țȟȈșȚȕȐȒȖȊ ȔȐȘȖȊȖȑ ȚȖȘȋȖȊȓȐ, ȗȘȐȘȖșȚ ȒȖȚȖȘȖȑ Ȋ 2013 ȋȖȌț, ȗȖ ȗȘȍȌȊȈȘȐȚȍȓȤȕȣȔ ȌȈȕȕȣȔ,
șȖșȚȈȊȐȓ 3,1%. ǶȉȢȨȔ ȐȔȗȖȘȚȈ Ȋ ǹȀǨ Ȑ ǭǹ Ȋșȍ ȍȡȨ ȕȐȎȍ ȌȖȒȘȐȏȐșȕȖȋȖ țȘȖȊȕȧ, Ȑ ȥȚȖ
ȖȋȘȈȕȐȟȐȊȈȍȚ ȚȍȔȗȣ ȘȖșȚȈ ȥȒșȗȖȘȚȈ ȏȈȊȐșȐȔȣȝ ȖȚ ȥȚȐȝ ȘȣȕȒȖȊ ȘȈȏȊȐȊȈȦȡȐȝșȧ ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȒ, Ȋ
ȗȍȘȊțȦ ȖȟȍȘȍȌȤ, șȚȘȈȕ ǩǸǰDzǹ.
ǿȚȖ ȒȈșȈȍȚșȧ șȐȚțȈȞȐȐ, ȒȖȚȖȘȈȧ șȒȓȈȌȣȊȈȓȈșȤ ȕȈ ȗȘȖȚȧȎȍȕȐȐ ȋȖȌȈ Ȋ ȖȚȌȍȓȤȕȣȝ ȘȍȋȐȖȕȈȝ ȔȐȘȈ,
ȚȖ ȖȕȈ ȉȣȓȈ ȕȍȖȌȕȖȘȖȌȕȈ.
ǵȈ ȗȘȖȚȧȎȍȕȐȐ ȗȖșȓȍȌȕȐȝ ȗȧȚȐ ȓȍȚ ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȒȈ ǹȀǨ ȌȍȔȖȕșȚȘȐȘȖȊȈȓȈ țșȚȖȑȟȐȊȣȑ ȘȖșȚ,
ȗȘȐȟȨȔ Ȋ ȗȘȖȠȍȌȠȍȔ ȋȖȌț Ȗȕ ȉȣȓ șȈȔȣȔ ȉȖȓȤȠȐȔ șȘȍȌȐ ȘȈȏȊȐȚȣȝ șȚȘȈȕ. ǵȍȗȘȍȒȘȈȡȈȦȡȐȍșȧ
șȗȖȘȣ ȌȍȔȖȒȘȈȚȖȊ Ȑ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȈȕȞȍȊ ȝȖȚȧ Ȑ ȗȘȐȊȍȓȐ Ȓ ȒȘȈȚȒȖȊȘȍȔȍȕȕȖȔț ȒȖȓȓȈȗșț ȉȦȌȎȍȚȕȖȑ
șȐșȚȍȔȣ, ȕȖ ȗȘȍȐȔțȡȍșȚȊȍȕȕȖ ȉȓȈȋȖȌȈȘȧ ȐȔ ȊȗȍȘȊȣȍ ȏȈ ȘȧȌ ȗȖșȓȍȌȕȐȝ ȓȍȚ ȌȍȜȐȞȐȚ ȜȍȌȍȘȈȓȤȕȖȋȖ
ȉȦȌȎȍȚȈ ǹȀǨ șȕȐȏȐȓșȧ Ȑ șȖșȚȈȊȐȓ 680 ȔȓȘȌ ȌȖȓȓ., ȐȓȐ 4,1% ǪǪǷ, ȗȘȖȚȐȊ ȗȘȐȔȍȘȕȖ
1,1 ȚȘȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ. ȋȖȌȖȔ ȘȈȕȍȍ.
ǰȕȚȘȐȋȖȑ ȋȖȌȈ șȚȈȓȖ ȖȎȐȌȈȕȐȍ ȗȖșȓȍȌșȚȊȐȑ șȊȖȘȈȟȐȊȈȕȐȧ ȈȔȍȘȐȒȈȕșȒȐȔȐ ȔȖȕȍȚȈȘȕȣȔȐ
ȊȓȈșȚȧȔȐ ȗȘȖȋȘȈȔȔȣ șȚȐȔțȓȐȘȖȊȈȕȐȧ ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȒȐ QE3. ǶȌȕȈȒȖ ȊȖȗȘȍȒȐ ȚȘȍȊȖȎȕȣȔ ȗȘȖȋȕȖȏȈȔ,
ȘȍȈȒȞȐȧ ȘȣȕȒȖȊ ȕȈ ȘȍȠȍȕȐȍ Ȗ șȖȒȘȈȡȍȕȐȐ ȌȖȓȓȈȘȖȊȣȝ ȊȓȐȊȈȕȐȑ ȖȒȈȏȈȓȈșȤ ȌȖșȚȈȚȖȟȕȖ
ȉȓȈȋȖȗȘȐȧȚȕȖȑ: ȖȉȊȈȓȈ Ȟȍȕ ȕȈ ȕȍȜȚȤ Ȑ șȒȈȟȒȈ șȚȖȐȔȖșȚȐ ȌȖȓȓȈȘȈ ȕȍ ȗȘȖȐȏȖȠȓȖ.
ǺȈȒȎȍ țȠȍȌȠȐȑ ȋȖȌ ȖȏȕȈȔȍȕȖȊȈȓșȧ Ȍȓȧ ǨȔȍȘȐȒȐ ȕȖȊȣȔȐ țșȗȍȝȈȔȐ Ȋ Ȍȍȓȍ ȖȉȘȍȚȍȕȐȧ
ȥȕȍȘȋȍȚȐȟȍșȒȖȑ ȕȍȏȈȊȐșȐȔȖșȚȐ. Ǫ ȖȒȚȧȉȘȍ ȊȗȍȘȊȣȍ ȏȈ 19 ȓȍȚ ȌȖȉȣȟȈ ȕȍȜȚȐ Ȋ ǹȀǨ ȗȘȍȊȏȖȠȓȈ
ȖȉȢȨȔȣ ȍȨ ȐȔȗȖȘȚȈ. ǭȎȍȕȍȌȍȓȤȕȖȍ ȗȘȖȐȏȊȖȌșȚȊȖ ȕȍȜȚȐ ȕȈ 17,5% ȗȘȍȊȣȠȈȓȖ ȗȖȒȈȏȈȚȍȓȐ 2012 ȋȖȌȈ
Ȑ ȕȈ 56,1% ȏȕȈȟȍȕȐȧ, ȕȈȉȓȦȌȈȊȠȐȍșȧ Ȋ 2007 ȋȖȌț, Ȉ ȗȘȖȐȏȊȖȌșȚȊȖ ȗȘȐȘȖȌȕȖȋȖ ȋȈȏȈ ȗȘȍȊȏȖȠȓȖ
ȘȍȏțȓȤȚȈȚȣ șȍȔȐȓȍȚȕȍȑ ȌȈȊȕȖșȚȐ ȕȈ 27,8%. ǴȕȖȋȐȍ ȥȒșȗȍȘȚȣ ȗȘȍȌȗȖȓȈȋȈȦȚ, ȟȚȖ țȎȍ Ȓ
2016-Ȕț ȋȖȌț ǹȀǨ șȚȈȕțȚ ȒȘțȗȕȍȑȠȐȔ ȗȘȖȐȏȊȖȌȐȚȍȓȍȔ ȕȍȜȚȐ Ȋ ȔȐȘȍ, ȖȗȍȘȍȌȐȊ ǸȖșșȐȦ Ȑ
ǹȈțȌȖȊșȒțȦ ǨȘȈȊȐȦ.
Ǭȓȧ ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȒȐ ǭȊȘȖȗȣ 2013 ȋȖȌ șȚȈȓ ȖȌȕȐȔ Ȑȏ ȒȓȦȟȍȊȣȝ ȕȈ ȗțȚȐ ȊȣȝȖȌȈ Ȑȏ ȒȘȐȏȐșȈ.
ǬȖȔȐȕȐȘțȦȡȍȑ ȗȘȖȉȓȍȔȖȑ șȚȈȓ ȉȈȕȒȖȊșȒȐȑ ȒȘȐȏȐș ȕȈ DzȐȗȘȍ, ȒȖȚȖȘȣȑ ȏȈȌȈȓ ȕȖȊȣȑ ȊȍȒȚȖȘ
ȘȈȏȊȐȚȐȧ ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȟȍșȒȐȝ ȖȚȕȖȠȍȕȐȑ ș șȖȖȚȊȍȚșȚȊțȦȡȐȔȐ șȚȘțȒȚțȘȈȔȐ ȕȈ ȒȖȕȚȐȕȍȕȚȍ. ǶșȚȘȖȊȕȖȍ
ȔȈȚȍȘȐȈȓ ȗȖȌȋȖȚȖȊȓȍȕ ȕȈ ȖșȕȖȊȍ ȌȈȕȕȣȝ șȚȈȚȐșȚȐȟȍșȒȐȝ șȓțȎȉ Ȑ ȞȍȕȚȘȈȓȤȕȣȝ ȉȈȕȒȖȊ ǸȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȐ
ǴȖȓȌȖȊȈ, ǻȒȘȈȐȕȣ, ǸȖșșȐȑșȒȖȑ ǼȍȌȍȘȈȞȐȐ, șȚȈȚȐșȚȐȟȍșȒȖȋȖ ȒȖȔȐȚȍȚȈ ǹǵǫ, țȗȘȈȊȓȍȕȐȧ șȚȈȚȐșȚȐȒȐ
ǭȊȘȖșȖȦȏȈ Eurostat
6
14
ǪȍșȚȕȐȒ ǷȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊșȒȖȋȖ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȈȕșȒȖȋȖ ȉȈȕȒȈ ȹ3’2014
ǴȐȘȖȊȈȧ ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȒȈ
ȋȖșțȌȈȘșȚȊȖ ȉȣȓȖ ȊȣȕțȎȌȍȕȖ ȊȊȍșȚȐ ȕȈȓȖȋ ȕȈ ȌȍȗȖȏȐȚȣ, ȓȐȠȐȊ, ȚȍȔ șȈȔȣȔ, șȊȖȦ ȜȐȕȈȕșȖȊțȦ
șȐșȚȍȔț ȗȘȐȚȖȒȈ Ȍȍȕȍȋ ȖȚ ȐȕȖșȚȘȈȕȕȣȝ ȊȒȓȈȌȟȐȒȖȊ. ȅȚȖ ȗȘȐȊȍȓȖ Ȓ ȗȍȘȍșȔȖȚȘț ȗȘȈȊȐȓ ȘȈȉȖȚȣ
ȌȈȕȕȖȑ șȜȍȘȣ Ȋ ȍȊȘȖȗȍȑșȒȐȝ șȚȘȈȕȈȝ – ȔȕȖȋȖȊȍȒȖȊȖȍ ȗȖȕȧȚȐȍ «ȉȈȕȒȖȊșȒȈȧ ȚȈȑȕȈ» ȉȣȓȖ
ȔȖȌȐȜȐȞȐȘȖȊȈȕȖ. Ǫ ȖșȚȈȓȤȕȖȔ ȍȊȘȖȗȍȑșȒȈȧ ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȒȈ ȌȍȔȖȕșȚȘȐȘȖȊȈȓȈ ȖȚȕȖșȐȚȍȓȤȕȣȍ ȗȘȐȏȕȈȒȐ
ȊȣȏȌȖȘȖȊȓȍȕȐȧ. ǺȈȒ, Ȓ ȒȖȕȞț ȋȖȌȈ Ȑȏ ȌȊțȝȓȍȚȕȍȑ ȘȍȞȍșșȐȐ ȊȣȠȓȈ ǰșȗȈȕȐȧ, ȕȈȐȉȖȓȍȍ
ȗȖșȚȘȈȌȈȊȠȈȧ ȖȚ ȒȘȐȏȐșȈ. ǪșȓȍȌ ȏȈ ȕȍȑ ǫȘȍȞȐȧ, Ȋ ȒȖȚȖȘȖȑ ȊȗȍȘȊȣȍ ȏȈ ȠȍșȚȤ ȓȍȚ ȉȣȓ ȗȘȐȕȧȚ ȉȦȌȎȍȚ
ș ȗȘȖȜȐȞȐȚȖȔ.
ǬȖșȚȈȚȖȟȕȖ ȗȖȏȐȚȐȊȕȣȍ ȘȍȏțȓȤȚȈȚȣ ȕȈȉȓȦȌȈȓȐșȤ Ȑ Ȋ ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȒȈȝ șȚȘȈȕ ǪȖșȚȖȒȈ. DzȐȚȈȑ ȏȈȧȊȐȓ
Ȗ ȋȖȚȖȊȕȖșȚȐ ȗȘȐșȚțȗȐȚȤ Ȓ ȒȈȘȌȐȕȈȓȤȕȣȔ ȐȏȔȍȕȍȕȐȧȔ Ȋ șȊȖȍȑ ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȟȍșȒȖȑ șȚȘȈȚȍȋȐȐ. Ǫ
ȟȈșȚȕȖșȚȐ, Ȋ șȍȘȍȌȐȕȍ ȋȖȌȈ ȉȣȓ ȖȗțȉȓȐȒȖȊȈȕ ȗȓȈȕ șȖȒȘȈȡȍȕȐȧ ȐȏȉȣȚȖȟȕȣȝ ȗȘȖȐȏȊȖȌșȚȊȍȕȕȣȝ
ȔȖȡȕȖșȚȍȑ Ȋ ȘȧȌȍ ȖȚȘȈșȓȍȑ (șȚȈȓȍȓȐȚȍȑȕȖȑ Ȑ ȈȓȦȔȐȕȐȍȊȖȑ ȗȘȖȔȣȠȓȍȕȕȖșȚȧȝ, șțȌȖșȚȘȖȍȕȐȐ Ȑ
șȚȍȒȖȓȤȕȖȔ ȗȘȖȐȏȊȖȌșȚȊȍ). Ǫ șȒȖȘȖȔ ȉțȌțȡȍȔ DzǵǸ ȖȚȊȖȌȐȚ șȍȉȍ ȘȖȓȤ ȋȓȖȉȈȓȤȕȖȋȖ ȓȐȌȍȘȈ Ȋ ȟȈșȚȐ
ȗȘȖȐȏȊȖȌșȚȊȈ ȊȣșȖȒȖȚȍȝȕȖȓȖȋȐȟȍșȒȖȑ ȗȘȖȌțȒȞȐȐ Ȑ șȖȏȌȈȕȐȧ șȈȔȐȝ ȚȍȝȕȖȓȖȋȐȑ. ǹȔȍȕȈ ȔȖȌȍȓȐ
ȗȘȖȌȐȒȚȖȊȈȕȈ, Ȋ ȚȖȔ ȟȐșȓȍ, Ȑ ȚȍȔ, ȟȚȖ ȊȓȈșȚȐ șȚȖȓȒȕțȓȐșȤ ș ȗȖȓȕȣȔ ȐȓȐ ȗȖȟȚȐ ȗȖȓȕȣȔ
ȐșȟȍȘȗȈȕȐȍȔ șȊȖȍȋȖ ȋȓȈȊȕȖȋȖ ȒȖȕȒțȘȍȕȚȕȖȋȖ ȘȍșțȘșȈ – ȌȍȠȨȊȖȑ ȘȈȉȖȟȍȑ șȐȓȣ. ȅȚȖ șȌȍȓȈȓȖ
ȔȕȖȋȐȍ ȗȘȖȐȏȊȖȌșȚȊȍȕȕȣȍ ȗȘȍȌȗȘȐȧȚȐȧ ȕȍȥȜȜȍȒȚȐȊȕȣȔȐ Ȑ ȗȖșȓțȎȐȓȖ ȖșȕȖȊȈȕȐȍȔ Ȍȓȧ Ȑȝ
ȏȈȒȘȣȚȐȧ ȐȓȐ ȊȣȊȖȌȈ Ȋ ȌȘțȋȐȍ șȚȘȈȕȣ. DzȘȖȔȍ ȚȖȋȖ, Ȋ ȗȘȖȠȍȌȠȍȔ ȋȖȌț ȗȍȘȍȌ ȜȐȕȈȕșȖȊȣȔȐ
ȊȓȈșȚȧȔȐ DzȐȚȈȧ șȚȖȧȓȈ ȗȘȖȉȓȍȔȈ ȘȖșȚȈ ȗȓȖȝȐȝ ȌȖȓȋȖȊ Ȋ șȐșȚȍȔȖȖȉȘȈȏțȦȡȐȝ ȉȈȕȒȈȝ.
ǺȈȉȓȐȞȈ 2
ǶșȕȖȊȕȣȍ ȔȈȒȘȖȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȟȍșȒȐȍ ȗȖȒȈȏȈȚȍȓȐ șȚȘȈȕ-ȖșȕȖȊȕȣȝ ȚȖȘȋȖȊȣȝ ȗȈȘȚȕȨȘȖȊ ǷǴǸ
ȏȈ ȧȕȊȈȘȤ-ȌȍȒȈȉȘȤ 2013 ȋȖȌȈ (% Ȓ țȘȖȊȕȦ ȧȕȊȈȘȧ-ȌȍȒȈȉȘȧ 2012 ȋȖȌȈ)
ǪȈȓȖȊȖȑ ȊȕțȚȘȍȕȕȐȑ ȗȘȖȌțȒȚ (Ȋ șȖȗȖșȚȈȊȐȔȣȝ ȞȍȕȈȝ)
ǶȉȢȨȔ ȗȘȖȔȣȠȓȍȕȕȖȋȖ ȗȘȖȐȏȊȖȌșȚȊȈ (Ȋ șȖȗȖșȚȈȊȐȔȣȝ ȞȍȕȈȝ)
ǰȕȊȍșȚȐȞȐȐ Ȋ ȖșȕȖȊȕȖȑ ȒȈȗȐȚȈȓ (Ȋ șȖȗȖșȚȈȊȐȔȣȝ ȞȍȕȈȝ)
ǸȖȏȕȐȟȕȣȑ ȚȖȊȈȘȖȖȉȖȘȖȚ (Ȋ șȖȗȖșȚȈȊȐȔȣȝ ȞȍȕȈȝ)
ǹȊȖȌȕȣȑ ȐȕȌȍȒș ȗȖȚȘȍȉȐȚȍȓȤșȒȐȝ Ȟȍȕ*
ǰȕȌȍȒș Ȟȍȕ ȗȘȖȐȏȊȖȌȐȚȍȓȍȑ ȗȘȖȔȣȠȓȍȕȕȖȑ ȗȘȖȌțȒȞȐȐ*
ȅȒșȗȖȘȚ ȚȖȊȈȘȖȊ
ǰȔȗȖȘȚ ȚȖȊȈȘȖȊ
ǻȘȖȊȍȕȤ ȌȍȊȈȓȤȊȈȞȐȐ ȕȈȞȐȖȕȈȓȤȕȖȑ ȊȈȓȦȚȣ Ȓ ȌȖȓȓȈȘț ǹȀǨ*
* % Ȓ ȌȍȒȈȉȘȦ 2012 ȋȖȌȈ
ǸȖșșȐȧ
101,4
100,3
99,7
103,9
106,5
103,7
99,1
102,6
107,5
ǻȒȘȈȐȕȈ
100,0
95,7
115,0
100,5
101,7
92,0
90,9
100,0
ǴȖȓȌȖȊȈ
108,9
106,8
102,3
103,1
105,2
104,0
111,0
105,4
108,2
ǷǴǸ
82,3
110,4
104,8
103,6
96,8
84,2
91,4
100,0
ȌȍȒȈȉȘȤ
ȕȖȧȉȘȤ
ȖȒȚȧȉȘȤ
șȍȕȚȧȉȘȤ
ȈȊȋțșȚ
ȐȦȓȤ
ȐȦȕȤ
ȔȈȑ
ȈȗȘȍȓȤ
ȔȈȘȚ
ȜȍȊȘȈȓȤ
ȧȕȊȈȘȤ
ǯȕȈȟȐȚȍȓȤȕȈȧ ȖȚȒȘȣȚȖșȚȤ ȘȈȏȊȐȊȈȦȡȐȝșȧ ȘȣȕȒȖȊ, Ȉ ȚȈȒȎȍ Ȑȝ ȏȈȊȐșȐȔȖșȚȤ ȖȚ șȗȘȖșȈ șȖ
șȚȖȘȖȕȣ
ȊȍȌțȡȐȝ
ȌȍȘȎȈȊ
ȖȗȘȍȌȍȓȐȓȐ
123,0
ȌȐȕȈȔȐȒț ȘȖșȚȈ ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȒ șȚȘȈȕ ǹǵǫ ȕȈ 2,0% Ȋ
82,0
ȋȖȌȖȊȖȔ ȊȣȘȈȎȍȕȐȐ (-1,5 ȗ.ȗ.). ǩȓȈȋȖȌȈȘȧ
ȖȚȕȖșȐȚȍȓȤȕȖ
ȊȣșȖȒȐȔ
ȞȍȕȈȔ
ȕȈ
41,0
ȥȕȍȘȋȖȕȖșȐȚȍȓȐ, țȊȍȓȐȟȍȕȐȦ ȖȉȢȨȔȖȊ ȌȖȉȣȟȐ,
0,0
Ȉ ȚȈȒȎȍ ȘȈșȠȐȘȍȕȐȦ ȊȕțȚȘȍȕȕȍȋȖ ȗȖȚȘȍȉȓȍȕȐȧ
ȊȣșȖȒȐȍ
ȗȖȒȈȏȈȚȍȓȐ
ȘȍȏțȓȤȚȈȚȐȊȕȖșȚȐ
șȖȝȘȈȕȧȓȐșȤ
Ȋ
șȚȘȈȕȈȝ-ȥȒșȗȖȘȚȨȘȈȝ
ȥȕȍȘȋȖȘȍșțȘșȖȊ (ǨȏȍȘȉȈȑȌȎȈȕ, DzȈȏȈȝșȚȈȕ Ȑ
2012 ȋȖȌ
2013 ȋȖȌ
ǻȏȉȍȒȐșȚȈȕ). ǹ ȕȈȟȈȓȈ ȋȖȌȈ șȘȍȌȕȧȧ ȞȍȕȈ ȕȈ
ȕȍȜȚȤ «ȆȘȈȓș» șȖșȚȈȊȐȓȈ 108,3 ȌȖȓȓ. ȏȈ
ǸȐș. 7. ǴȐȘȖȊȈȧ ȞȍȕȈ ȉȈȘȘȍȓȧ ȕȍȜȚȐ
ȉȈȘȘȍȓȤ, ȚȖȋȌȈ ȒȈȒ Ȋ 2012-Ȕ ȖȕȈ ȌȖșȚȐȋȈȓȈ
ȔȈȘȒȐ Urals, ȌȖȓȓ. ǹȀǨ
110,8 ȌȖȓȓ. (ȘȐș. 7). ǶȌȕȈȒȖ ȕȍ Ȋșȍ ȘȍȋȐȖȕȣ
ȖȒȖȕȟȐȓȐ ȋȖȌ ș ȗȖȓȖȎȐȚȍȓȤȕȣȔȐ ȐȚȖȋȈȔȐ. ǺȈȒ, Ȍȓȧ ǩȍȓȈȘțșȐ Ȑ ǻȒȘȈȐȕȣ ȕȍȉȓȈȋȖȗȘȐȧȚȕȈȧ
ȒȖȕȢȦȕȒȚțȘȈ Ȋ ȖȚȕȖȠȍȕȐȐ ȖșȕȖȊȕȣȝ șȣȘȤȍȊȣȝ ȚȖȊȈȘȖȊ ȗȘȐȊȍȓȈ Ȓ șȕȐȎȍȕȐȦ ȌȖȝȖȌȖȊ.
ǪȍșȚȕȐȒ ǷȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊșȒȖȋȖ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȈȕșȒȖȋȖ ȉȈȕȒȈ ȹ3’2014
15
ǴȐȘȖȊȈȧ ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȒȈ
ǷȘȐȚȖȒ ȒȈȗȐȚȈȓȈ Ȋ șȚȘȈȕȣ ǹȖȌȘțȎȍșȚȊȈ ȗȖ ȐȚȖȋȈȔ ȖȚȟȨȚȕȖȋȖ ȋȖȌȈ șȖșȚȈȊȐȓ 119,3 ȔȓȘȌ ȌȖȓȓ.,
șȖȒȘȈȚȐȊȠȐșȤ ȕȈ 1,6% ȗȖ șȘȈȊȕȍȕȐȦ ș ȗȖȒȈȏȈȚȍȓȍȔ ȏȈ 2012 ȋȖȌ. ǷȘȐ ȥȚȖȔ ȖȉȢȨȔȣ ȐȕȊȍșȚȐȞȐȑ Ȋ
ȕȈȟȈȓȍ ȋȖȌȈ ȉȣȓȐ ȊȍșȤȔȈ ȊȣșȖȒȐȔȐ, ȖȌȕȈȒȖ ȖȕȐ șȚȈȓȐ șȕȐȎȈȚȤșȧ ȗȖșȓȍ ȚȖȋȖ, ȒȈȒ Ȋ șȍȘȍȌȐȕȍ ȋȖȌȈ
ǹȀǨ ȖȉȢȧȊȐȓȐ Ȗ ȕȈȟȈȓȍ șȊȖȘȈȟȐȊȈȕȐȧ ȗȘȖȋȘȈȔȔȣ ȉȦȌȎȍȚȕȖȋȖ șȚȐȔțȓȐȘȖȊȈȕȐȧ, Ȑ ȊȗȖșȓȍȌșȚȊȐȐ
ȖșȚȈȊȈȓȐșȤ ȖȟȍȕȤ ȊȖȓȈȚȐȓȤȕȣȔȐ.
ǷȘȖȌȖȓȎȍȕȐȍ ȚȘȍȕȌȈ ȗȖ ȊȖșșȚȈȕȖȊȓȍȕȐȦ ȔȐȘȖȊȖȑ ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȒȐ, ȗȖ ȔȕȍȕȐȦ ȥȒșȗȍȘȚȖȊ, ȌȖȓȎȕȖ
Ȋ ȉȓȐȎȈȑȠȐȍ ȋȖȌȣ ȖȒȈȏȈȚȤ ȗȖȓȖȎȐȚȍȓȤȕȖȍ ȊȓȐȧȕȐȍ ȕȈ ȔȈȒȘȖȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȟȍșȒțȦ șȐȚțȈȞȐȦ Ȋ
ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȒȈȝ ǹǵǫ (Ȋ 2014 ȋȖȌț ȘȖșȚ ȕȈ 3,0%, Ȋ 2015 – ȕȈ 3,7%). ǹȖȋȓȈșȕȖ ȗȘȖȋȕȖȏț ǴǪǼ,
ȖȗțȉȓȐȒȖȊȈȕȕȖȔț Ȋ ȖȒȚȧȉȘȍ 2013 ȋȖȌȈ, ȚȍȔȗȣ ȗȘȐȘȖșȚȈ ȔȐȘȖȊȖȋȖ ǪǪǷ țșȒȖȘȧȚșȧ ȌȖ 3,6% Ȋ
2014-Ȕ ȋȖȌț. ǵȍșȔȖȚȘȧ ȕȈ ȕȍȒȖȚȖȘȖȍ țȝțȌȠȍȕȐȍ șȞȍȕȈȘȕȣȝ ȖȘȐȍȕȚȐȘȖȊ, ȕȈȔȍȚȐȊȠȈȧșȧ ȊȖ ȊȚȖȘȖȑ
ȗȖȓȖȊȐȕȍ 2013 ȋȖȌȈ ȈȒȚȐȊȐȏȈȞȐȧ ȘȖșȚȈ ȋȓȖȉȈȓȤȕȖȋȖ ȗȘȖȔȣȠȓȍȕȕȖȋȖ ȗȘȖȐȏȊȖȌșȚȊȈ ȌȈȨȚ ȖșȕȖȊȈȕȐȍ
ȖȎȐȌȈȚȤ ȕȍȒȖȚȖȘȖȋȖ țȓțȟȠȍȕȐȧ ȔȈȒȘȖȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȟȍșȒȐȝ ȗȖȒȈȏȈȚȍȓȍȑ ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȒ ȘȈȏȊȐȊȈȦȡȐȝșȧ șȚȘȈȕ
Ȋ ȗȖșȓȍȌțȦȡȐȍ ȋȖȌȣ. ǷȘȐ ȥȚȖȔ ȗȘȍȌȗȖȓȈȋȈȍȚșȧ țȔȍȘȍȕȕȖȍ șȕȐȎȍȕȐȍ Ȟȍȕ ȕȈ ȥȕȍȘȋȖȘȍșțȘșȣ Ȑ
ȔȍȚȈȓȓȣ, ȚȖȋȌȈ ȒȈȒ ȌȐȕȈȔȐȒȈ Ȟȍȕ ȕȈ ȗȘȖȌȖȊȖȓȤșȚȊȐȍ ȖșȚȈȨȚșȧ ȗȖȌȊȍȘȎȍȕȕȖȑ ȊȓȐȧȕȐȦ ȗȖȋȖȌȕȣȝ
țșȓȖȊȐȑ. ǶȌȕȈȒȖ ȕȍȖȉȝȖȌȐȔȖ țȟȐȚȣȊȈȚȤ, ȟȚȖ ȊȍșȖȔțȦ ȘȖȓȤ Ȋ ȜȖȘȔȐȘȖȊȈȕȐȐ ȔȐȘȖȊȣȝ
ȔȈȒȘȖȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȟȍșȒȐȝ ȚȍȕȌȍȕȞȐȑ ȉțȌȍȚ ȐȋȘȈȚȤ ȋȍȖȗȖȓȐȚȐȟȍșȒȐȑ ȒȘȐȏȐș ȕȈ ǻȒȘȈȐȕȍ.
ǸȖșșȐȑșȒȈȧ ǼȍȌȍȘȈȞȐȧ
ǶȚȟȨȚȕȣȑ ȋȖȌ, ȗȖ ȊȣșȒȈȏȣȊȈȕȐȧȔ ȘȧȌȈ șȗȍȞȐȈȓȐșȚȖȊ, ȏȈȗȖȔȕȐȚșȧ Ȍȓȧ ȘȖșșȐȧȕ ȒȈȒ ȗȍȘȐȖȌ
șȚȈȋȕȈȞȐȐ, ȗȖșȚȖȧȕȕȣȝ șȕȐȎȍȕȐȑ ȗȘȖȋȕȖȏȖȊ ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȟȍșȒȖȋȖ ȘȈȏȊȐȚȐȧ, ȗȘȐȏȕȈȕȐȧ ȊȕțȚȘȍȕȕȐȝ
ȗȘȖȉȓȍȔ, ȜȖȘșȐȘȖȊȈȕȐȧ ȒȘȍȌȐȚȖȊȈȕȐȧ ȜȐȏȐȟȍșȒȐȝ ȓȐȞ, șȈȕȈȞȐȐ ȉȈȕȒȖȊșȒȖȋȖ șȍȒȚȖȘȈ, ȕȖ ȊȔȍșȚȍ ș
ȚȍȔ Ȑ ȋȖȌȖȔ ȗȘȍȖȌȖȓȍȕȐȧ ȍșȚȍșȚȊȍȕȕȖȑ țȉȣȓȐ ȕȈșȍȓȍȕȐȧ. ǺȈȒ, ȚȍȔȗ ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȟȍșȒȖȋȖ ȘȖșȚȈ ȔȕȖȋȐȍ
șȟȐȚȈȦȚ ȕȍțȌȖȊȓȍȚȊȖȘȐȚȍȓȤȕȣȔ – 101,4% (Ȋ 2012 ȋȖȌț – 103,4%), șȚȈȊȠȐȔ șȈȔȣȔ ȕȐȏȒȐȔ
ȗȖȒȈȏȈȚȍȓȍȔ ș ȔȖȔȍȕȚȈ ȜȐȕȈȕșȖȊȖ-ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȟȍșȒȖȋȖ ȒȘȐȏȐșȈ 2009 ȋȖȌȈ. ǭȋȖ șȌȍȘȎȐȊȈȓȐ ȒȈȒ
ȊȕȍȠȕȐȍ ȜȈȒȚȖȘȣ, ȚȈȒ Ȑ ȊȕțȚȘȍȕȕȐȍ.
ǷȘȖȔȣȠȓȍȕȕȖȍ ȗȘȖȐȏȊȖȌșȚȊȖ Ȋ 2013 ȋȖȌț, Ȋ ȖȗȘȍȌȍȓȨȕȕȖȑ șȚȍȗȍȕȐ ȉȓȈȋȖȌȈȘȧ ȗȖȏȐȚȐȊȕȣȔ
ȌȍȒȈȉȘȤșȒȐȔ ȐȚȖȋȈȔ (4,3% ȗȖ șȘȈȊȕȍȕȐȦ ș ȗȖȒȈȏȈȚȍȓȍȔ ȕȖȧȉȘȧ Ȑ 0,8% ȖȚȕȖșȐȚȍȓȤȕȖ țȘȖȊȕȧ
ȌȍȒȈȉȘȧ 2012 ȋȖȌȈ), ȗȘȍȊȣșȐȓȖ ȖȚȔȍȚȒț 2012 ȋȖȌȈ ȕȈ 0,3% (2,6% ȋȖȌȖȔ ȘȈȕȍȍ). Ǫ șȜȍȘȍ ȌȖȉȣȟȐ
ȗȖȓȍȏȕȣȝ ȐșȒȖȗȈȍȔȣȝ ȖȗȍȘȍȎȍȕȐȍ ȉȈȏȐșȕȣȝ ȗȖȒȈȏȈȚȍȓȍȑ șȖșȚȈȊȐȓȖ 1,2%, Ȋ ȖȉȘȈȉȈȚȣȊȈȦȡȐȝ
ȗȘȖȐȏȊȖȌșȚȊȈȝ – 0,1%, ȚȖȋȌȈ ȒȈȒ ȗȘȖȐȏȊȖȌșȚȊȖ Ȑ ȘȈșȗȘȍȌȍȓȍȕȐȍ ȥȓȍȒȚȘȖȥȕȍȘȋȐȐ, ȋȈȏȈ Ȑ ȊȖȌȣ,
ȕȈȗȘȖȚȐȊ, șȖȒȘȈȚȐȓȖșȤ ȕȈ 1,8%.
ǷȘȖȠȍȌȠȐȑ ȋȖȌ ȝȈȘȈȒȚȍȘȐȏȖȊȈȓșȧ ȏȈȔȍȌȓȍȕȐȍȔ ȕȈȘȈȡȐȊȈȕȐȧ ȘȍȈȓȤȕȣȝ ȘȈșȗȖȓȈȋȈȍȔȣȝ
ȌȖȝȖȌȖȊ: Ȋ I ȒȊȈȘȚȈȓȍ ȖȕȐ țȊȍȓȐȟȐȓȐșȤ ȕȈ 5,6% Ȓ șȖȖȚȊȍȚșȚȊțȦȡȍȔț ȗȍȘȐȖȌț 2012 ȋȖȌȈ, ȗȖ ȐȚȖȋȈȔ
I ȗȖȓțȋȖȌȐȧ – ȕȈ 4,2%, ȏȈ ȧȕȊȈȘȤ-șȍȕȚȧȉȘȤ – ȕȈ 3,5%, Ȉ Ȋ ȞȍȓȖȔ ȏȈ ȋȖȌ – ȕȈ 3,3%. Ǫ ȘȍȏțȓȤȚȈȚȍ,
ȗȘȖȐȏȖȠȓȖ ȖȟȍȘȍȌȕȖȍ «ȚȖȘȔȖȎȍȕȐȍ» ȗȘȐȘȖșȚȈ ȖȉȖȘȖȚȈ ȘȖȏȕȐȟȕȖȑ ȚȖȘȋȖȊȓȐ Ȑ ȗȓȈȚȕȣȝ țșȓțȋ. ǺȈȒ,
ȍșȓȐ Ȋ ȌȖȒȘȐȏȐșȕȖȔ ȗȍȘȐȖȌȍ (2005-2008 ȋȋ.) Ȗȕ șȒȓȈȌȣȊȈȓșȧ Ȋ șȘȍȌȕȍȔ ȕȈ țȘȖȊȕȍ 14,2%, Ȉ Ȋ
ȗȖșȚȒȘȐȏȐșȕȖȔ (2010-2012 ȋȋ.) – 6,6%, ȚȖ Ȋ 2013 ȋȖȌț – ȓȐȠȤ 3,9%.
Ǫ țșȓȖȊȐȧȝ șȚȈȋȕȐȘțȦȡȍȑ ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȒȐ ȐȕȜȓȧȞȐȧ ȏȈȜȐȒșȐȘȖȊȈȕȈ ȕȈ ȖȚȔȍȚȒȍ 6,5%. ǹȐȓȤȕȍȍ
ȊșȍȋȖ ȊȣȘȖșȓȐ Ȟȍȕȣ ȕȈ ȗȘȖȌȖȊȖȓȤșȚȊȍȕȕȣȍ ȚȖȊȈȘȣ – ȕȈ 7,3%, Ȉ ȚȈȒȎȍ țșȓțȋȐ – ȕȈ 8,0%.
ǹțȡȍșȚȊȍȕȕȖ ȗȖȊȣșȐȓȈșȤ șȚȖȐȔȖșȚȤ ȒțȘȐȕȣȝ ȧȐȞ (+28,8%), șȓȐȊȖȟȕȖȋȖ ȔȈșȓȈ (+18,6%),
ȈȓȒȖȋȖȓȤȕȣȝ ȕȈȗȐȚȒȖȊ (+14,6%), Ȉ ȚȈȒȎȍ ȔȖȓȖȒȈ Ȑ ȔȖȓȖȟȕȖȑ ȗȘȖȌțȒȞȐȐ (+13,1%). ǻșȓțȋȐ ǮDzǽ
ȗȖȌȖȘȖȎȈȓȐ ȕȈ 9,8%, ȔȍȌȐȞȐȕșȒȐȍ țșȓțȋȐ – ȕȈ 9,0%, ȌȖȠȒȖȓȤȕȖȍ ȊȖșȗȐȚȈȕȐȍ – ȕȈ 9,9%.
ǼȈȒȚȖȘȖȔ, ȗȖȌȌȍȘȎȐȊȈȊȠȐȔ ȗȖȊȣȠȈȚȍȓȤȕțȦ ȌȐȕȈȔȐȒț ǪǪǷ, șȚȈȓ ȗȘȐȘȖșȚ ȗȘȖȌțȒȞȐȐ
șȍȓȤșȒȖȋȖ ȝȖȏȧȑșȚȊȈ ȕȈ 6,2%. ǵȍșȔȖȚȘȧ ȕȈ șȓȖȎȕȣȍ ȗȖȋȖȌȕȣȍ țșȓȖȊȐȧ – ȏȈșțȝț, ȕȈȊȖȌȕȍȕȐȧ,
ȈȕȖȔȈȓȤȕȖ ȖȉȐȓȤȕȣȍ ȖșȈȌȒȐ – Ȋ ȉȖȓȤȠȍȑ ȟȈșȚȐ șȚȘȈȕȣ ȏȍȔȓȍȊȓȈȌȍȓȤȞȣ Ȋ țȉȖȘȖȟȕȣȑ ȗȍȘȐȖȌ
șȖȉȘȈȓȐ ȊȣșȖȒȐȑ, Ȉ ȗȖ ȕȍȒȖȚȖȘȣȔ ȕȈȗȘȈȊȓȍȕȐȧȔ ȌȈȎȍ ȘȍȒȖȘȌȕȣȑ, țȘȖȎȈȑ ȖșȕȖȊȕȣȝ
șȍȓȤșȒȖȝȖȏȧȑșȚȊȍȕȕȣȝ ȒțȓȤȚțȘ (Ȋ ȟȈșȚȕȖșȚȐ, ȗȖȌșȖȓȕȍȟȕȐȒȈ, ȘȈȗșȈ, ȒțȒțȘțȏȣ). ǪȈȓȖȊȣȑ șȉȖȘ
16
ǪȍșȚȕȐȒ ǷȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊșȒȖȋȖ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȈȕșȒȖȋȖ ȉȈȕȒȈ ȹ3’2014
ǴȐȘȖȊȈȧ ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȒȈ
ȏȍȘȕȖȊȣȝ Ȋ ȟȐșȚȖȔ Ȋȍșȍ ȗȘȍȊȣșȐȓ 91,3 Ȕȓȕ ȚȖȕȕ (+28,8%), ȟȚȖ șȖȖȚȊȍȚșȚȊțȍȚ ȞȍȓȍȊȖȔț ȐȕȌȐȒȈȚȖȘț
ǫȖșțȌȈȘșȚȊȍȕȕȖȑ ȗȘȖȋȘȈȔȔȣ ȕȈ 2013-2020 ȋȖȌȣ.
ǷȖȌ ȊȓȐȧȕȐȍȔ șȍȏȖȕȕȣȝ ȒȖȓȍȉȈȕȐȑ, ȕȍșȚȈȉȐȓȤȕȖșȚȐ Ȋ ȗȖȓȐȚȐȟȍșȒȖȑ, ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȟȍșȒȖȑ Ȑ
ȚȖȊȈȘȕȖȑ ȒȖȕȢȦȕȒȚțȘȍ Ȋ ȘȈȏȓȐȟȕȣȝ ȘȍȋȐȖȕȈȝ ȔȐȘȈ ȌȐȕȈȔȐȒȈ ȗȖȒȈȏȈȚȍȓȍȑ ȊȕȍȠȕȍȑ ȚȖȘȋȖȊȓȐ
ǸȖșșȐȑșȒȖȑ ǼȍȌȍȘȈȞȐȐ șȓȖȎȐȓȈșȤ ȘȈȏȕȖȕȈȗȘȈȊȓȍȕȕȖȑ. ǹȘȍȌȐ șȚȈȚȍȑ ȥȒșȗȖȘȚȈ, țșȚțȗȐȊȠȐȝ
ȉȈȏȐșȕȣȔ ȖȉȢȨȔȈȔ, ȔȖȎȕȖ ȖȚȔȍȚȐȚȤ «ȕȍȜȚȤ» (-4,0% ȌȖ 173,7 ȔȓȘȌ ȌȖȓȓ.), «ȔȍȚȈȓȓȣ Ȑ ȐȏȌȍȓȐȧ Ȑȏ
ȕȐȝ» (-8,0% ȌȖ 40,9 ȔȓȘȌ ȌȖȓȓ.), Ȉ ȚȈȒȎȍ «ȗȘȖȌțȒȞȐȦ ȝȐȔȐȟȍșȒȖȑ ȗȘȖȔȣȠȓȍȕȕȖșȚȐ» (-4,3% ȌȖ
30,7 ȔȓȘȌ ȌȖȓȓ.). Ǫ ȘȍȏțȓȤȚȈȚȍ, șȖȊȖȒțȗȕȣȍ ȗȖșȚȈȊȒȐ ȚȖȊȈȘȖȊ ȏȈ ȘțȉȍȎ șȓȖȎȐȓȐșȤ ȕȈ țȘȖȊȕȍ
523,3 ȔȓȘȌ ȌȖȓȓ., șȖȒȘȈȚȐȊȠȐșȤ ȕȈ 0,9%. Ǫ ȘȈȏȘȍȏȍ ȐȔȗȖȘȚȈ (+2,6% ȌȖ 344,3 ȔȓȘȌ ȌȖȓȓ.) ȖȚȔȍȟȈȓȖșȤ
țȊȍȓȐȟȍȕȐȍ ȏȈȒțȗȖȒ ȗȘȖȌȖȊȖȓȤșȚȊȍȕȕȣȝ ȚȖȊȈȘȖȊ (+6,0% ȌȖ 43,1 ȔȓȘȌ ȌȖȓȓ.), ȗȘȖȌțȒȞȐȐ
ȝȐȔȐȟȍșȒȖȑ ȗȘȖȔȣȠȓȍȕȕȖșȚȐ (+3,1% ȌȖ 50,1 ȔȓȘȌ ȌȖȓȓ.), ȗȘȐ ȥȚȖȔ ȕȈȉȓȦȌȈȓȖșȤ șȖȒȘȈȡȍȕȐȍ
șȗȘȖșȈ ȕȈ ȔȈȠȐȕȣ, ȖȉȖȘțȌȖȊȈȕȐȍ Ȑ ȚȘȈȕșȗȖȘȚȕȣȍ șȘȍȌșȚȊȈ (-2,5% ȌȖ 154,4 ȔȓȘȌ ȌȖȓȓ.). ǺȈȒȐȔ
ȖȉȘȈȏȖȔ, ȗȘȖȜȐȞȐȚ ȚȖȘȋȖȊȖȋȖ ȉȈȓȈȕșȈ șȖșȚȈȊȐȓ 179,0 ȔȓȘȌ ȌȖȓȓ. (-6,9%), Ȉ ȊȕȍȠȕȍȚȖȘȋȖȊȣȑ ȖȉȖȘȖȚ
– 867,6 ȔȓȘȌ ȌȖȓȓ. (+0,5%).
ǬȍȜȐȞȐȚ ȜȍȌȍȘȈȓȤȕȖȋȖ ȉȦȌȎȍȚȈ ǸȖșșȐȐ Ȋ 2013 ȋȖȌț șȖșȚȈȊȐȓ 323,0 ȔȓȘȌ Șțȉ., (39,4 ȔȓȘȌ Șțȉ.
ȋȖȌȖȔ ȘȈȕȍȍ), ȐȓȐ 0,5% ǪǪǷ. ǶȉȡȐȑ ȖȉȢȨȔ ȗȖșȚțȗȐȊȠȐȝ Ȋ ȒȈȏȕț ȌȖȝȖȌȖȊ ȏȈȜȐȒșȐȘȖȊȈȕ ȕȈ țȘȖȊȕȍ
13 019,9 ȔȓȘȌ Șțȉ. (+1,3% Ȓ ȖȚȔȍȚȒȍ 2012 ȋȖȌȈ), Ȉ ȘȈșȝȖȌȖȊ ȒȈȏȕȣ – 13 342,9 ȔȓȘȌ Șțȉ. (+3,5%).
ǶșȕȖȊȕȖȑ ȚȍȕȌȍȕȞȐȍȑ Ȋ ȘȈȏȊȐȚȐȐ ȉȈȕȒȖȊșȒȖȋȖ șȍȒȚȖȘȈ șȚȘȈȕȣ, ȖșȖȉȍȕȕȖ ȊȖ ȊȚȖȘȖȑ ȗȖȓȖȊȐȕȍ
2013 ȋȖȌȈ, șȚȈȓȈ ȏȕȈȟȐȚȍȓȤȕȈȧ ȈȒȚȐȊȐȏȈȞȐȧ ȖȚȏȣȊȖȊ ȓȐȞȍȕȏȐȑ ț ȒȘȍȌȐȚȕȣȝ ȖȘȋȈȕȐȏȈȞȐȑ. ǬȈȕȕȈȧ
ȔȍȘȈ ȗȘȐȔȍȕȧȓȈșȤ Ȓ ȌȖșȚȈȚȖȟȕȖ ȒȘțȗȕȣȔ ȐȋȘȖȒȈȔ ȘȍȋȐȖȕȈȓȤȕȖȋȖ ȔȈșȠȚȈȉȈ ș ȠȐȘȖȒȖȑ șȍȚȤȦ
ȖȚȌȍȓȍȕȐȑ. ǪșȍȋȖ ȏȈ ȈȕȈȓȐȏȐȘțȍȔȣȑ ȋȖȌ ȉȣȓȖ ȖȚȖȏȊȈȕȖ 27 ȉȈȕȒȖȊșȒȐȝ ȓȐȞȍȕȏȐȑ. Ǫ ȚȖ Ȏȍ ȊȘȍȔȧ
ȈȒȚȐȊȣ ȉȈȕȒȖȊșȒȖȋȖ șȍȒȚȖȘȈ țȊȍȓȐȟȐȓȐșȤ ȕȈ 16,0% (ȏȈ 2012 ȋȖȌ – ȕȈ 18,9%). ǹȖȝȘȈȕȧȓȈșȤ
ȚȍȕȌȍȕȞȐȧ ȖȗȍȘȍȎȈȦȡȍȋȖ ȘȖșȚȈ ȒȘȍȌȐȚȖȊȈȕȐȧ ȜȐȏȐȟȍșȒȐȝ ȓȐȞ (+28,7%) ȗȘȐ ȉȖȓȍȍ țȔȍȘȍȕȕȣȝ
ȔȈșȠȚȈȉȈȝ ȕȈȘȈȡȐȊȈȕȐȧ șșțȌȕȖȑ ȏȈȌȖȓȎȍȕȕȖșȚȐ ȕȍȜȐȕȈȕșȖȊȣȝ ȖȘȋȈȕȐȏȈȞȐȑ (+12,7%).
ǶșȕȖȊȕȣȔȐ ȐșȚȖȟȕȐȒȈȔȐ ȘȈșȠȐȘȍȕȐȧ ȘȍșțȘșȕȖȑ ȉȈȏȣ ȉȈȕȒȖȊ șȚȈȓȐ șȘȍȌșȚȊȈ ȒȓȐȍȕȚȖȊ. Ǫ
ȟȈșȚȕȖșȚȐ, ȌȍȗȖȏȐȚȣ ȜȐȏȐȟȍșȒȐȝ ȓȐȞ ȊȖȏȘȖșȓȐ ȕȈ 19,0%, ȦȘȐȌȐȟȍșȒȐȝ ȓȐȞ – ȕȈ 13,7%.
ǹȘȍȌȕȍȊȏȊȍȠȍȕȕȣȍ ȗȘȖȞȍȕȚȕȣȍ șȚȈȊȒȐ ȗȖ șșțȌȕȣȔ ȖȗȍȘȈȞȐȧȔ Ȋ ȕȈȞȐȖȕȈȓȤȕȖȑ ȊȈȓȦȚȍ ȕȈ șȘȖȒ ȌȖ
ȋȖȌȈ ȊȈȘȤȐȘȖȊȈȓȐ Ȋ ȌȐȈȗȈȏȖȕȍ 8,8-10,2% ȋȖȌȖȊȣȝ – Ȍȓȧ ȦȘȐȌȐȟȍșȒȐȝ ȓȐȞ, 23,5-25,2% – Ȍȓȧ
ȜȐȏȐȟȍșȒȐȝ ȓȐȞ. ǬȖȝȖȌȕȖșȚȤ ȌȍȗȖȏȐȚȖȊ ȕȍȜȐȕȈȕșȖȊȣȝ ȖȘȋȈȕȐȏȈȞȐȑ, ȘȈȏȔȍȡȨȕȕȣȝ Ȋ ȘȖșșȐȑșȒȐȝ
Șțȉȓȧȝ ȕȈ șȘȖȒ ȌȖ ȋȖȌȈ, șȖșȚȈȊȓȧȓȈ 5,4-5,9%, Ȍȓȧ ȜȐȏȐȟȍșȒȐȝ ȓȐȞ – 6,0-7,1%.
ǰȏȔȍȕȍȕȐȍ șȈȓȤȌȖ ȐȕȚȍȘȊȍȕȞȐȑ Ǿǩ ȕȈ ȊȕțȚȘȍȕȕȍȔ ȊȈȓȦȚȕȖȔ ȘȣȕȒȍ (ȗȍȘȍȝȖȌ ȖȚ ȗȖȒțȗȖȒ
ȊȈȓȦȚȣ Ȋ 2012 ȋȖȌț Ȓ ȗȘȖȌȈȎȈȔ Ȋ 2013 ȋȖȌț) ȖȒȈȏȈȓȖ ȌȖȊȖȓȤȕȖ ȔȖȡȕțȦ ȗȖȌȌȍȘȎȒț ȘțȉȓȦ,
ȒȖȚȖȘȣȑ ȉȍȏ ȕȍȨ Ȋ țșȓȖȊȐȧȝ țșȐȓȐȊȠȍȋȖșȧ ȊȣȊȖȏȈ ȒȈȗȐȚȈȓȈ (ȌȖ 60 ȔȓȘȌ ȌȖȓȓ.) ȔȖȋ ȖșȓȈȉȍȚȤ Ȓ
ȌȖȓȓȈȘț Ȋ ȏȕȈȟȐȚȍȓȤȕȖ ȉȖȓȤȠȐȝ ȔȈșȠȚȈȉȈȝ. ǼȈȒȚȐȟȍșȒȐ șȕȐȎȍȕȐȍ ȒțȘșȈ Șțȉȓȧ (-7,5%) ȗȘȐȔȍȘȕȖ
șȖȖȚȊȍȚșȚȊȖȊȈȓȖ ȚȍȔȗț ȐȕȜȓȧȞȐȐ. ǴȕȖȋȐȍ ȈȕȈȓȐȚȐȒȐ șȝȖȌȐȓȐșȤ ȊȖ ȔȕȍȕȐȐ, ȟȚȖ ȗȓȈȊȕȈȧ
ȌȍȊȈȓȤȊȈȞȐȧ ȘȖșșȐȑșȒȖȋȖ Șțȉȓȧ șȔȍȕȐȚșȧ Ȋ 2014 ȋȖȌț ȉȖȓȍȍ șȚȘȍȔȐȚȍȓȤȕȣȔ ȗȈȌȍȕȐȍȔ (ȟȚȖ
șȖȉșȚȊȍȕȕȖ Ȑ ȗȘȖȐȏȖȠȓȖ Ȋ ȗȍȘȊȣȍ ȔȍșȧȞȣ 2014 ȋȖȌȈ) ȗȖ ȘȈȏȕȣȔ ȖȞȍȕȒȈȔ ȌȖ 36-40 Șțȉ. ǸǼ ȏȈ
1 ȌȖȓȓȈȘ ǹȀǨ.
ǷȖ ȗȘȖȋȕȖȏȈȔ ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐșȚȖȊ șȚȈȋȕȈȞȐȧ Ȋ ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȒȍ ǸȖșșȐȐ ȗȘȖȌȖȓȎȐȚșȧ Ȑ Ȋ 2014 ȋȖȌț: ȚȍȔȗ
ȘȖșȚȈ ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȒȐ șȖșȚȈȊȐȚ ȖȒȖȓȖ 2,5%.
ǻȒȘȈȐȕȈ
Ǫ ǻȒȘȈȐȕȍ șȕȐȎȍȕȐȍ ȘȍȈȓȤȕȖȋȖ ǪǪǷ ȕȈ ȗȘȖȚȧȎȍȕȐȐ ȗȍȘȊȣȝ ȚȘȨȝ ȒȊȈȘȚȈȓȖȊ 2013 ȋȖȌȈ (ȕȈ 1,2%
Ȋ I Ȑ III ȒȊȈȘȚȈȓȈȝ Ȑ ȕȈ 1,3% ȊȖ II ȒȊȈȘȚȈȓȍ) ȒȖȔȗȍȕșȐȘȖȊȈȓȖșȤ țȊȍȓȐȟȍȕȐȍȔ Ȋ ȖȒȚȧȉȘȍ-ȌȍȒȈȉȘȍ (ȕȈ
3,3%), ȟȚȖ ȗȖȏȊȖȓȐȓȖ ȊȣȑȚȐ ȗȖ ȐȚȖȋȈȔ ȖȚȟȨȚȕȖȋȖ ȋȖȌȈ ȕȈ ȕțȓȍȊȖȑ ȗȘȐȘȖșȚ ȗȖȒȈȏȈȚȍȓȧ. Ǫ ȚȖ Ȏȍ
ȊȘȍȔȧ ȗȖȏȐȚȐȊȕȣȍ ȐȚȖȋȐ ȏȈȜȐȒșȐȘȖȊȈȕȣ Ȋ șȜȍȘȍ șȍȓȤșȒȖȝȖȏȧȑșȚȊȍȕȕȖȋȖ ȗȘȖȐȏȊȖȌșȚȊȈ (+13,7%). Ǫ
ȟȈșȚȕȖșȚȐ, Ȋ 2013 ȋȖȌț ȉȣȓ șȖȉȘȈȕ șȈȔȣȑ ȉȖȓȤȠȖȑ țȘȖȎȈȑ ȏȍȘȕȖȊȣȝ ȒțȓȤȚțȘ (63,0 Ȕȓȕ ȚȖȕȕ) ȏȈ
ȊșȦ ȐșȚȖȘȐȦ ȕȍȏȈȊȐșȐȔȖșȚȐ ǻȒȘȈȐȕȣ, ȟȚȖ ȖȉțșȓȖȊȓȍȕȖ ȒȈȒ ȘȖșȚȖȔ țȘȖȎȈȑȕȖșȚȐ (ȗȖȟȚȐ ȕȈ 28% ȗȖ
ǪȍșȚȕȐȒ ǷȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊșȒȖȋȖ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȈȕșȒȖȋȖ ȉȈȕȒȈ ȹ3’2014
17
ǴȐȘȖȊȈȧ ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȒȈ
șȘȈȊȕȍȕȐȦ ș 2012 ȋȖȌȖȔ), ȚȈȒ Ȑ țȊȍȓȐȟȍȕȐȍȔ ȗȓȖȡȈȌȐ șȉȖȘȈ (+6,8%). ȼȈȓȖȊȖȑ șȉȖȘ ȗȘȖȌțȒȞȐȐ
ȘȈșȚȍȕȐȍȊȖȌșȚȊȈ ȗȘȍȊȣșȐȓ ȉȈȏȐșȕȣȑ țȘȖȊȍȕȤ ȕȈ 18,1%. Ǫ ȎȐȊȖȚȕȖȊȖȌȟȍșȒȖȑ șȜȍȘȍ ȏȈȜȐȒșȐȘȖȊȈȕ
ȉȖȓȍȍ șȒȘȖȔȕȣȑ ȗȖȒȈȏȈȚȍȓȤ – +4,8%.
Ǫ ȚȍȟȍȕȐȍ ȋȖȌȈ ȖȌȕȐȔ Ȑȏ ȖșȕȖȊȕȣȝ ȜȈȒȚȖȘȖȊ ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȟȍșȒȖȑ ȈȒȚȐȊȕȖșȚȐ șȚȈȓ ȘȖșȚ
ȚȖȊȈȘȖȖȉȖȘȖȚȈ ȗȘȍȌȗȘȐȧȚȐȑ ȘȖȏȕȐȟȕȖȑ ȚȖȘȋȖȊȓȐ Ȑ ȘȍșȚȖȘȈȕȕȖȋȖ ȝȖȏȧȑșȚȊȈ (+9,5%), șȊȧȏȈȕȕȣȑ șȖ
șȚȈȉȐȓȤȕȣȔ ȗȖȊȣȠȍȕȐȍȔ ȘȍȈȓȤȕȣȝ ȏȈȘȈȉȖȚȕȣȝ ȗȓȈȚ (+8,2%).
ǶȌȕȈȒȖ
ȊȕȍȠȕȐȑ
șȗȘȖș
ȖșȚȈȊȈȓșȧ
ȕȐȏȒȐȔ,
ȟȚȖ
șȌȍȘȎȐȊȈȓȖ
ȘȈȏȊȐȚȐȍ
ȥȒșȗȖȘȚȖȖȘȐȍȕȚȐȘȖȊȈȕȕȣȝ ȖȚȘȈșȓȍȑ țȒȘȈȐȕșȒȖȑ ȗȘȖȔȣȠȓȍȕȕȖșȚȐ. ǺȈȒ, șȖȒȘȈȡȍȕȐȍ ȗȘȖȐȏȊȖȌșȚȊȈ
ȝȐȔȐȟȍșȒȖȑ ȗȘȖȔȣȠȓȍȕȕȖșȚȐ șȖșȚȈȊȐȓȖ 16,9%, ȔȈȠȐȕȖșȚȘȖȍȕȐȧ – 13,2%, ȔȍȚȈȓȓțȘȋȐȐ – 5,3%. Ǫ
ȘȍȏțȓȤȚȈȚȍ, șȖȊȖȒțȗȕȣȑ ȖȉȢȨȔ ȗȘȖȔȣȠȓȍȕȕȖȋȖ ȗȘȖȐȏȊȖȌșȚȊȈ țȔȍȕȤȠȐȓșȧ ȕȈ 4,3%.
ǾȍȕȖȊȈȧ ȌȐȕȈȔȐȒȈ ȕȈ ȗȖȚȘȍȉȐȚȍȓȤșȒȖȔ ȘȣȕȒȍ ǻȒȘȈȐȕȣ ȉȣȓȈ țȔȍȘȍȕȕȖȑ. ǷȖȒȈȏȈȚȍȓȤ ȐȕȌȍȒșȈ
ȗȖȚȘȍȉȐȚȍȓȤșȒȐȝ Ȟȍȕ Ȋ ȋȖȌȖȊȖȔ ȐȏȔȍȘȍȕȐȐ ȒȖȓȍȉȈȓșȧ Ȋ ȗȘȍȌȍȓȈȝ ȖȚ -0,6% (Ȋ ȈȊȋțșȚȍ Ȑ șȍȕȚȧȉȘȍ) ȌȖ
+0,5% (Ȋ ȌȍȒȈȉȘȍ), șȚȈȊ ȖȌȕȐȔ Ȑȏ șȈȔȣȝ ȕȐȏȒȐȝ ȏȕȈȟȍȕȐȑ șȘȍȌȐ șȚȘȈȕ ȗȖșȚșȖȊȍȚșȒȖȋȖ ȗȘȖșȚȘȈȕșȚȊȈ.
ǷȘȖȌțȒȚȣ ȗȐȚȈȕȐȧ Ȋ 2013 ȋȖȌț ȗȖȌȍȠȍȊȍȓȐ ȕȈ 0,7%. Ǫ ȟȈșȚȕȖșȚȐ, șȕȐȏȐȓȐșȤ Ȟȍȕȣ ȕȈ ȜȘțȒȚȣ
(-17,4%), Șȣȉț (-3,5%), ȔȧșȖ (-3,1%), ȔȈșȓȖ Ȑ ȎȐȘȣ (-2,0%). Ǫ ȚȖ Ȏȍ ȊȘȍȔȧ ȗȖȌȖȘȖȎȈȓȐ șȈȝȈȘ
(+18,0%), ȔȖȓȖȒȖ, șȣȘ Ȑ ȧȑȞȈ (+6,2%), Ȉ ȚȈȒȎȍ ȖȊȖȡȐ (+5,8%). Ǿȍȕȣ ȕȈ ȚȖȗȓȐȊȖ ȖȗțșȚȐȓȐșȤ ȕȈ
3,6%. ǹȘȍȌȐ ȈȌȔȐȕȐșȚȘȈȚȐȊȕȖ ȘȍȋțȓȐȘțȍȔȣȝ ȚȖȊȈȘȖȊ Ȑȏ-ȏȈ ȗȖȊȣȠȍȕȐȧ ȈȒȞȐȏȖȊ șțȡȍșȚȊȍȕȕȖ
ȊȖȏȘȖșȓȈ șȚȖȐȔȖșȚȤ ȈȓȒȖȋȖȓȤȕȣȝ ȕȈȗȐȚȒȖȊ Ȑ ȚȈȉȈȟȕȣȝ ȐȏȌȍȓȐȑ (+10,1%).
ǵȍșȔȖȚȘȧ ȕȈ ȏȈȚȘțȌȕȨȕȕȣȑ ȌȖșȚțȗ Ȓ ȘȍșțȘșȈȔ ȔȐȘȖȊȖȋȖ ȜȐȕȈȕșȖȊȖȋȖ ȘȣȕȒȈ, Ȋ ȈȕȈȓȐȏȐȘțȍȔȖȔ
ȋȖȌț ȖȉȍșȗȍȟȍȕȖ șȊȖȍȊȘȍȔȍȕȕȖȍ Ȑ ȗȖȓȕȖȍ ȊȣȗȖȓȕȍȕȐȍ Ȋșȍȝ ȊȕțȚȘȍȕȕȐȝ Ȑ ȊȕȍȠȕȐȝ ȌȖȓȋȖȊȣȝ
ȖȉȧȏȈȚȍȓȤșȚȊ șȚȘȈȕȣ Ȋ ȐȕȖșȚȘȈȕȕȖȑ ȊȈȓȦȚȍ, șțȔȔȈȘȕȈȧ ȊȍȓȐȟȐȕȈ ȒȖȚȖȘȣȝ șȖșȚȈȊȐȓȈ
12,3 ȔȓȘȌ ȌȖȓȓ., Ȋ ȚȖȔ ȟȐșȓȍ Ȋ ȗȖȓȤȏț ǴǪǼ – 5,7 ȔȓȘȌ ȌȖȓȓ. ǪșȓȍȌșȚȊȐȍ ȥȚȖȋȖ ȏȖȓȖȚȖȊȈȓȦȚȕȣȍ
ȘȍȏȍȘȊȣ ǻȒȘȈȐȕȣ țȔȍȕȤȠȐȓȐșȤ ȕȈ 4,1 ȔȓȘȌ ȌȖȓȓ. ȌȖ 20,4 ȔȓȘȌ ȌȖȓȓ. ȕȈ 1 ȟȐșȓȖ 2014 ȋȖȌȈ.
ǹȚȈȉȐȓȤȕȖșȚȤ ȌȍȕȍȎȕȖȑ ȍȌȐȕȐȞȣ ǻȒȘȈȐȕȣ (Ȋ ȚȍȟȍȕȐȍ ȋȖȌȈ ȕȈ țȘȖȊȕȍ 7,993 ȋȘȕ.) ȉȣȓȈ
ȖșȕȖȊȖȑ ȗȖȊȣȠȍȕȐȧ ȌȖȊȍȘȐȧ Ȓ ȕȍȑ Ȑ Ȓ ȉȈȕȒȖȊșȒȖȑ șȐșȚȍȔȍ șȚȘȈȕȣ. ǷȘȐȚȖȒ ȌȍȗȖȏȐȚȖȊ Ȋ
ȕȈȞȐȖȕȈȓȤȕȖȑ ȊȈȓȦȚȍ țȊȍȓȐȟȐȓșȧ ȕȈ 32,1%, ȚȖȋȌȈ ȒȈȒ Ȋ ȐȕȖșȚȘȈȕȕȖȑ ȊȈȓȦȚȍ, ȕȈȗȘȖȚȐȊ,
țȔȍȕȤȠȐȓșȧ ȕȈ 0,8%. ǹȘȍȌȕȍȊȏȊȍȠȍȕȕȈȧ ȗȘȖȞȍȕȚȕȈȧ șȚȈȊȒȈ ȗȖ ȊȒȓȈȌȈȔ ȌȖ ȋȖȌȈ, ȕȖȔȐȕȐȘȖȊȈȕȕȣȔ
Ȋ ȋȘȐȊȕȈȝ, Ȍȓȧ ȕȍȜȐȕȈȕșȖȊȣȝ ȒȖȘȗȖȘȈȞȐȑ ȊȈȘȤȐȘȖȊȈȓȈ Ȋ ȌȐȈȗȈȏȖȕȍ 5,2-11,0% ȋȖȌȖȊȣȝ, Ȍȓȧ
ȌȖȔȈȠȕȐȝ ȝȖȏȧȑșȚȊ – 15,2-21,5%.
ǶȉȢȨȔȣ ȒȘȍȌȐȚȖȊȈȕȐȧ ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȒȐ ȊȖȏȘȖșȓȐ ȕȈ 11,7% (+1,7% ȋȖȌȖȔ ȘȈȕȍȍ). ǩȖȓȍȍ ȈȒȚȐȊȕȖȍ
ȘȈȏȊȐȚȐȍ ȗȖȓțȟȐȓȖ ȒȘȍȌȐȚȖȊȈȕȐȍ Ȋ ȕȈȞȐȖȕȈȓȤȕȖȑ, ȕȍȎȍȓȐ Ȋ ȐȕȖșȚȘȈȕȕȖȑ ȊȈȓȦȚȍ (+16,9% ȗȘȖȚȐȊ
+2,8% șȖȖȚȊȍȚșȚȊȍȕȕȖ). ǹȚȈȊȒȐ ȗȖ ȋȘȐȊȕȍȊȣȔ ȏȈȑȔȈȔ Ȍȓȧ ȦȘȐȌȐȟȍșȒȐȝ ȓȐȞ ȐȏȔȍȕȧȓȐșȤ Ȋ ȗȘȍȌȍȓȈȝ
13,3-16,5%, Ȍȓȧ ȜȐȏȐȟȍșȒȐȝ ȓȐȞ – 21,6-28,0%.
ǶȚȘȐȞȈȚȍȓȤȕȖȍ șȈȓȤȌȖ ȊȕȍȠȕȍȑ ȚȖȘȋȖȊȓȐ ȚȖȊȈȘȈȔȐ ȗȖ ȐȚȖȋȈȔ ȖȚȟȨȚȕȖȋȖ ȋȖȌȈ șȖșȚȈȊȐȓȖ
13 652,0 Ȕȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ. (-13,9%). ǹȖȒȘȈȡȍȕȐȍ ȥȒșȗȖȘȚȈ (-8,0% ȌȖ 63 312,0 Ȕȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ.) ȗȘȍȐȔțȡȍșȚȊȍȕȕȖ
ȉȣȓȖ ȊȣȏȊȈȕȖ ȏȕȈȟȐȚȍȓȤȕȣȔ țȔȍȕȤȠȍȕȐȍȔ ȗȖșȚȈȊȖȒ ȕȍȌȘȈȋȖȞȍȕȕȣȝ ȔȍȚȈȓȓȖȊ (-7,0% ȌȖ
17 570,7 Ȕȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ.), ȚȖȊȈȘȖȊ ȘȈșȚȐȚȍȓȤȕȖȋȖ ȗȘȖȐșȝȖȎȌȍȕȐȧ (-3,7% ȌȖ 8 875,9 Ȕȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ.) Ȑ
ȔȐȕȍȘȈȓȤȕȣȝ ȗȘȖȌțȒȚȖȊ (-2,0% ȌȖ 7 494,9 Ȕȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ.). Ǫ ȚȖ Ȏȍ ȊȘȍȔȧ șțȎȍȕȐȍ ȏȈȒțȗȖȒ ȕȈ ȔȐȘȖȊȣȝ
ȘȣȕȒȈȝ (-9,1% ȌȖ 76 964,0 Ȕȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ.) șȚȈȓȖ șȓȍȌșȚȊȐȍȔ țȔȍȕȤȠȍȕȐȧ ȐȔȗȖȘȚȈ ȚȖȗȓȐȊȕȖȥȕȍȘȋȍȚȐȟȍșȒȐȝ ȚȖȊȈȘȖȊ (-19,0% ȌȖ 21 226,7 Ȕȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ.), șȘȍȌșȚȊ ȕȈȏȍȔȕȖȋȖ ȚȘȈȕșȗȖȘȚȈ (-26,8% ȌȖ
5 901,5 Ȕȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ.) Ȑ ȗȘȖȌțȒȞȐȐ ȝȐȔȐȟȍșȒȖȑ ȗȘȖȔȣȠȓȍȕȕȖșȚȐ (-1,8% ȌȖ 8 435,3 Ȕȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ.).
ǷȖ ȐȚȖȋȈȔ ȖȚȟȨȚȕȖȋȖ ȋȖȌȈ ȋȖșțȌȈȘșȚȊȍȕȕȣȑ ȉȦȌȎȍȚ ǻȒȘȈȐȕȣ șȊȍȌȨȕ ș ȌȍȜȐȞȐȚȖȔ Ȋ șțȔȔȍ
64 707,6 Ȕȓȕ ȋȘȕ. (+21,2%). ǹȚȖȐȚ ȚȈȒȎȍ ȖȚȔȍȚȐȚȤ, ȟȚȖ ȗȖȟȚȐ ȗȖȓȖȊȐȕȈ șȖȊȖȒțȗȕȖȋȖ ȘȍȏțȓȤȚȈȚȈ
ȉȣȓȈ șȜȖȘȔȐȘȖȊȈȕȈ ȗȖ ȐȚȖȋȈȔ ȖȒȚȧȉȘȧ-ȌȍȒȈȉȘȧ 2013 ȋȖȌȈ. ǬȖȝȖȌȣ ȉȦȌȎȍȚȈ ǻȒȘȈȐȕȣ Ȋ 2013 ȋȖȌț
șȖșȚȈȊȐȓȐ 339 180,3 Ȕȓȕ ȋȘȕ. (-2,0% ȖȚȕȖșȐȚȍȓȤȕȖ ȗȖȒȈȏȈȚȍȓȧ 2012 ȋȖȌȈ), ȘȈșȝȖȌȣ –
403 403,2 Ȕȓȕ ȋȘȕ. (+2,0%).
ǶȌȕȐȔ Ȑȏ ȋȓȈȊȕȣȝ șȖȉȣȚȐȑ țȠȍȌȠȍȋȖ ȋȖȌȈ șȚȈȓȖ ȖȚȓȖȎȍȕȐȍ ȗȖȌȗȐșȈȕȐȧ ȔȍȎȌț ǻȒȘȈȐȕȖȑ Ȑ
ǭȊȘȖȗȍȑșȒȐȔ ǹȖȦȏȖȔ ǹȖȋȓȈȠȍȕȐȧ Ȗȉ ȈșșȖȞȐȈȞȐȐ, ȗȈȘȈȜȐȘȖȊȈȕȕȖȋȖ Ȋ ȔȈȘȚȍ 2012 ȋȖȌȈ. ǹȖȋȓȈșȕȖ
18
ǪȍșȚȕȐȒ ǷȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊșȒȖȋȖ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȈȕșȒȖȋȖ ȉȈȕȒȈ ȹ3’2014
ǴȐȘȖȊȈȧ ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȒȈ
ȘȈșȗȖȘȧȎȍȕȐȦ DzȈȉȐȕȍȚȈ ǴȐȕȐșȚȘȖȊ ȚȈȒȖȍ ȘȍȠȍȕȐȍ ȉȣȓȖ ȗȘȐȕȧȚȖ Ȋ Ȟȍȓȧȝ ȖȉȍșȗȍȟȍȕȐȧ
ȕȈȞȐȖȕȈȓȤȕȖȑ ȉȍȏȖȗȈșȕȖșȚȐ ǻȒȘȈȐȕȣ Ȑ Ȍȓȧ ȉȖȓȍȍ ȌȍȚȈȓȤȕȖȋȖ ȐȏțȟȍȕȐȧ Ȑ ȗȘȖȘȈȉȖȚȒȐ
ȔȍȘȖȗȘȐȧȚȐȑ, ȕȈȗȘȈȊȓȍȕȕȣȝ ȕȈ ȊȖșșȚȈȕȖȊȓȍȕȐȍ țȚȘȈȟȍȕȕȣȝ ȖȉȢȨȔȖȊ ȗȘȖȐȏȊȖȌșȚȊȈ Ȑ ȚȖȘȋȖȊȖȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȟȍșȒȐȝ ȖȚȕȖȠȍȕȐȑ ș ǸȖșșȐȍȑ Ȑ ȌȘțȋȐȔȐ șȚȘȈȕȈȔȐ-ȟȓȍȕȈȔȐ ǹȖȌȘțȎȍșȚȊȈ ǵȍȏȈȊȐșȐȔȣȝ
ǫȖșțȌȈȘșȚȊ. Ǫ ȘȍȏțȓȤȚȈȚȍ, ȥȚȖ ȊȣȏȊȈȓȖ ȊȖȓȕț ȗȘȖȚȍșȚȖȊ ȗȖ Ȋșȍȑ șȚȘȈȕȍ. ǹȖȉȣȚȐȧ ȕȈȟȈȓȈ ȏȐȔȣ șȚȈȓȐ
ȗȍȘȍȓȖȔȕȣȔ ȔȖȔȍȕȚȖȔ Ȋ țȒȘȈȐȕșȒȐȝ ȗȘȖȚȍșȚȈȝ ȒȖȕȞȈ 2013 ȋȖȌȈ, șȔȍșȚȐȊ ȈȒȞȍȕȚ ș
ȗȘȖȍȊȘȖȗȍȑșȒȖȋȖ ȕȈ ȈȕȚȐȗȘȈȊȐȚȍȓȤșȚȊȍȕȕȣȑ, Ȉ ȚȈȒȎȍ ȌȖȉȈȊȐȊ ȐȔ ȔȈșșȖȊȖșȚȐ. Ǫ ȐȚȖȋȍ ȥȚȖ
ȊȣȓȐȓȖșȤ Ȋ ȗȖȓȕȖȔȈșȠȚȈȉȕȣȑ ȗȖȓȐȚȐȟȍșȒȐȑ Ȑ ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȟȍșȒȐȑ ȒȘȐȏȐș Ȋ șȚȘȈȕȍ. Ǫșȍ ȗȖȏȐȚȐȊȕȣȍ
ȘȍȏțȓȤȚȈȚȣ ȜțȕȒȞȐȖȕȐȘȖȊȈȕȐȧ ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȒȐ ȉȣȓȐ șȊȍȌȍȕȣ Ȓ ȕțȓȦ.
Ǫ ȚȍȟȍȕȐȍ ȊșȍȋȖ ȋȖȌȈ ȊȓȈșȚȐ ǻȒȘȈȐȕȣ ȌȖȋȖȊȈȘȐȊȈȓȈșȤ ș ǴǪǼ Ȗ ȗȖȓțȟȍȕȐȐ ȕȖȊȖȋȖ ȒȘȍȌȐȚȈ (ȕȈ
șțȔȔț 15 ȔȓȘȌ ȌȖȓȓ.). ǬȖȗȖȓȕȐȚȍȓȤȕȖ Ȓ ȕȍȔț ȖȎȐȌȈȓȖșȤ, ȟȚȖ ǭǹ ȊȣȌȍȓȐȚ ȍȡȨ 610 Ȕȓȕ ȍȊȘȖ
ȔȈȒȘȖȜȐȕȈȕșȖȊȖȑ ȗȖȔȖȡȐ. ǶȌȕȈȒȖ Ȋ ȒȖȕȞȍ ȋȖȌȈ ǻȒȘȈȐȕȈ ȖȜȐȞȐȈȓȤȕȖ ȖȚȒȈȏȈȓȈșȤ ȊȣȗȖȓȕȧȚȤ
ȚȘȍȉȖȊȈȕȐȧ ǴǪǼ Ȑ ȚȈȒȐȔ ȖȉȘȈȏȖȔ ȓȐȠȐȓȈșȤ ȌȖșȚțȗȈ Ȓ ȜȐȕȈȕșȐȘȖȊȈȕȐȦ ȜȖȕȌȈ. ǷȖșȓȍ ȖȉȘȈȡȍȕȐȧ
Ȓ ǸȖșșȐȑșȒȖȑ ǼȍȌȍȘȈȞȐȐ ȉȣȓȐ ȌȖșȚȐȋȕțȚȣ ȌȖȋȖȊȖȘȨȕȕȖșȚȐ Ȗ ȗȘȍȌȖșȚȈȊȓȍȕȐȐ țȒȘȈȐȕșȒȖȔț
ȗȘȈȊȐȚȍȓȤșȚȊț ȏȈȨȔȕȣȝ șȘȍȌșȚȊ Ȋ ȖȉȔȍȕ ȕȈ ȌȊțȝȓȍȚȕȐȍ ȍȊȘȖȉȖȕȌȣ, ȊȣȗțșȒȈȍȔȣȍ ș ȒțȗȖȕȖȔ 5%
ȋȖȌȖȊȣȝ. ǿȈșȚȤ ȥȚȐȝ șȘȍȌșȚȊ Ȋ ȘȈȏȔȍȘȍ 3 ȔȓȘȌ ȌȖȓȓ. ȗȖșȚțȗȐȓȈ ȕȈ șȟȍȚȈ ǴȐȕȜȐȕȈ țȎȍ 24 ȌȍȒȈȉȘȧ,
ȗȖȏȊȖȓȐȊ ȗȘȖȜȐȕȈȕșȐȘȖȊȈȚȤ ȗȍȘȊȖȖȟȍȘȍȌȕȣȍ ȘȈșȝȖȌȣ ȋȖșȉȦȌȎȍȚȈ. ǶȌȕȖȊȘȍȔȍȕȕȖ ș ȥȚȐȔ
ȘȖșșȐȑșȒȐȑ ȋȈȏȖȊȣȑ ȔȖȕȖȗȖȓȐșȚ ȒȖȔȗȈȕȐȧ «ǫȈȏȗȘȖȔ» Ȑ ǵȈȞȐȖȕȈȓȤȕȈȧ ȈȒȞȐȖȕȍȘȕȈȧ ȒȖȔȗȈȕȐȧ
«ǵȈȜȚȖȋȈȏ ǻȒȘȈȐȕȣ» ȗȖȌȗȐșȈȓȐ ȌȖȗȖȓȕȍȕȐȍ Ȓ ȌȍȑșȚȊțȦȡȍȔț ȒȖȕȚȘȈȒȚț (2009 ȋȖȌȈ), șȖȋȓȈșȕȖ
ȒȖȚȖȘȖȔț «ǫȈȏȗȘȖȔ» ȉțȌȍȚ ȗȖșȚȈȊȓȧȚȤ ȋȈȏ ȗȖ șȕȐȎȍȕȕȖȑ Ȟȍȕȍ (268,5 ȌȖȓȓ. ȏȈ Țȣș. Ȓțȉ. Ȕ ȗȘȖȚȐȊ
400 ȌȖȓȓ.).
ǷȖ ȖȞȍȕȒȈȔ ȈȕȈȓȐȚȐȒȖȊ ǭǩǸǸ, șȌȍȓȈȕȕȣȔ ȍȡȨ Ȋ 2013 ȋȖȌț, ȗȘȍȌȗȖȓȈȋȈȓșȧ ȘȖșȚ ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȒȐ
ǻȒȘȈȐȕȣ Ȋ 2014 ȋȖȌț ȕȈ 1,5%, Ȑ ȜȖȘȔȐȘȖȊȈȕȐȍ ȗȖȒȈȏȈȚȍȓȧ ȐȕȜȓȧȞȐȐ ȕȈ țȘȖȊȕȍ 2,6%. ǶȌȕȈȒȖ
ȗȖșȓȍȌșȚȊȐȧ șȖȉȣȚȐȑ ȒȖȕȞȈ 2013 – ȕȈȟȈȓȈ 2014 ȋȖȌȈ ȕȖșȧȚ ȕȈșȚȖȓȤȒȖ ȕȍȗȘȍȌșȒȈȏțȍȔȣȑ ȝȈȘȈȒȚȍȘ,
ȟȚȖ ȌȍȓȈȚȤ ȒȈȒȐȍ-ȓȐȉȖ ȒȘȈȚȒȖșȘȖȟȕȣȍ ȗȘȖȋȕȖȏȣ ȕȍ ȗȘȍȌșȚȈȊȓȧȍȚșȧ ȊȖȏȔȖȎȕȣȔ.
ǸȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȈ ǴȖȓȌȖȊȈ
ǷȖ ȐȚȖȋȈȔ 2013 ȋȖȌȈ ȖȉȢȨȔ ȗȘȖȔȣȠȓȍȕȕȖȋȖ ȗȘȖȐȏȊȖȌșȚȊȈ ǸȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȐ ǴȖȓȌȖȊȈ țȊȍȓȐȟȐȓșȧ
ȕȈ 6,8%, Ȋ ȉȖȓȤȠȍȑ ȟȈșȚȐ ȊșȓȍȌșȚȊȐȍ ȘȖșȚȈ ȗȖȒȈȏȈȚȍȓȍȑ ȌȖȉȣȊȈȦȡȍȑ ȗȘȖȔȣȠȓȍȕȕȖșȚȐ (+22,2%) Ȑ
șȜȍȘȣ ȗȘȖȐȏȊȖȌșȚȊȈ ȥȓȍȒȚȘȐȟȍșȒȐȝ ȔȈȠȐȕ Ȑ ȖȉȖȘțȌȖȊȈȕȐȧ (+31,1%). ǺȈȒȎȍ ȏȕȈȟȐȚȍȓȤȕȖ
ȗȖȊȣșȐȓșȧ ȐȕȌțșȚȘȐȈȓȤȕȣȑ ȊȣȗțșȒ Ȋ ȔȍȚȈȓȓțȘȋȐȟȍșȒȖȑ Ȑ ȝȐȔȐȟȍșȒȖȑ ȗȘȖȔȣȠȓȍȕȕȖșȚȧȝ (+29,9 Ȑ
+19,0% șȖȖȚȊȍȚșȚȊȍȕȕȖ). Ǫ ȚȖ Ȏȍ ȊȘȍȔȧ ȉȣȓȖ ȖȚȔȍȟȍȕȖ șȕȐȎȍȕȐȍ ȊȣȘȈȉȖȚȒȐ ȘȈșȚȐȚȍȓȤȕȣȝ ȔȈșȍȓ Ȑ
ȎȐȘȖȊ ȎȐȊȖȚȕȖȋȖ ȗȘȖȐșȝȖȎȌȍȕȐȧ (-72,6%), ȊȐȕȈ (-7,4%), Ȉ ȚȈȒȎȍ ȥȓȍȒȚȘȖ- Ȑ ȚȍȗȓȖȥȕȍȘȋȐȐ
(-4,3%).
ǶȉȢȨȔ șȖȉȘȈȕȕȖȑ ȗȘȖȌțȒȞȐȐ șȍȓȤșȒȖȋȖ ȝȖȏȧȑșȚȊȈ ȗȘȍȊȣșȐȓ ȉȈȏȐșȕȣȑ țȘȖȊȍȕȤ ȕȈ 38,3%, ȟȚȖ
ȧȊȓȧȍȚșȧ ȔȈȒșȐȔȈȓȤȕȣȔ ȗȘȐȘȖșȚȖȔ șȘȍȌȐ șȚȘȈȕ ǹǵǫ. ȅȚȖȔț șȗȖșȖȉșȚȊȖȊȈȓ ȘȖșȚ țȘȖȎȈȑȕȖșȚȐ Ȋ
ȘȈșȚȍȕȐȍȊȖȌșȚȊȍ (Ȋ 1,6 ȘȈȏȈ), ȚȖȋȌȈ ȒȈȒ Ȋ ȎȐȊȖȚȕȖȊȖȌșȚȊȍ ȗȈȘȈȔȍȚȘȣ ȗȘȖȐȏȊȖȌșȚȊȈ șȓȖȎȐȓȐșȤ ȕȈ
ȉȖȓȍȍ ȕȐȏȒȖȔ țȘȖȊȕȍ – +0,7%.
ǯȈ ȖȚȟȨȚȕȣȑ ȋȖȌ ȐȕȜȓȧȞȐȧ Ȋ ǸȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȍ ǴȖȓȌȖȊȈ șȖșȚȈȊȐȓȈ 5,2% ȗȘȖȚȐȊ 4,1% ȋȖȌȖȔ ȘȈȕȍȍ.
ǷȘȍȊȣȠȍȕȐȍ ȉȈȏȐșȕȖȋȖ ȗȈȘȈȔȍȚȘȈ ȖȉțșȓȖȊȓȍȕȖ, Ȋ ȗȍȘȊțȦ ȖȟȍȘȍȌȤ, ȉȖȓȍȍ ȊȣșȖȒȐȔ ȘȖșȚȖȔ Ȟȍȕ ȕȈ
ȗȘȖȌȖȊȖȓȤșȚȊȍȕȕȣȍ ȚȖȊȈȘȣ (+2,2 ȗ.ȗ. ȌȖ 7,6%), șȘȍȌȐ ȒȖȚȖȘȣȝ, Ȋ ȟȈșȚȕȖșȚȐ, ȈȒȚȐȊȕȣȔ
țȌȖȘȖȎȈȕȐȍȔ ȖȚȓȐȟȐȓȐșȤ ȒȈȘȚȖȜȍȓȤ (+19,9%), șȊȍȎȐȍ ȖȊȖȡȐ (+15,5%), ȧȑȞȈ (+12,9%) Ȑ șȓȐȊȖȟȕȖȍ
ȔȈșȓȖ (+11,7%). ǹȘȍȌȕȐȑ țȘȖȊȍȕȤ Ȟȍȕ ȕȈ ȕȍȗȘȖȌȖȊȖȓȤșȚȊȍȕȕȣȍ ȚȖȊȈȘȣ ȗȖȌȕȧȓșȧ ȕȈ 1,0 ȗ.ȗ. ȌȖ
4,6%, ȗȘȍȐȔțȡȍșȚȊȍȕȕȖ Ȋ ȘȍȏțȓȤȚȈȚȍ ȗȖȊȣȠȍȕȐȧ șȚȖȐȔȖșȚȐ șȈȕȐȚȈȘȕȖ-ȋȐȋȐȍȕȐȟȍșȒȐȝ ȐȏȌȍȓȐȑ
(+12,8%), ȖȌȍȎȌȣ (+6,1%), Ȉ ȚȈȒȎȍ ȌȖȘȖȎȕȣȝ ȚȖȊȈȘȖȊ Ȑ ȗȘȍȌȔȍȚȖȊ ȓȐȟȕȖȋȖ ȗȖȓȤȏȖȊȈȕȐȧ (+5,9%).
ǷȘȐȘȖșȚ ȚȈȘȐȜȖȊ Ȋ șȜȍȘȍ ȗȖȚȘȍȉȐȚȍȓȤșȒȐȝ țșȓțȋ șȖșȚȈȊȐȓ 2,9% (-0,1 ȗ.ȗ.). ǶȉȡȐȑ ȐȕȜȓȧȞȐȖȕȕȣȑ
ȜȖȕ ȌȐȒȚȖȊȈȓșȧ Ȋ ȗȖȌȈȊȓȧȦȡȍȑ șȚȍȗȍȕȐ ȗȖȊȣȠȍȕȐȍȔ ȚȘȈȕșȗȖȘȚȕȣȝ ȚȈȘȐȜȖȊ (+15,8%), șȚȖȐȔȖșȚȐ
ȗȖȓȐșȈ ȔȍȌȐȞȐȕșȒȖȋȖ șȚȘȈȝȖȊȈȕȐȧ (+11,3%) Ȑ țșȓțȋ ȌȖȠȒȖȓȤȕȣȝ țȟȘȍȎȌȍȕȐȑ (+11,1%). Ǿȍȕȣ
ǪȍșȚȕȐȒ ǷȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊșȒȖȋȖ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȈȕșȒȖȋȖ ȉȈȕȒȈ ȹ3’2014
19
ǴȐȘȖȊȈȧ ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȒȈ
ȌȍȒȈȉȘȤ
ȕȖȧȉȘȤ
ȖȒȚȧȉȘȤ
șȍȕȚȧȉȘȤ
ȈȊȋțșȚ
ȐȦȓȤ
ȐȦȕȤ
ȔȈȑ
ȈȗȘȍȓȤ
ȔȈȘȚ
ȜȍȊȘȈȓȤ
ȧȕȊȈȘȤ
ȗȘȖȔȣȠȓȍȕȕȣȝ ȗȘȖȐȏȊȖȌȐȚȍȓȍȑ ȏȈ 2013 ȋȖȌ ȊȖȏȘȖșȓȐ ȕȈ 3,2%, Ȋ ȚȖȔ ȟȐșȓȍ ȏȈ șȟȨȚ ȊȕțȚȘȍȕȕȍȋȖ
ȘȣȕȒȈ – ȕȈ 1,9%, ȊȕȍȠȕȍȋȖ – ȕȈ 6,4%.
Ǫ ȐȕȊȍșȚȐȞȐȖȕȕȖȑ șȜȍȘȍ ȏȈȜȐȒșȐȘȖȊȈȕȖ țȊȍȓȐȟȍȕȐȍ ȌȖȓȋȖșȘȖȟȕȣȝ ȊȓȖȎȍȕȐȑ ȝȖȏȧȑșȚȊțȦȡȐȝ
șțȉȢȍȒȚȖȊ (+2,3%), ȚȖȋȌȈ ȒȈȒ Ȋ ȉȈȏȐșȕȖȔ ȗȍȘȐȖȌȍ ȕȈȉȓȦȌȈȓȖșȤ Ȑȝ țȔȍȕȤȠȍȕȐȍ ȕȈ 4,2%. Ǫ ȖȚȟȨȚȕȖȔ
ȗȍȘȐȖȌȍ ȕȈȉȓȦȌȈȓșȧ ȊȖșșȚȈȕȖȊȐȚȍȓȤȕȣȑ ȘȖșȚ ȜȐȕȈȕșȐȘȖȊȈȕȐȧ ȗȘȐȖȉȘȍȚȍȕȐȧ ȔȈȠȐȕ,
ȖȉȖȘțȌȖȊȈȕȐȧ Ȑ ȚȘȈȕșȗȖȘȚȕȣȝ șȘȍȌșȚȊ (ȕȈ 4,0%), Ȉ ȚȈȒȎȍ șȚȘȖȐȚȍȓȤȕȖ-ȔȖȕȚȈȎȕȣȝ ȘȈȉȖȚ (ȕȈ 1,6%).
ǸȈȏȊȐȚȐȍ ȊȕȍȠȕȍȑ ȚȖȘȋȖȊȓȐ ȗȘȍȐȔțȡȍșȚȊȍȕȕȖ Ȋ ȚȘȈȌȐȞȐȖȕȕȣȝ Ȍȓȧ ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȒȐ ǴȖȓȌȖȊȣ
ȊȐȌȈȝ ȌȍȧȚȍȓȤȕȖșȚȐ ȗȖȏȊȖȓȐȓȖ ȕȈȘȈșȚȐȚȤ ȥȒșȗȖȘȚ ȚȖȊȈȘȖȊ ȕȈ 11,0% ȌȖ 2 399,0 Ȕȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ. ǷȘȐ ȥȚȖȔ
ȕȈ ȜȖȕȍ ȗȘȈȒȚȐȟȍșȒȐ ȕȍ ȐȏȔȍȕȐȊȠȍȋȖșȧ ȖȉȢȨȔȈ ȗȖșȚȈȊȖȒ Ȋ șȚȘȈȕȣ ǹǵǫ (-0,4% ȌȖ 924,0 Ȕȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ.)
ȗȘȖȌȈȎȈ ȚȖȊȈȘȖȊ ȗȈȘȚȕȨȘȈȔ Ȑȏ ǭȊȘȖȗȍȑșȒȖȋȖ șȖȦȏȈ ȘȈșȠȐȘȐȓȈșȤ ȕȈ 12,5% ȌȖ 1 140,9 Ȕȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ.
DzȓȦȟȍȊȣȔȐ ȗȖȏȐȞȐȧȔȐ Ȋ șȚȘțȒȚțȘȍ ȥȒșȗȖȘȚȈ, ȒȈȒ Ȑ ȘȈȕȍȍ, ȉȣȓȐ ȗȐȡȍȊȣȍ ȗȘȖȌțȒȚȣ (+19,5% ȌȖ
523,3 Ȕȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ.), ȔȈȠȐȕȣ Ȑ ȚȘȈȕșȗȖȘȚȕȖȍ ȖȉȖȘțȌȖȊȈȕȐȍ (+7,6% ȌȖ 364,7 Ȕȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ.), Ȉ ȚȈȒȎȍ
ȗȘȍȌȔȍȚȣ ȖȌȍȎȌȣ (+2,4% ȌȖ 260,5 Ȕȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ.). ǴȈșȠȚȈȉȣ ȗȘȐȘȖșȚȈ ȐȔȗȖȘȚȐȘȖȊȈȕȕȖȑ ȗȘȖȌțȒȞȐȐ
șȓȖȎȐȓȐșȤ ȉȖȓȍȍ ȕȐȏȒȐȔȐ (+5,4% ȌȖ 5 492,7 Ȕȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ.). ǹȗȘȖș ȕȈ ȚȖȊȈȘȣ șȚȘȈȕ ǭȊȘȖȗȍȑșȒȖȋȖ
șȖȦȏȈ ȗȖȊȣșȐȓșȧ ȕȈ 6,6% ȌȖ 2 472,8 Ȕȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ., ȋȖșțȌȈȘșȚȊ ǹȖȌȘțȎȍșȚȊȈ – ȕȈ 3,0% ȌȖ
1 671,9 Ȕȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ. Ǫ ȉȖȓȤȠȍȑ ȟȈșȚȐ ȗȘȍȖȉȓȈȌȈȓȐ ȔȐȕȍȘȈȓȤȕȖȍ ȚȖȗȓȐȊȖ (+3,1% ȌȖ
1 235,4 Ȕȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ.), ȝȐȔȐȟȍșȒȐȍ ȊȍȡȍșȚȊȈ (+10,8% ȌȖ 782,3 Ȕȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ.) Ȑ ȥȓȍȒȚȘȐȟȍșȒȐȍ ȔȈȠȐȕȣ
(+8,2% ȌȖ 347,5 Ȕȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ.). ǺȈȒȐȔ ȖȉȘȈȏȖȔ, ȗȖ ȐȚȖȋȈȔ 2013 ȋȖȌȈ ȖȚȘȐȞȈȚȍȓȤȕȖȍ șȈȓȤȌȖ ȊȕȍȠȕȍȑ
ȚȖȘȋȖȊȓȐ țȊȍȓȐȟȐȓȖșȤ ȕȈ 1,4% ȌȖ 3 093,7 Ȕȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ.
ǬȖȝȖȌȣ ȋȖșțȌȈȘșȚȊȍȕȕȖȋȖ ȉȦȌȎȍȚȈ ǸȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȐ ǴȖȓȌȖȊȈ ȊȖȏȘȖșȓȐ ȖȚȕȖșȐȚȍȓȤȕȖ ȊȍȓȐȟȐȕȣ
2012 ȋȖȌȈ ȕȈ 10,1%, ȌȖșȚȐȋȕțȊ 36 908,5 Ȕȓȕ ȓȍȑ (-0,4% Ȓ ȏȈȗȓȈȕȐȘȖȊȈȕȕȖȔț ȏȕȈȟȍȕȐȦ). ǷȖȘȧȌȒȈ
87% Ȋșȍȝ ȗȖșȚțȗȓȍȕȐȑ ȗȘȐȠȓȖșȤ ȕȈ ȌȖȓȦ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȣȝ ȌȖȝȖȌȖȊ, ȗȘȐ ȥȚȖȔ ȗȘȖȋȕȖȏȐȘțȍȔȈȧ ȖȚȔȍȚȒȈ
ȉȣȓȈ ȗȘȍȊȣȠȍȕȈ ȕȈ 0,3%, Ȉ ȜȈȒȚȐȟȍșȒȐȍ ȗȖșȚțȗȓȍȕȐȧ ȏȈ ȗȘȍȌȠȍșȚȊțȦȡȐȑ ȋȖȌ ȕȈ 11,5%. ǸȈșȝȖȌȣ
ȕȈȞȐȖȕȈȓȤȕȖȋȖ ȗțȉȓȐȟȕȖȋȖ ȉȦȌȎȍȚȈ ȉȣȓȐ ȐșȗȖȓȕȍȕȣ Ȋ șțȔȔȍ 38 673,1 Ȕȓȕ ȓȍȑ, ȟȚȖ ȕȈ 3,6% ȕȐȎȍ
ȏȈȗȓȈȕȐȘȖȊȈȕȕȣȝ Ȑ ȕȈ 9,3% ȊȣȠȍ ȉȈȏȐșȕȖȋȖ ȗȖȒȈȏȈȚȍȓȧ. ǷȓȈȕȖȊȣȍ ȖȘȐȍȕȚȐȘȣ ȕȍ ȉȣȓȐ
ȌȖșȚȐȋȕțȚȣ ȒȈȒ ȗȖ ȉȦȌȎȍȚȈȔ ȈȌȔȐȕȐșȚȘȈȚȐȊȕȖ-ȚȍȘȘȐȚȖȘȐȈȓȤȕȣȝ ȍȌȐȕȐȞ (-7,1%), ȚȈȒ Ȑ ȗȖ
ȋȖșțȌȈȘșȚȊȍȕȕȖȔț ȉȦȌȎȍȚț (-4,0%). Ǫ ȘȍȏțȓȤȚȈȚȍ, ȗȘȍȊȣȠȍȕȐȍ ȘȈșȝȖȌȖȊ ȕȈȌ ȌȖȝȖȌȈȔȐ ȗȘȐȊȍȓȖ Ȓ
ȖȉȘȈȏȖȊȈȕȐȦ Ȋ 2013 ȋȖȌț ȉȦȌȎȍȚȕȖȋȖ ȌȍȜȐȞȐȚȈ Ȋ ȘȈȏȔȍȘȍ 1 764,6 Ȕȓȕ ȓȍȑ (ȗȓȈȕ – 3 048,7 Ȕȓȕ ȓȍȑ.)
ǯȕȈȟȐȚȍȓȤȕȣȔ ȐșȚȖȟȕȐȒȖȔ ȗȘȐȚȖȒȈ
160,0
ȊȈȓȦȚȣ Ȋ ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȒț ǸȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȐ ǴȖȓȌȖȊȈ
120,0
ȗȖ-ȗȘȍȎȕȍȔț
ȧȊȓȧȦȚșȧ
ȌȍȕȍȎȕȣȍ
ȗȍȘȍȟȐșȓȍȕȐȧ ȔȐȋȘȈȕȚȖȊ (ȘȐș. 8). ǷȖ ȌȈȕȕȣȔ
80,0
ȐșșȓȍȌȖȊȈȕȐȧ ǪșȍȔȐȘȕȖȋȖ ȉȈȕȒȈ, șȚȘȈȕȈ
40,0
ȏȈȕȐȔȈȍȚ ȗȧȚȖȍ ȔȍșȚȖ Ȋ ȔȐȘȍ (3-ȍ – șȘȍȌȐ
0,0
șȚȘȈȕ ǭȊȘȖȗȣ Ȑ ǾȍȕȚȘȈȓȤȕȖȑ ǨȏȐȐ) ȗȖ
țȌȍȓȤȕȖȔț Ȋȍșț ȖȉȢȨȔȈ ȗȍȘȍȊȖȌȖȊ ȔȐȋȘȈȕȚȖȊ
Ȋ ǪǪǷ (24,1%). ǹȖȋȓȈșȕȖ Ȑȝ ȘȈșȟȨȚȈȔ, ȏȈ
ȋȘȈȕȐȞȍȑ ȚȘțȌȐȚșȧ ȉȖȓȍȍ 700 Țȣș. ȋȘȈȎȌȈȕ,
2012 ȋȖȌ
2013 ȋȖȌ
ȒȖȚȖȘȣȍ ȊȣșȓȈȓȐ ȕȈ ȘȖȌȐȕț ȏȈ 2013 ȋȖȌ
ǸȐș. 8. ǬȍȕȍȎȕȣȍ ȗȍȘȍȊȖȌȣ Ȑȏ-ȏȈ ȋȘȈȕȐȞȣ,
ȗȖȘȧȌȒȈ 1 609 Ȕȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ. (+7,6%).
ȖșțȡȍșȚȊȓȧȍȔȣȍ Ȋ ȗȖȓȤȏț ȕȈșȍȓȍȕȐȧ ǴȖȓȌȖȊȣ
ǹȐȚțȈȞȐȧ
Ȋ
ȉȈȕȒȖȊșȒȖȔ
șȍȒȚȖȘȍ
Ȋ ȧȕȊȈȘȍ-ȌȍȒȈȉȘȍ 2012-2013 ȋȋ., Ȕȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ. ǹȀǨ
ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȐ ȝȈȘȈȒȚȍȘȐȏȖȊȈȓȈșȤ șȖȒȘȈȡȍȕȐȍȔ
ȖȉȢȨȔȖȊ ȌȍȗȖȏȐȚȕȣȝ ȖȗȍȘȈȞȐȑ (-12,3%) ȕȈ ȜȖȕȍ ȘȖșȚȈ ȊȣȌȈȕȕȣȝ ȒȘȍȌȐȚȖȊ (+14,3%). ǷȘȐ ȥȚȖȔ
ȗȘȖȞȍȕȚȕȈȧ șȚȈȊȒȈ ȗȖ ȊȒȓȈȌȈȔ Ȋ ȕȈȞȐȖȕȈȓȤȕȖȑ ȊȈȓȦȚȍ șȕȐȏȐȓȈșȤ ȒȈȒ Ȍȓȧ ȜȐȏȐȟȍșȒȐȝ ȓȐȞ (-1,0 ȗ.ȗ.
ȌȖ 8,6% ȋȖȌȖȊȣȝ), ȚȈȒ Ȑ Ȍȓȧ ȦȘȐȌȐȟȍșȒȐȝ ȓȐȞ (-0,4 ȗ.ȗ. ȌȖ 4,6%). Ǫ ȘȈȏȘȍȏȍ ȞȍȕȖȊȣȝ ȝȈȘȈȒȚȍȘȐșȚȐȒ
ȒȘȍȌȐȚȖȊȈȕȐȧ ȚȈȒȎȍ ȕȈȉȓȦȌȈȓȈșȤ ȗȖȕȐȎȈȚȍȓȤȕȈȧ ȌȐȕȈȔȐȒȈ: șȚȈȊȒȐ ȗȖ ȒȘȈȚȒȖșȘȖȟȕȣȔ ȏȈȑȔȈȔ Ȋ
ȕȈȞȐȖȕȈȓȤȕȖȑ ȊȈȓȦȚȍ Ȍȓȧ ȜȐȏȐȟȍșȒȐȝ ȓȐȞ țȔȍȕȤȠȐȓȐșȤ ȕȈ 1,4 ȗ.ȗ. ȌȖ 15,6%, Ȍȓȧ ȝȖȏȧȑșȚȊțȦȡȐȝ
șțȉȢȍȒȚȖȊ – ȕȈ 1,2 ȗ.ȗ. ȌȖ 12,5%.
20
ǪȍșȚȕȐȒ ǷȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊșȒȖȋȖ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȈȕșȒȖȋȖ ȉȈȕȒȈ ȹ3’2014
ǴȐȘȖȊȈȧ ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȒȈ
ǶȌȕȐȔ Ȑȏ ȊȈȎȕȍȑȠȐȝ șȖȉȣȚȐȑ Ȋ ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȒȍ ǸȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȐ ǴȖȓȌȖȊȈ șȚȈȓȖ ȔȈșȠȚȈȉȕȖȍ
ȖȉȍșȞȍȕȍȕȐȍ ȕȈȞȐȖȕȈȓȤȕȖȑ ȊȈȓȦȚȣ Ȋ ȒȖȕȞȍ 2013 ȋȖȌȈ, ȒȖȋȌȈ ȍȨ ȒțȘș Ȓ ȌȖȓȓȈȘț ǹȀǨ ȗȘȍȊȣșȐȓ
ȖȚȔȍȚȒț 13,0 ȓȍȑ. Ǫ ȞȍȓȖȔ ȏȈ ȖȚȟȨȚȕȣȑ ȋȖȌ ȌȍȊȈȓȤȊȈȞȐȧ ȏȈȜȐȒșȐȘȖȊȈȕȈ ȕȈ țȘȖȊȕȍ 8,2%. ǷȖ
ȔȕȍȕȐȦ ȥȒșȗȍȘȚȖȊ, ȥȚȖȔț șȗȖșȖȉșȚȊȖȊȈȓȖ ȕȍșȒȖȓȤȒȖ ȜȈȒȚȖȘȖȊ. Ǫ ȟȈșȚȕȖșȚȐ, șȘȍȌȐ ȖșȕȖȊȕȣȝ
ȗȘȖȉȓȍȔ ȕȈȏȣȊȈȦȚșȧ ȖȉȡȈȧ ȕȐȏȒȈȧ ȐȕȊȍșȚȐȞȐȖȕȕȈȧ ȗȘȐȊȓȍȒȈȚȍȓȤȕȖșȚȤ ǴȖȓȌȖȊȣ, șȓȖȎȕȖșȚȐ ș
ȥȒșȗȖȘȚȖȔ ȔȖȓȌȈȊșȒȖȑ ȗȘȖȌțȒȞȐȐ Ȋ ǸȖșșȐȦ Ȑ șȖșȚȖȧȕȐȍ ȔȐȘȖȊȖȑ ȒȖȕȢȦȕȒȚțȘȣ. ǺȈȒȎȍ
ȖȗȘȍȌȍȓȨȕȕțȦ ȘȖȓȤ șȣȋȘȈȓȈ ȌȍȕȍȎȕȈȧ ȗȖȓȐȚȐȒȈ ǵȈȞȐȖȕȈȓȤȕȖȋȖ ǩȈȕȒȈ ǴȖȓȌȖȊȣ, ȖșȕȖȊȕȣȍ
țșȐȓȐȧ ȒȖȚȖȘȖȋȖ ȉȣȓȐ ȕȈȗȘȈȊȓȍȕȣ ȕȈ ȌȖșȚȐȎȍȕȐȍ ȞȍȓȍȊȖȋȖ ȖȘȐȍȕȚȐȘȈ ȗȖ ȐȕȜȓȧȞȐȐ ȕȈ țȘȖȊȕȍ 5%
(±1,5 ȗ.ȗ.).
DzȘțȗȕȍȑȠȐȔȐ ȐȕșȚȐȚțȞȐȖȕȈȓȤȕȣȔȐ ȐȕȊȍșȚȖȘȈȔȐ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȐ ȉȣȓȐ ǭȊȘȖȗȍȑșȒȐȑ ȉȈȕȒ
ȘȍȒȖȕșȚȘțȒȞȐȐ Ȑ ȘȈȏȊȐȚȐȧ (ǭǩǸǸ) Ȑ ǭȊȘȖȗȍȑșȒȐȑ ǰȕȌțșȚȘȐȈȓȤȕȣȑ ȉȈȕȒ (ǭǰǩ), ȒȖȚȖȘȣȍ ȊȓȖȎȐȓȐ
șȊȣȠȍ 130 Ȕȓȕ ȍȊȘȖ Ȋ 15 ȗȘȖȍȒȚȖȊ Ȋ ȘȈȏȓȐȟȕȣȝ ȖȉȓȈșȚȧȝ (Ȋ ȚȖȔ ȟȐșȓȍ Ȋ ȘȍȒȖȕșȚȘțȒȞȐȦ ȌȖȘȖȋ,
șȚȘȖȐȚȍȓȤșȚȊȖ ȊȖȌȖȗȘȖȊȖȌȖȊ, ȥȓȍȒȚȘȐȜȐȒȈȞȐȦ Ȑ ȌȘ.). ǷȖ șȓȖȊȈȔ ȗȘȍȌșȚȈȊȐȚȍȓȍȑ ȉȈȕȒȖȊ,
șțȡȍșȚȊțȦȡȐȍ ȖȉȧȏȈȚȍȓȤșȚȊȈ ȗȖ ȖȚȕȖȠȍȕȐȦ Ȓ ȍȊȘȖȗȍȑșȒȖȔț ȒțȘșț ȥȚȖȑ șȚȘȈȕȣ, ȗȘȍȌȗȖȓȈȋȈȦȚ
ȌȈȓȤȕȍȑȠțȦ ȍȨ ȗȖȌȌȍȘȎȒț. Ǫ ȟȈșȚȕȖșȚȐ, ȖȕȐ ȖȚȔȍȚȐȓȐ, ȟȚȖ ǴȖȓȌȖȊȈ ȗȖȓțȟȈȍȚ ȖȚ ǭǰǩ ȉȖȓȤȠȍ
ȊșȍȋȖ Ȍȍȕȍȋ ȕȈ ȌțȠț ȕȈșȍȓȍȕȐȧ, ȟȍȔ ȓȦȉȈȧ ȌȘțȋȈȧ șȚȘȈȕȈ ȘȍȋȐȖȕȈ.
Ǫ ȗȘȖȠȍȌȠȍȔ ȋȖȌț ǸȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȈ ǴȖȓȌȖȊȈ ȗȘȍȌȗȘȐȕȧȓȈ ȘȧȌ ȊȈȎȕȣȝ ȠȈȋȖȊ ȗȖ ȌȈȓȤȕȍȑȠȍȔț
șȉȓȐȎȍȕȐȦ ș ǭǹ. Ǫ ȐȦȓȍ 2013 ȋȖȌȈ ȗȘȈȊȐȚȍȓȤșȚȊȈ ǴȖȓȌȖȊȣ Ȑ ǸțȔȣȕȐȐ ȌȖȋȖȊȖȘȐȓȐșȤ Ȗ ȌȈȚȍ
ȕȈȟȈȓȈ șȚȘȖȐȚȍȓȤșȚȊȈ ȋȈȏȖȗȘȖȊȖȌȈ ȇșșȣ-ǻȕȋȍȕȣ, ȒȖȚȖȘȣȑ șȖȍȌȐȕȐȚ ȋȈȏȖȚȘȈȕșȗȖȘȚȕȣȍ șȐșȚȍȔȣ
ȖȉȍȐȝ șȚȘȈȕ Ȑ ȉțȌȍȚ șȗȖșȖȉșȚȊȖȊȈȚȤ ȌȐȊȍȘșȐȜȐȒȈȞȐȐ ȐșȚȖȟȕȐȒȖȊ ȥȕȍȘȋȖȘȍșțȘșȖȊ Ȍȓȧ ǴȖȓȌȖȊȣ. Ǫ
ȈȊȋțșȚȍ 2013 ȋȖȌȈ ȈȊșȚȘȖ-ȘțȔȣȕșȒȐȑ ȒȖȕșȖȘȞȐțȔ, ȊȣȉȘȈȕȕȣȑ ȗȖ ȐȚȖȋȈȔ ȒȖȕȒțȘșȈ, ȗȘȐșȚțȗȐȓ Ȓ
șȚȘȖȐȚȍȓȤșȚȊț, ȒȖȚȖȘȖȍ ȌȖȓȎȕȖ ȏȈȊȍȘȠȐȚȤșȧ Ȓ ȈȗȘȍȓȦ 2014 ȋȖȌȈ. ǨȒȚȐȊȕȈȧ ȘȈȉȖȚȈ ȗȖ
șȖȊȍȘȠȍȕșȚȊȖȊȈȕȐȦ ȌȖȘȖȎȕȖȑ, ȗȖȘȚȖȊȖȑ Ȑ ȎȍȓȍȏȕȖȌȖȘȖȎȕȖȑ ȐȕȜȘȈșȚȘțȒȚțȘȣ, ȊȍȌțȡȈȧșȧ ȗȘȐ
ȗȖȌȌȍȘȎȒȍ ȔȍȎȌțȕȈȘȖȌȕȣȝ ȜȐȕȈȕșȖȊȣȝ ȖȘȋȈȕȐȏȈȞȐȑ, ȌȖȓȎȕȈ ȗȘȐȊȍșȚȐ Ȓ țȌȍȠȍȊȓȍȕȐȦ ȚȖȘȋȖȊȣȝ
ȖȗȍȘȈȞȐȑ Ȑ ȗȖȔȖȟȤ ǴȖȓȌȖȊȍ ȗȖȓȕȖșȚȤȦ ȘȈșȒȘȣȚȤ șȊȖȑ ȚȘȈȕȏȐȚȕȣȑ ȗȖȚȍȕȞȐȈȓ. ǵȈ ȕȖȧȉȘȤșȒȖȔ
ǹȈȔȔȐȚȍ ȊȖșȚȖȟȕȖȋȖ ȗȈȘȚȕȨȘșȚȊȈ Ȋ ǪȐȓȤȕȦșȍ DzȐȠȐȕȍȊ ȗȈȘȈȜȐȘȖȊȈȓ șȖȋȓȈȠȍȕȐȍ Ȗȉ ȈșșȖȞȐȈȞȐȐ ș
ǭȊȘȖșȖȦȏȖȔ. ǺȈȒȐȔ ȖȉȘȈȏȖȔ, ȌȍȑșȚȊțȦȡȐȍ ȊȓȈșȚȐ ȘȍȈȓȐȏȖȊȈȓȐ șȊȖȐ ȍȊȘȖȐȕȚȍȋȘȈȞȐȖȕȕȣȍ
țșȚȘȍȔȓȍȕȐȧ. ǶȌȕȐȔ Ȑȏ ȘȍȏțȓȤȚȈȚȖȊ șȖȋȓȈȠȍȕȐȧ ȧȊȓȧȍȚșȧ ȗȍȘȍȝȖȌ Ȓ ȉȍȏȊȐȏȖȊȖȔț ȘȍȎȐȔț ș ǭǹ.
DzȈșȈȚȍȓȤȕȖ ȗȘȖȋȕȖȏȈ ȕȈ 2014 ȋȖȌ, șȓȍȌțȍȚ ȖȚȔȍȚȐȚȤ, ȟȚȖ, ȗȖ ȔȕȍȕȐȦ ȥȒșȗȍȘȚȖȊ ǭǩǸǸ
șȗȍȞȐȜȐȒȈ șȐȓȤȕȖȋȖ ȘȖșȚȈ ǪǪǷ ǴȖȓȌȖȊȣ Ȋ 2013 ȋȖȌț ȕȈ ȜȖȕȍ șȗȈȌȈ Ȋ 2012 ȋȖȌț Ȑȏ-ȏȈ ȏȈșțȝȐ,
ȖȉțșȓȈȊȓȐȊȈȍȚ ȕȍȖȗȘȍȌȍȓȨȕȕȣȍ ȒȘȈȚȒȖșȘȖȟȕȣȍ ȗȍȘșȗȍȒȚȐȊȣ ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȟȍșȒȖȋȖ ȘȈȏȊȐȚȐȧ șȚȘȈȕȣ Ȋ
2014 ȋȖȌț. ǷȖȌȟȍȘȒȐȊȈȍȚșȧ, ȟȚȖ ȐȕȊȍșȚȐȞȐȖȕȕȈȧ ȌȍȧȚȍȓȤȕȖșȚȤ ȖșȚȈȕȍȚșȧ șȌȍȘȎȈȕȕȖȑ Ȑȏ-ȏȈ șȓȈȉȖȑ
ȉȐȏȕȍș-șȘȍȌȣ Ȑ ȗȓȖȝȖȋȖ ȒȖȘȗȖȘȈȚȐȊȕȖȋȖ țȗȘȈȊȓȍȕȐȧ Ȋ ȉȈȕȒȈȝ. ǷȘȈȊȐȚȍȓȤșȚȊȖ ǴȖȓȌȖȊȣ Ȋ ȚȍȒțȡȍȔ
ȋȖȌț ȖȎȐȌȈȍȚ țȊȍȓȐȟȍȕȐȧ ǪǪǷ ȕȈ 4%, Ȉ șȖȋȓȈșȕȖ ȖȞȍȕȒȈȔ șȗȍȞȐȈȓȐșȚȖȊ ȍȊȘȖȗȍȑșȒȖȋȖ ȉȈȕȒȈ – ȕȈ
3,5%.
ǪȍșȚȕȐȒ ǷȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊșȒȖȋȖ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȈȕșȒȖȋȖ ȉȈȕȒȈ ȹ3’2014
21
ǷȖ ȔȈȚȍȘȐȈȓȈȔ ȒȖȕȜȍȘȍȕȞȐȑ
ǹǶǪǸǭǴǭǵǵǶǭ ǹǶǹǺǶȇǵǰǭ ǰ ǷǭǸǹǷǭDzǺǰǪȃ
ǸǨǯǪǰǺǰȇ ǩǨǵDzǶǪǹDzǶDZ ǹǰǹǺǭǴȃ
ǷǸǰǬǵǭǹǺǸǶǪǹDzǶDZ ǴǶdzǬǨǪǹDzǶDZ
ǸǭǹǷǻǩdzǰDzǰ
13 ȔȈȘȚȈ 2014 ȋȖȌȈ șȖșȚȖȧȓȈșȤ ȔȍȎȌțȕȈȘȖȌȕȈȧ ȕȈțȟȕȖ-ȗȘȈȒȚȐȟȍșȒȈȧ ȒȖȕȜȍȘȍȕȞȐȧ,
ȖȘȋȈȕȐȏȖȊȈȕȕȈȧ șȖȊȔȍșȚȕȖ ǷȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊșȒȐȔ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȈȕșȒȐȔ ȉȈȕȒȖȔ Ȑ ǷȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊșȒȐȔ
ǫȖșțȌȈȘșȚȊȍȕȕȣȔ ǻȕȐȊȍȘșȐȚȍȚȖȔ ȐȔ. Ǻ.ǫ. ȀȍȊȟȍȕȒȖ. ǻȟȈșȚȐȍ Ȋ ȕȍȑ ȗȘȐȕȧȓȐ ȚȈȒȎȍ
ȗȘȍȌșȚȈȊȐȚȍȓȐ ȏȈȒȖȕȖȌȈȚȍȓȤȕȖȑ Ȑ ȐșȗȖȓȕȐȚȍȓȤȕȖȑ ȊȍȚȊȍȑ ȊȓȈșȚȐ, ȒȖȔȔȍȘȟȍșȒȐȝ ȉȈȕȒȖȊ,
ȋȖșȚȐ Ȑȏ ȉȈȕȒȖȊșȒȖȋȖ șȖȖȉȡȍșȚȊȈ ǸȖșșȐȑșȒȖȑ ǼȍȌȍȘȈȞȐȐ. Ǫ ȌȖȒȓȈȌȈȝ ȏȊțȟȈȓȐ ȈȒȚțȈȓȤȕȣȍ
ȚȍȔȣ ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȟȍșȒȖȑ ȗȖȓȐȚȐȒȐ ȋȖșțȌȈȘșȚȊȈ, ȘȖȓȐ ȉȈȕȒȖȊ ǷǴǸ Ȋ ȘȈȏȊȐȚȐȐ ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȒȐ,
ȊȖȗȘȖșȣ ȒțȘșȖȖȉȘȈȏȖȊȈȕȐȧ, ȜȐȕȈȕșȖȊȖȋȖ ȔȖȕȐȚȖȘȐȕȋȈ, ȦȘȐȌȐȟȍșȒȐȍ ȈșȗȍȒȚȣ
ȘȍȋțȓȐȘȖȊȈȕȐȧ Ȑ ȕȈȌȏȖȘȈ, Ȉ ȚȈȒȎȍ ȘȈȏȊȐȚȐȧ ȐȕȜȖȘȔȈȞȐȖȕȕȣȝ ȚȍȝȕȖȓȖȋȐȑ.
ǷȖ ȐȚȖȋȈȔ ȒȖȕȜȍȘȍȕȞȐȐ ȉȣȓȈ ȗȘȐȕȧȚȈ șȖȊȔȍșȚȕȈȧ ȘȍȏȖȓȦȞȐȧ, Ȋ ȒȖȚȖȘȖȑ ȕȈȠȓȐ șȊȖȨ
ȖȚȘȈȎȍȕȐȍ ȊȖȗȘȖșȣ ȊȏȈȐȔȖȌȍȑșȚȊȐȧ ȊȍȚȊȍȑ ȊȓȈșȚȐ Ȑ ȞȍȕȚȘȈȓȤȕȖȋȖ ȉȈȕȒȈ Ȋ ȘȈȏȊȐȚȐȐ
ȉȈȕȒȖȊșȒȖȑ șȐșȚȍȔȣ.
Ǫ ȌȈȕȕȖȔ ȕȖȔȍȘȍ ȊȕȐȔȈȕȐȦ ȟȐȚȈȚȍȓȍȑ ȗȘȍȌȓȈȋȈȍȚșȧ ȌȊȈ ȌȖȒȓȈȌȈ, ȗȘȍȌșȚȈȊȓȍȕȕȣȝ ȕȈ
ȗȘȖȠȍȌȠȍȑ ȒȖȕȜȍȘȍȕȞȐȐ. Ǫ ȗȖșȓȍȌțȦȡȐȝ ȊȣȗțșȒȈȝ «ǪȍșȚȕȐȒȈ ǷǸǩ» ȗȓȈȕȐȘțȍȚșȧ
ȗȘȖȌȖȓȎȐȚȤ ȘȈȏȔȍȡȍȕȐȍ ȗțȉȓȐȒȈȞȐȑ.
ȅDzǶǵǶǴǰǿǭǹDzǨȇ ǷǶdzǰǺǰDzǨ ǫǶǹǻǬǨǸǹǺǪǨ
Ǫ DzǶǵǺǭDzǹǺǭ ǪǯǨǰǴǶǬǭDZǹǺǪǰȇ ǴǰǵǰǹǺǭǸǹǺǪǨ ȅDzǶǵǶǴǰǿǭǹDzǶǫǶ
ǸǨǯǪǰǺǰȇ ǷǴǸ ǰ ǷǸǰǬǵǭǹǺǸǶǪǹDzǶǫǶ ǸǭǹǷǻǩdzǰDzǨǵǹDzǶǫǶ ǩǨǵDzǨ
ȀȊȍȞ ǰ.Ǻ.,
ȏȈȔȍșȚȐȚȍȓȤ ȔȐȕȐșȚȘȈ ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȟȍșȒȖȋȖ ȘȈȏȊȐȚȐȧ
ǷȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊșȒȖȑ ǴȖȓȌȈȊșȒȖȑ ǸȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȐ
ǹȍȋȖȌȕȧ ȗȍȘȍȌ ǷȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊȤȍȔ șȚȖȧȚ ȔȈșȠȚȈȉȕȣȍ ȏȈȌȈȟȐ ȗȖ ȗȘȍȖȌȖȓȍȕȐȦ ȌȐșȉȈȓȈȕșȖȊ Ȋ
șȖȞȐȈȓȤȕȖ-ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȟȍșȒȖȔ ȘȈȏȊȐȚȐȐ Ȑ ȊȣȘȈȉȖȚȒȍ ȔȍȘ ȗȖ șȚȐȔțȓȐȘȖȊȈȕȐȦ ȖȏȌȖȘȖȊȓȍȕȐȧ
ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȒȐ. ǴȍȎȌț ȚȍȔ, ȕȈȝȖȌȧșȤ Ȋ ȎȨșȚȒȐȝ ȘȈȔȒȈȝ ȋȍȖȗȖȓȐȚȐȟȍșȒȖȋȖ ȌȈȊȓȍȕȐȧ, Ȋ șȖȊȖȒțȗȕȖșȚȐ ș
ȚțȘȉțȓȍȕȚȕȖșȚȤȦ ȔȐȘȖȊȣȝ ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȒ ȚȖȓȤȒȖ ȒȖȕșȖȓȐȌȈȞȐȧ țșȐȓȐȑ Ȋșȍȝ ȊȍȚȊȍȑ ȊȓȈșȚȐ ȕȈ
ȌȖșȚȐȎȍȕȐȍ Ȗȉȡȍȑ ȏȈȌȈȟȐ ȗȖ ȖȉȍșȗȍȟȍȕȐȦ țșȚȖȑȟȐȊȖȋȖ ȘȖșȚȈ ȊȖ Ȋșȍȝ șȜȍȘȈȝ ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȒȐ ȗȖȏȊȖȓȐȚ
ȊȣȑȚȐ ȕȈ ȒȈȟȍșȚȊȍȕȕȖ ȕȖȊȣȑ țȘȖȊȍȕȤ ȘȈȏȊȐȚȐȧ.
Ǫ ȥȚȐȝ țșȓȖȊȐȧȝ ȗȘȐ ȘȍȈȓȐȏȈȞȐȐ ȋȖșțȌȈȘșȚȊȍȕȕȖȑ ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȟȍșȒȖȑ ȗȖȓȐȚȐȒȐ, ȖșȕȖȊȕȣȔȐ
ȞȍȓȧȔȐ ȧȊȓȧȦȚșȧ ȖȋȘȈȕȐȟȍȕȐȍ ȚȍȔȗȖȊ ȐȕȜȓȧȞȐȐ, șȖȏȌȈȕȐȍ țșȓȖȊȐȑ Ȍȓȧ ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȟȍșȒȖȋȖ ȘȖșȚȈ,
ȔȈȒșȐȔȈȓȤȕȖȍ șȔȧȋȟȍȕȐȍ șȖȞȐȈȓȤȕȣȝ ȗȘȖȉȓȍȔ Ȑ ȗȖȊȣȠȍȕȐȍ țȘȖȊȕȧ ȎȐȏȕȐ ȕȈșȍȓȍȕȐȧ.
ǬȖșȚȐȎȍȕȐȍ ȗȖșȚȈȊȓȍȕȕȣȝ Ȟȍȓȍȑ ȊȖȏȔȖȎȕȖ ȗȘȐ ȚȍșȕȖȔ ȊȏȈȐȔȖȌȍȑșȚȊȐȐ Ȋșȍȝ ȊȍȚȊȍȑ ȊȓȈșȚȐ Ȑ, Ȋ
ȚȖȔ ȟȐșȓȍ, ǴȐȕȐșȚȍȘșȚȊȈ ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȟȍșȒȖȋȖ ȘȈȏȊȐȚȐȧ ǷȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊșȒȖȑ ǴȖȓȌȈȊșȒȖȑ ǸȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȐ Ȑ
ǷȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊșȒȖȋȖ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȈȕșȒȖȋȖ ȉȈȕȒȈ, ȒȖȚȖȘȣȍ ȌȖȓȎȕȣ ȜȖȘȔȐȘȖȊȈȚȤ Ȑ ȘȍȈȓȐȏȖȊȣȊȈȚȤ ȔȍȘȣ
ȗȖ ȖȉȍșȗȍȟȍȕȐȦ șȚȈȉȐȓȤȕȖșȚȐ Ȋ ȜȐȕȈȕșȖȊȖȔ șȍȒȚȖȘȍ Ȑ șȖȌȍȑșȚȊȐȦ ȘȖșȚȈ Ȋ șȖȞȐȈȓȤȕȖȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȟȍșȒȖȑ șȜȍȘȍ.
Ǫ ȗȖșȓȍȌȕȐȍ ȌȊȈ ȋȖȌȈ țȌȈȓȖșȤ ȕȍșȒȖȓȤȒȖ șȚȈȉȐȓȐȏȐȘȖȊȈȚȤ șȐȚțȈȞȐȦ Ȋ ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȒȍ ȗȖșȘȍȌșȚȊȖȔ
ȖȗȚȐȔȐȏȈȞȐȐ ȉȦȌȎȍȚȕȣȝ ȘȈșȝȖȌȖȊ Ȑ țȘȍȋțȓȐȘȖȊȈȕȐȧ ȖȉșȚȈȕȖȊȒȐ ȕȈ ȊȈȓȦȚȕȖȔ ȘȣȕȒȍ, ȟȚȖ Ȋ
șȖȊȖȒțȗȕȖșȚȐ ȗȖȏȊȖȓȐȓȖ ȋȈȘȈȕȚȐȘȖȊȈȚȤ ȊȣȗȖȓȕȍȕȐȍ ȔȐȕȐȔȈȓȤȕȖ ȕȍȖȉȝȖȌȐȔȣȝ șȖȞȐȈȓȤȕȣȝ
ȖȉȧȏȈȚȍȓȤșȚȊ Ȑ ȊȗȍȘȊȣȍ ȏȈ ȔȕȖȋȐȍ ȋȖȌȣ șțȡȍșȚȊȍȕȕȖ ȏȈȔȍȌȓȐȚȤ ȐȕȜȓȧȞȐȦ ȕȈ ȗȖȚȘȍȉȐȚȍȓȤșȒȖȔ
ȘȣȕȒȍ (ȘȐș. 9).
22
ǪȍșȚȕȐȒ ǷȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊșȒȖȋȖ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȈȕșȒȖȋȖ ȉȈȕȒȈ ȹ3’2014
ǷȖ ȔȈȚȍȘȐȈȓȈȔ ȒȖȕȜȍȘȍȕȞȐȑ
135,0
125,0
115,0
105,0
95,0
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
șȊȖȌȕȣȑ ȐȕȌȍȒș ȗȖȚȘȍȉȐȚȍȓȤșȒȐȝ Ȟȍȕ
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
șȘȍȌȕȍȊȏȊȍȠȍȕȕȣȑ ȖȜȐȞȐȈȓȤȕȣȑ ȒțȘș
ǸȐș. 9. ǬȐȕȈȔȐȒȈ șȊȖȌȕȖȋȖ ȐȕȌȍȒșȈ ȗȖȚȘȍȉȐȚȍȓȤșȒȐȝ Ȟȍȕ Ȑ șȘȍȌȕȍȊȏȊȍȠȍȕȕȖȋȖ
ȖȜȐȞȐȈȓȤȕȖȋȖ ȒțȘșȈ Ȋ 2003-2013 ȋȋ., % Ȓ ȗȘȍȌȣȌțȡȍȔț ȋȖȌț
Ǫ ȗȖșȓȍȌȕȐȍ ȋȖȌȣ ȕȈȉȓȦȌȈȍȚșȧ ȊȖșșȚȈȕȖȊȐȚȍȓȤȕȣȑ ȘȖșȚ ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȒȐ. ǺȈȒ, Ȋ 2012 ȋȖȌț ȉȣȓ
ȌȖșȚȐȋȕțȚ ȘȍȈȓȤȕȣȑ ȗȘȐȘȖșȚ ȊȈȓȖȊȖȋȖ ȊȕțȚȘȍȕȕȍȋȖ ȗȘȖȌțȒȚȈ Ȋ ȘȈȏȔȍȘȍ 3,8%. ǷȖ ȐȚȖȋȈȔ 2013 ȋȖȌȈ,
ȕȍșȔȖȚȘȧ ȕȈ șȓȖȎȕțȦ ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȟȍșȒțȦ șȐȚțȈȞȐȦ Ȋ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȍ, ȖȉțșȓȖȊȓȍȕȕțȦ ȒȈȒ ȊȕțȚȘȍȕȕȐȔȐ
ȜȈȒȚȖȘȈȔȐ, ȚȈȒ Ȑ ȕȍȗȘȖșȚȖȑ ȖȉșȚȈȕȖȊȒȖȑ ȕȈ ȊȕȍȠȕȐȝ ȘȣȕȒȈȝ șȉȣȚȈ, ȘȈșȠȐȘȍȕȐȍ ǪǪǷ Ȋ ȘȍȈȓȤȕȖȔ
ȊȣȘȈȎȍȕȐȐ ȔȖȎȍȚ șȖșȚȈȊȐȚȤ 0,8% (ȘȐș. 10).
4,0
930,0
2,0
620,0
0,0
310,0
-2,0
0,0
-4,0
2010 ȋȖȌ
2011 ȋȖȌ
2012 ȋȖȌ
2010 ȋȖȌ
2011 ȋȖȌ
2012 ȋȖȌ
2013 ȋȖȌ
ȖȉȢȨȔ ȗȘȖȔȣȠȓȍȕȕȖȋȖ ȗȘȖȐȏȊȖȌșȚȊȈ (ȉȍȏ țȟȨȚȈ
ǶǨǶ "ǴǴǯ", ǯǨǶ "ǸǾDz", ǯǨǶ "ǴǫǸȅǹ")
ȖȉȢȨȔ ȗȘȖȔȣȠȓȍȕȕȖȋȖ ȗȘȖȐȏȊȖȌșȚȊȈ, ȊșȍȋȖ
2013 ȋȖȌ*
* ȖȞȍȕȒȈ
ǸȐș. 10. ǬȐȕȈȔȐȒȈ ȚȍȔȗȖȊ ȗȘȐȘȖșȚȈ ȊȈȓȖȊȖȋȖ
ȊȕțȚȘȍȕȕȍȋȖ ȗȘȖȌțȒȚȈ Ȋ 2010-2013 ȋȋ., %
ǸȐș. 11. ǬȐȕȈȔȐȒȈ ȖȉȢȨȔȈ ȗȘȖȔȣȠȓȍȕȕȖȋȖ
ȗȘȖȐȏȊȖȌșȚȊȈ Ȋ 2010-2013 ȋȋ., Ȕȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ.
ǵȍșȔȖȚȘȧ ȕȈ ȐȔȍȦȡȐȍșȧ șȓȖȎȕȖșȚȐ Ȑ ȖȋȘȈȕȐȟȍȕȐȧ ȗȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊșȒȖȑ ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȒȐ
ǷȘȈȊȐȚȍȓȤșȚȊț ǷǴǸ țȌȈȓȖșȤ ȊȖȏȖȉȕȖȊȐȚȤ ȘȈȉȖȚț ȒȘțȗȕȍȑȠȐȝ ȗȘȍȌȗȘȐȧȚȐȑ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȐ
ǯǨǶ «ǴȖȓȌȈȊșȒȈȧ ǫǸȅǹ», ǶǨǶ «ǴȖȓȌȈȊșȒȐȑ ȔȍȚȈȓȓțȘȋȐȟȍșȒȐȑ ȏȈȊȖȌ», ǯǨǶ «ǸȣȉȕȐȞȒȐȑ
ȞȍȔȍȕȚȕȣȑ ȒȖȔȉȐȕȈȚ», ȌȖȓȧ ȒȖȚȖȘȣȝ Ȋ ȜȖȘȔȐȘȖȊȈȕȐȐ ǪǪǷ șȖșȚȈȊȓȧȍȚ 12-14%.
Ǭȓȧ ȗȖȌȌȍȘȎȈȕȐȧ șȚȈȉȐȓȤȕȖȑ ȘȈȉȖȚȣ ȗȘȖȔȣȠȓȍȕȕȣȝ ȋȐȋȈȕȚȖȊ ǷȘȈȊȐȚȍȓȤșȚȊȖȔ ǷǴǸ ȉȣȓȐ
ȊȣȘȈȉȖȚȈȕȣ ȔȍȘȣ ȋȖșțȌȈȘșȚȊȍȕȕȖȑ ȗȖȌȌȍȘȎȒȐ, țȟȐȚȣȊȈȦȡȐȍ ȐȕȌȐȊȐȌțȈȓȤȕȣȍ ȖșȖȉȍȕȕȖșȚȐ
ȘȈȉȖȚȣ ȒȈȎȌȖȋȖ Ȋ ȖȚȌȍȓȤȕȖșȚȐ Ȑȏ ȊȣȠȍțȒȈȏȈȕȕȣȝ ȗȘȍȌȗȘȐȧȚȐȑ.
DzȘȖȔȍ ȚȖȋȖ, ȕȍșȔȖȚȘȧ ȕȈ ȕȍȖȌȕȖȏȕȈȟȕțȦ șȐȚțȈȞȐȦ ȕȈ ȍȊȘȖȗȍȑșȒȐȝ ȘȣȕȒȈȝ Ȑ ȐȏȔȍȕȐȊȠȐȍșȧ
țșȓȖȊȐȧ ȝȖȏȧȑșȚȊȖȊȈȕȐȧ, Ȋ 2013 ȋȖȌț ȕȈȘȈȡȐȊȈȕȐȍ ȖȉȢȨȔȈ ȗȘȖȔȣȠȓȍȕȕȖȋȖ ȗȘȖȐȏȊȖȌșȚȊȈ
ȌȍȔȖȕșȚȘȐȘȖȊȈȓȐ:
- ȝȐȔȐȟȍșȒȈȧ ȗȘȖȔȣȠȓȍȕȕȖșȚȤ (ȕȈ 17,9%);
- ȔȈȠȐȕȖșȚȘȖȍȕȐȍ Ȑ ȔȍȚȈȓȓȖȖȉȘȈȉȖȚȒȈ (ȕȈ 5,0%);
- ȓȨȋȒȈȧ ȗȘȖȔȣȠȓȍȕȕȖșȚȤ (ȕȈ 14,0%);
- ȗȐȡȍȊȈȧ ȗȘȖȔȣȠȓȍȕȕȖșȚȤ (ȕȈ 24,8%);
- ȔțȒȖȔȖȓȤȕȖ-ȒȘțȗȧȕȕȈȧ Ȑ ȒȖȔȉȐȒȖȘȔȖȊȈȧ ȗȘȖȔȣȠȓȍȕȕȖșȚȤ (ȕȈ 30,3%);
- ȓȍșȕȈȧ Ȑ ȌȍȘȍȊȖȖȉȘȈȉȈȚȣȊȈȦȡȈȧ ȗȘȖȔȣȠȓȍȕȕȖșȚȤ (ȕȈ 86,0%).
Ǫ șȓȖȎȐȊȠȐȝșȧ ȒȘȐȏȐșȕȣȝ țșȓȖȊȐȧȝ Ȍȓȧ ȈȒȚȐȊȐȏȈȞȐȐ ȒȘȍȌȐȚȖȊȈȕȐȧ șțȉȢȍȒȚȖȊ ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȒȐ ȊȖ
Ȋșȍȝ șȍȒȚȖȘȈȝ ȕȈȘȖȌȕȖȋȖ ȝȖȏȧȑșȚȊȈ ȞȍȕȚȘȈȓȤȕȣȔ ȉȈȕȒȖȔ Ȋ ȚȍȟȍȕȐȍ ȋȖȌȈ ȉȣȓȈ ȗȖșȚȍȗȍȕȕȖ șȕȐȎȍȕȈ
șȚȈȊȒȈ ȘȍȜȐȕȈȕșȐȘȖȊȈȕȐȧ ș 7% ȌȖ 4,5%.
Ǫ 2013 ȋȖȌț ȚȈȒȎȍ țȌȈȓȖșȤ ȌȖșȚȐȟȤ ȘȍȈȓȤȕȖȋȖ țȊȍȓȐȟȍȕȐȧ ȖȗȓȈȚȣ ȚȘțȌȈ ȘȈȉȖȚȈȦȡȐȝ, Ȋ
ȟȈșȚȕȖșȚȐ ȕȖȔȐȕȈȓȤȕȈȧ ȏȈȘȈȉȖȚȕȈȧ ȗȓȈȚȈ Ȋ ȞȍȓȖȔ ȗȖ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȍ (ȒȘȖȔȍ șțȉȢȍȒȚȖȊ ȔȈȓȖȋȖ
ǪȍșȚȕȐȒ ǷȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊșȒȖȋȖ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȈȕșȒȖȋȖ ȉȈȕȒȈ ȹ3’2014
23
ǷȖ ȔȈȚȍȘȐȈȓȈȔ ȒȖȕȜȍȘȍȕȞȐȑ
ȗȘȍȌȗȘȐȕȐȔȈȚȍȓȤșȚȊȈ Ȑ ȉȍȏ țȟȨȚȈ șȐȓȖȊȣȝ
șȚȘțȒȚțȘ) șȖșȚȈȊȐȓȈ 3 813 Șțȉ., țȊȍȓȐȟȐȊȠȐșȤ
ȗȖ
ȖȚȕȖȠȍȕȐȦ
Ȓ
țȘȖȊȕȦ
2012 ȋȖȌȈ ȕȈ 11,5%. Ǫ țșȓȖȊȐȧȝ ȏȈȔȍȌȓȍȕȐȧ
ȚȍȔȗȖȊ ȘȖșȚȈ ȗȖȚȘȍȉȐȚȍȓȤșȒȐȝ Ȟȍȕ ȘȍȈȓȤȕȈȧ
ȊȍȓȐȟȐȕȈ ȏȈȘȈȉȖȚȕȖȑ ȗȓȈȚȣ ȘȈȉȖȚȈȦȡȐȝ Ȋ
2013 ȋȖȌț șȓȖȎȐȓȈșȤ ȕȈ 5,7% ȊȣȠȍ ȉȈȏȐșȕȖȋȖ
țȘȖȊȕȧ 2012 ȋȖȌȈ.
DzȘȖȔȍ ȚȖȋȖ, Ȋ 2012-2013 ȋȖȌȈȝ ȊȗȍȘȊȣȍ ȏȈ
ȔȕȖȋȐȍ
ȋȖȌȣ
ȖȗȘȍȌȍȓȐȓȈșȤ
ȚȍȕȌȍȕȞȐȧ
țȊȍȓȐȟȍȕȐȧ ȒȖȓȐȟȍșȚȊȈ ȏȈȕȧȚȣȝ Ȋ ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȒȍ
(+2,4% – Ȋ 2012 ȋȖȌț Ȑ +0,3% – Ȋ 2013 ȋȖȌț) ȌȖ
(ȘȐș. 12).
142,0
138,0
134,0
130,0
2010 ȋȖȌ
2011 ȋȖȌ
2012 ȋȖȌ
2013 ȋȖȌ
ǸȐș. 12. ǬȐȕȈȔȐȒȈ ȟȐșȓȍȕȕȖșȚȐ ȏȈȕȧȚȣȝ Ȋ
ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȒȍ Ȋ 2010-2013 ȋȋ.
(ȕȈ ȒȖȕȍȞ ȋȖȌȈ), Țȣș. ȟȍȓȖȊȍȒ
141,0 Țȣș. ȟȍȓȖȊȍȒ ȗȖ șȖșȚȖȧȕȐȦ ȕȈ ȒȖȕȍȞ ȋȖȌȈ
Ǫ ȗȖșȓȍȌȕȐȍ ȌȊȈ ȋȖȌȈ ȖȚȔȍȟȈȍȚșȧ ȘȖșȚ
ȌȖȝȖȌȖȊ ȒȖȕșȖȓȐȌȐȘȖȊȈȕȕȖȋȖ ȉȦȌȎȍȚȈ ȕȈ ȜȖȕȍ
ȉȖȓȍȍ țȔȍȘȍȕȕȣȝ ȚȍȔȗȖȊ ȘȖșȚȈ ȘȈșȝȖȌȕȖȑ ȟȈșȚȐ.
300,0
ǷȘȐ ȥȚȖȔ Ȋ 2013 ȋȖȌț ȉȓȈȋȖȌȈȘȧ ȗȘȖȊȍȌȨȕȕȖȑ
200,0
ȖȗȚȐȔȐȏȈȞȐȐ țȌȈȓȖșȤ șțȡȍșȚȊȍȕȕȖ șȖȒȘȈȚȐȚȤ
100,0
ȘȈșȝȖȌȕțȦ ȟȈșȚȤ ȒȖȕșȖȓȐȌȐȘȖȊȈȕȕȖȋȖ ȉȦȌȎȍȚȈ –
0,0
ȕȈ 10,2% ȗȖ ȖȚȕȖȠȍȕȐȦ Ȓ 2012 ȋȖȌț (Ȋ
2010 ȋȖȌ
2011 ȋȖȌ
2012 ȋȖȌ
2013 ȋȖȌ
ȌȖȓȓȈȘȖȊȖȔ ȥȒȊȐȊȈȓȍȕȚȍ) (ȘȐș. 13).
ȌȖȝȖȌȣ
ȘȈșȝȖȌȣ
Ǫ
Ȟȍȓȧȝ
ȗȘȖȚȐȊȖșȚȖȧȕȐȧ
ȊȓȐȧȕȐȦ
ȊȕțȚȘȍȕȕȐȝ
Ȑ
ȊȕȍȠȕȐȝ
țȋȘȖȏ,
ȖȉȍșȗȍȟȍȕȐȧ
ǸȐș. 13. ǬȐȕȈȔȐȒȈ ȌȖȝȖȌȖȊ Ȑ ȘȈșȝȖȌȖȊ
Ȑ
ȗȖȓȐȚȐȟȍșȒȖȑ
ȒȖȕșȖȓȐȌȐȘȖȊȈȕȕȖȋȖ ȉȦȌȎȍȚȈ Ȋ 2010-2013 ȋȋ., șȖȞȐȈȓȤȕȖ-ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȟȍșȒȖȑ
șȚȈȉȐȓȤȕȖșȚȐ ȖȉȡȍșȚȊȈ, șȖȝȘȈȕȍȕȐȧ ȞȍȓȖșȚȕȖșȚȐ
Ȕȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ.
ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȐ
ȉȣȓȈ
ȘȈȏȘȈȉȖȚȈȕȈ
ǫȖșțȌȈȘșȚȊȍȕȕȈȧ ǹȚȘȈȚȍȋȐȧ ȅȒȖȕȖȔȐȟȍșȒȖȑ ȉȍȏȖȗȈșȕȖșȚȐ ǷȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊșȒȖȑ ǴȖȓȌȈȊșȒȖȑ
ǸȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȐ, Ȋ ȘȈȔȒȈȝ ȒȖȚȖȘȖȑ ȖȗȘȍȌȍȓȍȕȈ șȐșȚȍȔȈ ȒȘȐȚȍȘȐȍȊ Ȑ ȗȈȘȈȔȍȚȘȖȊ (ȗȖȘȖȋȖȊȣȝ ȏȕȈȟȍȕȐȑ),
ȖȚȊȍȟȈȦȡȐȝ ȚȘȍȉȖȊȈȕȐȧȔ ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȟȍșȒȖȑ ȉȍȏȖȗȈșȕȖșȚȐ ǸȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȐ. Ǫ ȒȈȟȍșȚȊȍ ȒȘȐȚȍȘȐȍȊ Ȑ
ȗȖȒȈȏȈȚȍȓȍȑ (ȗȖȘȖȋȖȊȣȝ ȏȕȈȟȍȕȐȑ) ȗȘȐȔȍȕȧȍȚșȧ șȖȊȖȒțȗȕȖșȚȤ ȗȘȍȌȍȓȤȕȣȝ ȗȈȘȈȔȍȚȘȖȊ Ȑ
ȝȈȘȈȒȚȍȘȐșȚȐȒ șȖȞȐȈȓȤȕȖ-ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȟȍșȒȐȝ ȗȘȖȞȍșșȖȊ ȜțȕȒȞȐȖȕȐȘȖȊȈȕȐȧ Ȑ ȘȈȏȊȐȚȐȧ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȐ Ȋ
ȞȍȓȖȔ, ȊȣȝȖȌ ȏȈ ȗȘȍȌȍȓȣ ȒȖȚȖȘȣȝ ȊȣȏȣȊȈȍȚ ȕȍȋȈȚȐȊȕȣȍ ȗȖșȓȍȌșȚȊȐȧ ȊȗȓȖȚȤ ȌȖ ȘȈȏȘțȠȍȕȐȧ
șȖȞȐȈȓȤȕȖ-ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȟȍșȒȖȑ șȐșȚȍȔȣ Ȑ ȍȨ ȗȖȌșȐșȚȍȔ.
Ǫ ȕȈșȚȖȧȡȍȍ ȊȘȍȔȧ Ȋ Ȟȍȓȧȝ ȊȣȊȍȌȍȕȐȧ ȖȚȌȍȓȤȕȣȝ șȍȒȚȖȘȖȊ ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȒȐ Ȑȏ ȚȍȕȍȊȖȋȖ ȖȉȖȘȖȚȈ
ǸȈșȗȖȘȧȎȍȕȐȍȔ ǷȘȈȊȐȚȍȓȤșȚȊȈ ǷǴǸ ȖȚ 20 ȜȍȊȘȈȓȧ 2014 ȋȖȌȈ ȹ107Ș șȖȏȌȈȕȈ ǴȍȎȊȍȌȖȔșȚȊȍȕȕȈȧ
ȘȈȉȖȟȈȧ ȋȘțȗȗȈ ȗȖ ȘȈȏȘȈȉȖȚȒȍ ǷȘȖȋȘȈȔȔȣ ȘȈȏȊȐȚȐȧ șȜȍȘȣ țșȓțȋ ȕȈșȍȓȍȕȐȦ Ȑ ȊȕȍȌȘȍȕȐȧ șȐșȚȍȔȣ
ȔȈșșȖȊȣȝ ȉȍȏȕȈȓȐȟȕȣȝ ȘȈșȟȨȚȖȊ Ȋ ǷǴǸ. ǶșȕȖȊȕȖȑ ȏȈȌȈȟȍȑ ȌȈȕȕȖȑ ȘȈȉȖȟȍȑ ȋȘțȗȗȣ ȧȊȓȧȍȚșȧ
ȗȖȌȋȖȚȖȊȒȈ ȗȘȖȋȘȈȔȔȣ ȔȍȘȖȗȘȐȧȚȐȑ ȗȖ ȖȘȋȈȕȐȏȈȞȐȐ Ȋ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȍ ȔȈșșȖȊȖȑ șȐșȚȍȔȣ
ȥȓȍȒȚȘȖȕȕȣȝ ȘȈșȟȨȚȖȊ ȗȖșȘȍȌșȚȊȖȔ șȖȏȌȈȕȐȧ ȍȌȐȕȖȑ ȕȈȞȐȖȕȈȓȤȕȖȑ ȗȓȈȚȨȎȕȖȑ șȐșȚȍȔȣ, Ȉ ȚȈȒȎȍ
ȊȣȘȈȉȖȚȒȈ ȔȍȘ ȗȖ șȚȐȔțȓȐȘȖȊȈȕȐȦ ȉȍȏȕȈȓȐȟȕȣȝ ȘȈșȟȨȚȖȊ ȕȈ ȚȍȘȘȐȚȖȘȐȐ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȐ, Ȋ ȚȖȔ ȟȐșȓȍ
Ȑ Ȋ șȜȍȘȍ ȚȖȘȋȖȊȓȐ Ȑ țșȓțȋ, ȗȘȍȌȖșȚȈȊȓȧȍȔȣȝ ȕȈșȍȓȍȕȐȦ.
Ǫ 2014 ȋȖȌț Ȋ Ȟȍȓȧȝ ȊȣȧȊȓȍȕȐȧ ȌȐșȉȈȓȈȕșȈ Ȋ ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȟȍșȒȖȑ șȐșȚȍȔȍ șȚȘȈȕȣ ȗȓȈȕȐȘțȍȚșȧ
ȗȘȖȊȍȌȍȕȐȍ șȚȘțȒȚțȘȕȖȋȖ ȈȕȈȓȐȏȈ ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȟȍșȒȐȝ ȗȘȖȞȍșșȖȊ Ȋ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȍ Ȋ șȘȈȊȕȍȕȐȐ ș ȌȘțȋȐȔȐ
șȚȘȈȕȈȔȐ, ȟȚȖ ȗȖȏȊȖȓȐȚ ȊȣȘȈȉȖȚȈȚȤ ȔȍȘȖȗȘȐȧȚȐȧ ȗȖ ȔȐȕȐȔȐȏȈȞȐȐ ȊȣȧȊȓȍȕȕȣȝ ȌȐșȗȘȖȗȖȘȞȐȑ Ȑ
ȖȉȍșȗȍȟȐȚ ȗȖȊȣȠȍȕȐȍ ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȟȍșȒȖȑ ȉȍȏȖȗȈșȕȖșȚȐ ǷǴǸ.
ǴȐȕȐșȚȍȘșȚȊȖ
ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȟȍșȒȖȋȖ
ȘȈȏȊȐȚȐȧ
ǷǴǸ
șȖȊȔȍșȚȕȖ
ș
ǷȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊșȒȐȔ
ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȈȕșȒȐȔ ȉȈȕȒȖȔ țȟȈșȚȊțȍȚ Ȋ ȖȗȘȍȌȍȓȍȕȐȐ ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȟȍșȒȖȑ ȗȖȓȐȚȐȒȐ ȋȖșțȌȈȘșȚȊȈ,
ȗȖșȘȍȌșȚȊȖȔ ȘȈȏȘȈȉȖȚȒȐ ȕȈ șȘȍȌȕȍșȘȖȟȕȣȑ ȗȍȘȐȖȌ ǷȘȖȋȕȖȏȈ șȖȞȐȈȓȤȕȖ-ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȟȍșȒȖȋȖ ȘȈȏȊȐȚȐȧ
ǷȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊșȒȖȑ ǴȖȓȌȈȊșȒȖȑ ǸȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȐ, ǶșȕȖȊȕȣȝ ȕȈȗȘȈȊȓȍȕȐȑ ȍȌȐȕȖȑ ȋȖșțȌȈȘșȚȊȍȕȕȖȑ
400,0
24
ǪȍșȚȕȐȒ ǷȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊșȒȖȋȖ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȈȕșȒȖȋȖ ȉȈȕȒȈ ȹ3’2014
ǷȖ ȔȈȚȍȘȐȈȓȈȔ ȒȖȕȜȍȘȍȕȞȐȑ
ȌȍȕȍȎȕȖ-ȒȘȍȌȐȚȕȖȑ ȗȖȓȐȚȐȒȐ, ȗȖȌȋȖȚȖȊȒȐ ȐȕȜȖȘȔȈȞȐȐ ȗȖ ȔȈȒȘȖȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȟȍșȒȐȔ Ȑ ȜȐȕȈȕșȖȊȣȔ
ȊȖȗȘȖșȈȔ ȕȈ ȗȘȖȋȕȖȏȐȘțȍȔȣȑ ȗȍȘȐȖȌ.
DzȘȖȔȍ ȚȖȋȖ, Ȋ 2013 ȋȖȌț ȊȏȈȐȔȖȌȍȑșȚȊȐȍ ȌȊțȝ ȊȍȌȖȔșȚȊ ȖșțȡȍșȚȊȓȧȓȖșȤ ȗȖșȘȍȌșȚȊȖȔ ȊȏȈȐȔȕȖȑ
ȘȈȉȖȚȣ ȕȈȌ șȖȊȍȘȠȍȕșȚȊȖȊȈȕȐȍȔ:
- ȗȖȓȖȎȍȕȐȧ ȗȖ ȕȈȉȓȦȌȍȕȐȦ ȏȈ ȐȕȜȓȧȞȐȖȕȕȣȔȐ ȗȘȖȞȍșșȈȔȐ Ȋ ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȒȍ;
- ȔȍȚȖȌȐȒȐ ȘȈșȟȨȚȈ ȊȈȓȖȊȖȋȖ ȊȕțȚȘȍȕȕȍȋȖ ȗȘȖȌțȒȚȈ (ǪǪǷ);
- ȜȖȘȔ ȋȖșțȌȈȘșȚȊȍȕȕȖȑ șȚȈȚȐșȚȐȟȍșȒȖȑ ȖȚȟȨȚȕȖșȚȐ, ȕȍȖȉȝȖȌȐȔȖȑ Ȍȓȧ ȜȖȘȔȐȘȖȊȈȕȐȧ
ȗȓȈȚȨȎȕȖȋȖ ȉȈȓȈȕșȈ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȐ.
ǷȘȐ ȥȚȖȔ, Ȋ șȘȍȌȕȍșȘȖȟȕȖȑ ȗȍȘșȗȍȒȚȐȊȍ, țȟȐȚȣȊȈȧ ȊȣȏȖȊȣ, șȚȖȧȡȐȍ ȗȍȘȍȌ ȗȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊșȒȖȑ
ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȒȖȑ, Ȋ ȟȐșȓȍ ȒȖȚȖȘȣȝ ȕȍȖȉȝȖȌȐȔȖ ȖȚȔȍȚȐȚȤ Ȑ ȊȕțȚȘȍȕȕȐȍ ȖȋȘȈȕȐȟȍȕȐȧ ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȟȍșȒȖȋȖ
ȘȖșȚȈ, șȊȧȏȈȕȕȣȍ ș ȕȐȏȒȐȔȐ ȚȍȔȗȈȔȐ ȔȖȌȍȘȕȐȏȈȞȐȐ ȗȘȖȐȏȊȖȌșȚȊȍȕȕȖȋȖ ȗȘȖȞȍșșȈ, Ȑ ȊȕȍȠȕȐȍ
ȖȋȘȈȕȐȟȍȕȐȧ, ȖȗȘȍȌȍȓȧȍȔȣȍ, ș ȖȌȕȖȑ șȚȖȘȖȕȣ, ȐȏȓȐȠȕȐȔȐ ȉȈȘȤȍȘȈȔȐ ȕȈ ȗțȚȐ ȘȈȏȊȐȚȐȧ ȕȈȠȍȋȖ
ȥȒșȗȖȘȚȈ, Ȑ, ș ȌȘțȋȖȑ șȚȖȘȖȕȣ, ȕȍșȚȈȉȐȓȤȕȖșȚȤȦ ȋȓȖȉȈȓȤȕȖȑ ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȒȐ, ȖȌȕȐȔ Ȑȏ ȖșȕȖȊȕȣȝ
ȗȘȐȖȘȐȚȍȚȖȊ ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȟȍșȒȖȑ ȗȖȓȐȚȐȒȐ ȕȈ șȘȍȌȕȍșȘȖȟȕțȦ ȗȍȘșȗȍȒȚȐȊț ȌȖȓȎȍȕ ȊȣșȚțȗȈȚȤ ȗȖȐșȒ
ȉȈȓȈȕșȈ ȔȍȎȌț ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȟȍșȒȐȔ ȘȖșȚȖȔ Ȑ ȞȍȕȖȊȖȑ șȚȈȉȐȓȤȕȖșȚȤȦ.
ǹǰǹǺǭǴǨ ǼǰǵǨǵǹǶǪǶǫǶ ǴǶǵǰǺǶǸǰǵǫǨ Ǫ ǷǸǰǬǵǭǹǺǸǶǪȄǭ: ǷǸǨDzǺǰǿǭǹDzǰǭ
ǨǹǷǭDzǺȃ ǸǭǨdzǰǯǨǾǰǰ ǯǨDzǶǵǶǬǨǺǭdzȄǹǺǪǨ Ǫ ǹǼǭǸǭ ǷǶǬ/ǼǺ7 ǰ ǵǨǷǸǨǪdzǭǵǰȇ ǭǫǶ
ǹǶǪǭǸȀǭǵǹǺǪǶǪǨǵǰȇ
ȀțȓȤȋȈ Ǩ.Ǫ.
ȏȈȔȍșȚȐȚȍȓȤ ȗȘȍȌșȍȌȈȚȍȓȧ ǷǸǩ,
ȕȈȟȈȓȤȕȐȒ țȗȘȈȊȓȍȕȐȧ ȜȐȕȈȕșȖȊȖȋȖ ȔȖȕȐȚȖȘȐȕȋȈ
ǹ 2012 ȋȖȌȈ Ȋ ǷȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊȤȍ Ȋ ȗȖȓȕȖȔ ȖȉȢȨȔȍ ȊșȚțȗȐȓȐ Ȋ șȐȓț ǯȈȒȖȕ «Ƕ ȗȘȖȚȐȊȖȌȍȑșȚȊȐȐ
ȓȍȋȈȓȐȏȈȞȐȐ (ȖȚȔȣȊȈȕȐȦ) ȌȖȝȖȌȖȊ, ȗȖȓțȟȍȕȕȣȝ ȗȘȍșȚțȗȕȣȔ ȗțȚȨȔ, Ȑ ȜȐȕȈȕșȐȘȖȊȈȕȐȦ
ȚȍȘȘȖȘȐȏȔȈ» Ȑ ȊȍșȤ ȒȖȔȗȓȍȒș șȖȗțȚșȚȊțȦȡȍȑ ȗȖȌȏȈȒȖȕȕȖȑ ȕȖȘȔȈȚȐȊȕȖȑ ȉȈȏȣ. ǻ ȘȧȌȈ
ȖȘȋȈȕȐȏȈȞȐȑ, ȖșțȡȍșȚȊȓȧȦȡȐȝ ȖȗȍȘȈȞȐȐ ș ȌȍȕȍȎȕȣȔȐ șȘȍȌșȚȊȈȔȐ Ȑ ȐȕȣȔ ȐȔțȡȍșȚȊȖȔ, Ȑ,
ȗȘȍȎȌȍ ȊșȍȋȖ, ț ȒȘȍȌȐȚȕȣȝ ȖȘȋȈȕȐȏȈȞȐȑ ȊȖȏȕȐȒȓȐ ȕȖȊȣȍ ȖȉȧȏȈȕȕȖșȚȐ.
ǹȓȍȌțȍȚ ȖȚȔȍȚȐȚȤ, ȟȚȖ ȍȡȨ ȌȖ ȊșȚțȗȓȍȕȐȧ Ȋ șȐȓț ȏȈȒȖȕȈ Ȗ ǷǶǬ/ǼǺ ȉȈȕȒȐ, ȒȘȖȔȍ șȊȖȍȑ
ȖșȕȖȊȕȖȑ ȌȍȧȚȍȓȤȕȖșȚȐ ȗȖ ȗȘȐȊȓȍȟȍȕȐȦ Ȑ ȘȈȏȔȍȡȍȕȐȦ ȌȍȕȍȎȕȣȝ șȘȍȌșȚȊ, țȎȍ ȊȣȗȖȓȕȧȓȐ ȘȧȌ
ȕȍȖȉȝȖȌȐȔȣȝ ȋȖșțȌȈȘșȚȊț ȜțȕȒȞȐȑ: ȖșțȡȍșȚȊȓȧȓȐ ȊȈȓȦȚȕȣȑ ȒȖȕȚȘȖȓȤ, ȒȖȕȚȘȖȓȤ ȕȈȌ ȒȈșșȖȊȖȑ
ȌȐșȞȐȗȓȐȕȖȑ ȝȖȏȧȑșȚȊțȦȡȐȝ șțȉȢȍȒȚȖȊ. ǹ 2012 ȋȖȌȈ Ȓ Ȑȝ ȟȐșȓț ȌȖȉȈȊȐȓȈșȤ ȕȍȖȉȝȖȌȐȔȖșȚȤ
ȗȘȖȊȖȌȐȚȤ ȔȍȘȖȗȘȐȧȚȐȧ ȗȖ ǷǶǬ/ǼǺ.
ǭȡȨ ȕȈ șȚȈȌȐȐ ȘȈȏȘȈȉȖȚȒȐ ȏȈȒȖȕȈ Ȑ ȕȈ ȕȈȟȈȓȤȕȖȔ ȥȚȈȗȍ ȍȋȖ ȗȘȐȔȍȕȍȕȐȧ ȊȖȏȕȐȒȈȓȐ ȌȐșȒțșșȐȐ
Ȗ ȞȍȓȍșȖȖȉȘȈȏȕȖșȚȐ ȕȖȊȣȝ ȚȘȍȉȖȊȈȕȐȑ Ȋ țșȓȖȊȐȧȝ ȕȍȗȘȐȏȕȈȕȕȖșȚȐ ȋȖșțȌȈȘșȚȊȈ Ȑ ȉȈȕȒȖȊșȒȖȑ
șȐșȚȍȔȣ.
ǹȍȋȖȌȕȧ ȕȈȓȐȟȐȍ ȗȘȖȚȐȊȖȓȍȋȈȓȐȏȈȞȐȖȕȕȖȋȖ ȏȈȒȖȕȖȌȈȚȍȓȤșȚȊȈ Ȑ ȥȜȜȍȒȚȐȊȕȖȑ șȐșȚȍȔȣ
ȗȘȖȚȐȊȖȌȍȑșȚȊȐȧ ȖȚȔȣȊȈȕȐȦ ȕȍȏȈȒȖȕȕȣȝ ȌȖȝȖȌȖȊ – ȥȚȖ ȍȌȐȕȣȍ ȚȘȍȉȖȊȈȕȐȧ ȒȖ ȊșȍȔ ȋȖșțȌȈȘșȚȊȈȔ
șȖ șȚȖȘȖȕȣ ȔȍȎȌțȕȈȘȖȌȕȣȝ ȜȐȕȈȕșȖȊȣȝ ȖȘȋȈȕȐȏȈȞȐȑ, ȖșțȡȍșȚȊȓȧȦȡȐȝ ȊȣȘȈȉȖȚȒț ȘȍȒȖȔȍȕȌȈȞȐȑ
Ȑ ȔȍȘ ȖȚȊȍȚșȚȊȍȕȕȖșȚȐ Ȓ șȚȘȈȕȈȔ, ȐȋȕȖȘȐȘțȦȡȐȔ Ȑȝ.
ǷȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊȤȍ țȎȍ Ȋ 2006 ȋȖȌț ȗȘȐșȖȍȌȐȕȐȓȖșȤ Ȓ ȖșȕȖȊȖȗȖȓȈȋȈȦȡȐȔ ȗȘȐȕȞȐȗȈȔ
ǹȚȘȈșȉțȘȋșȒȖȑ DzȖȕȊȍȕȞȐȐ Ȗȉ ȖȚȔȣȊȈȕȐȐ, ȊȣȧȊȓȍȕȐȐ, ȐȏȢȧȚȐȐ Ȑ ȒȖȕȜȐșȒȈȞȐȐ ȌȖȝȖȌȖȊ, Ȉ ȚȈȒȎȍ
ȌȘțȋȐȝ ȔȍȎȌțȕȈȘȖȌȕȣȝ ȗȘȈȊȖȊȣȝ ȈȒȚȖȊ Ȋ ȖȉȓȈșȚȐ ȗȘȖȚȐȊȖȌȍȑșȚȊȐȧ ȚȍȘȘȖȘȐȏȔț. ǷȘȐȕȧȚȐȍ
ȉȈȏȖȊȖȋȖ ȏȈȒȖȕȈ Ȑ șȖȏȌȈȕȐȍ șȐșȚȍȔȣ ȜȐȕȈȕșȖȊȖȋȖ ȔȖȕȐȚȖȘȐȕȋȈ – ȥȚȖ ȌȈȓȤȕȍȑȠȐȍ ȕȍȖȉȝȖȌȐȔȣȍ
ȗȘȈȒȚȐȟȍșȒȐȍ ȠȈȋȐ ȗȖ ȘȍȈȓȐȏȈȞȐȐ ȗȖȓȖȎȍȕȐȑ ȔȍȎȌțȕȈȘȖȌȕȣȝ ȌȖȒțȔȍȕȚȖȊ.
ǷǶǬ/ǼǺ – ȏȌȍșȤ Ȑ ȌȈȓȍȍ: ȗȘȖȚȐȊȖȌȍȑșȚȊȐȍ ȓȍȋȈȓȐȏȈȞȐȐ (ȖȚȔȣȊȈȕȐȦ) ȌȖȝȖȌȖȊ, ȗȖȓțȟȍȕȕȣȝ ȗȘȍșȚțȗȕȣȔ
ȗțȚȨȔ, Ȑ ȜȐȕȈȕșȐȘȖȊȈȕȐȦ ȚȍȘȘȖȘȐȏȔȈ
7
ǪȍșȚȕȐȒ ǷȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊșȒȖȋȖ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȈȕșȒȖȋȖ ȉȈȕȒȈ ȹ3’2014
25
ǷȖ ȔȈȚȍȘȐȈȓȈȔ ȒȖȕȜȍȘȍȕȞȐȑ
ǹȓȍȌțȦȡȐȔ ȕȍȔȈȓȖȊȈȎȕȣȔ ȜȈȒȚȖȘȖȔ ȘȈȏȊȐȚȐȧ șȐșȚȍȔȣ ȜȐȕȈȕșȖȊȖȋȖ ȔȖȕȐȚȖȘȐȕȋȈ Ȋ
ǷȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊȤȍ șȚȈȓȐ ȕȖȊȣȍ ȚȘȍȉȖȊȈȕȐȧ ȏȈȒȖȕȖȌȈȚȍȓȤșȚȊȈ ǸȖșșȐȑșȒȖȑ ǼȍȌȍȘȈȞȐȐ Ȋ șȜȍȘȍ ǷǶǬ/ǼǺ
Ȓ ȘȖșșȐȑșȒȐȔ ȉȈȕȒȈȔ, ȒȖȚȖȘȣȍ ȧȊȓȧȦȚșȧ ȖșȕȖȊȕȣȔȐ ȒȖȕȚȘȈȋȍȕȚȈȔȐ ȖȚȍȟȍșȚȊȍȕȕȣȝ ȜȐȕȈȕșȖȊȣȝ
țȟȘȍȎȌȍȕȐȑ Ȋ șȜȍȘȍ ȔȍȎȌțȕȈȘȖȌȕȣȝ ȘȈșȟȨȚȖȊ.
ǹȍȋȖȌȕȧ ǸȖșșȐȑșȒȈȧ ǼȍȌȍȘȈȞȐȧ, ȒȈȒ ȟȓȍȕ ǼǨǺǼ Ȑ ȘȧȌȈ ȌȘțȋȐȝ ȖȘȋȈȕȐȏȈȞȐȑ, șȖȚȘțȌȕȐȟȈȦȡȐȝ
Ȋ șȜȍȘȍ ǷǶǬ/ǼǺ, ȗȘȖȊȖȌȐȚ ȉȖȓȤȠțȦ ȘȈȉȖȚț ȗȖ ȐȔȗȓȍȔȍȕȚȈȞȐȐ ȔȍȎȌțȕȈȘȖȌȕȣȝ ȚȘȍȉȖȊȈȕȐȑ Ȋ
ȕȈȞȐȖȕȈȓȤȕȖȍ ȏȈȒȖȕȖȌȈȚȍȓȤșȚȊȖ, Ȉ ȚȈȒȎȍ ȒȖȕȚȘȖȓȦ ȏȈ ȕȈȌȓȍȎȈȡȐȔ Ȑȝ ȐșȗȖȓȕȍȕȐȍȔ ȒȘȍȌȐȚȕȣȔȐ
ȖȘȋȈȕȐȏȈȞȐȧȔȐ Ȑ ȐȕȣȔȐ țȟȈșȚȕȐȒȈȔȐ ȜȐȕȈȕșȖȊȣȝ ȖȚȕȖȠȍȕȐȑ. Ǫ 2015 ȋȖȌț ǸȖșșȐȧ ȉțȌȍȚ
ȗȘȖȝȖȌȐȚȤ ȖȟȍȘȍȌȕȖȑ ȘȈțȕȌ ȖȞȍȕȒȐ ȥȜȜȍȒȚȐȊȕȖșȚȐ ȔȍȘ ȗȖ ȗȘȖȚȐȊȖȌȍȑșȚȊȐȦ ȖȚȔȣȊȈȕȐȦ
ȗȘȍșȚțȗȕȣȝ ȌȖȝȖȌȖȊ șȖ șȚȖȘȖȕȣ ǼǨǺǼ. ǪȖ ȔȕȖȋȖȔ ș ȥȚȐȔ șȊȧȏȈȕȖ ȚȖ, ȟȚȖ Ȋ ȕȈșȚȖȧȡȍȍ ȊȘȍȔȧ
ȈȒȚȐȊȐȏȐȘȖȊȈȓȐșȤ ȗȘȖȞȍșșȣ ȖȟȐșȚȒȐ ȘȖșșȐȑșȒȖȋȖ ȉȈȕȒȖȊșȒȖȋȖ șȍȒȚȖȘȈ ȖȚ ȕȍȌȖȉȘȖșȖȊȍșȚȕȣȝ
țȟȈșȚȕȐȒȖȊ.
ǶșȖȉȖȍ ȊȕȐȔȈȕȐȍ ǾȍȕȚȘȈȓȤȕȣȑ ǩȈȕȒ ǸȖșșȐȐ țȌȍȓȧȍȚ șȖȉȓȦȌȍȕȐȦ ȚȘȍȉȖȊȈȕȐȑ șȚȈȕȌȈȘȚȈ
ǼǨǺǼ ȗȖ țșȚȈȕȖȊȓȍȕȐȦ ȒȖȘȘȍșȗȖȕȌȍȕȚșȒȐȝ ȖȚȕȖȠȍȕȐȑ ș ȒȘȍȌȐȚȕȣȔȐ ȖȘȋȈȕȐȏȈȞȐȧȔȐ. ǬȈȕȕȣȑ
șȚȈȕȌȈȘȚ țȒȈȏȣȊȈȍȚ, ȟȚȖ ȜȐȕȈȕșȖȊȣȍ țȟȘȍȎȌȍȕȐȧ ȖȉȧȏȈȕȣ Ȋ ȖȚȕȖȠȍȕȐȐ ȚȘȈȕșȋȘȈȕȐȟȕȣȝ
ȒȖȘȘȍșȗȖȕȌȍȕȚșȒȐȝ ȉȈȕȒȖȊșȒȐȝ Ȑ Ȑȕȣȝ ȈȕȈȓȖȋȐȟȕȣȝ ȊȏȈȐȔȖșȊȧȏȍȑ ȖșțȡȍșȚȊȓȧȚȤ ȔȍȘȣ ȗȖ
ȕȈȌȓȍȎȈȡȍȑ ȗȘȖȊȍȘȒȍ ȒȓȐȍȕȚȖȊ, șȖȉȐȘȈȚȤ ȐȕȜȖȘȔȈȞȐȦ Ȗȉ țȟȘȍȎȌȍȕȐȐ-ȘȍșȗȖȕȌȍȕȚȍ,
ȌȖșȚȈȚȖȟȕțȦ Ȍȓȧ ȗȖȓțȟȍȕȐȧ ȗȖȓȕȖȋȖ ȗȘȍȌșȚȈȊȓȍȕȐȧ Ȗ ȝȈȘȈȒȚȍȘȍ ȍȋȖ ȌȍȓȖȊȖȑ ȌȍȧȚȍȓȤȕȖșȚȐ,
ȐȕȜȖȘȔȈȞȐȦ Ȗ ȚȖȔ, ȗȘȍȌțșȔȈȚȘȐȊȈȍȚ ȓȐ ȕȈȞȐȖȕȈȓȤȕȖȍ ȏȈȒȖȕȖȌȈȚȍȓȤșȚȊȖ ȚȘȍȉȖȊȈȕȐȧ Ȋ șȜȍȘȍ
ǷǶǬ/ǼǺ, ȖȘȋȈȕȐȏȖȊȈȕ ȓȐ Ȋ ȉȈȕȒȍ ȕȈȌȓȍȎȈȡȐȑ ȊȕțȚȘȍȕȕȐȑ ȒȖȕȚȘȖȓȤ Ȋ ȖȚȕȖȠȍȕȐȐ ȒȓȐȍȕȚȖȊ Ȑ Ȑȝ
ȖȗȍȘȈȞȐȑ, ȗȘȖȊȖȌȐȓȐșȤ ȓȐ Ȋ ȖȚȕȖȠȍȕȐȐ ȕȍȋȖ ȘȈșșȓȍȌȖȊȈȕȐȧ ȕȈ ȗȘȍȌȔȍȚ ȖȚȔȣȊȈȕȐȧ Ȍȍȕȍȋ Ȑ
ȜȐȕȈȕșȐȘȖȊȈȕȐȧ ȚȍȘȘȖȘȐȏȔȈ ȐȓȐ ȗȘȐȔȍȕȧȓȐșȤ Ȋ ȖȚȕȖȠȍȕȐȐ ȕȍȋȖ ȔȍȘȣ șȖ șȚȖȘȖȕȣ
ȒȖȕȚȘȖȓȐȘțȦȡȐȝ ȖȘȋȈȕȖȊ, Ȉ ȚȈȒȎȍ ȐȔȍȍȚ ȓȐ Ȗȕ ȊȖȏȔȖȎȕȖșȚȤ ȗȘȍȌȖșȚȈȊȓȧȚȤ ȕȍȖȉȝȖȌȐȔțȦ
ȐȕȜȖȘȔȈȞȐȦ ȗȖ ȒȓȐȍȕȚȈȔ ȗȖ ȏȈȗȘȖșț ȉȈȕȒȈ-ȒȖȘȘȍșȗȖȕȌȍȕȚȈ.
Ǫ ȘȈȏȊȐȚȐȍ țȒȈȏȈȕȕȣȝ ȚȘȍȉȖȊȈȕȐȑ Ȋ ȗȘȈȊȐȓȈȝ ȊȕțȚȘȍȕȕȍȋȖ ȒȖȕȚȘȖȓȧ ȒȘȍȌȐȚȕȣȍ ȖȘȋȈȕȐȏȈȞȐȐ
ǸǼ țșȚȈȕȈȊȓȐȊȈȦȚ ȖșȖȉȍȕȕȖșȚȐ ȗȘȖȞȍȌțȘȣ ȐȌȍȕȚȐȜȐȒȈȞȐȐ ȗȘȐ ȕȈȓȈȎȐȊȈȕȐȐ ȒȖȘȘȍșȗȖȕȌȍȕȚșȒȐȝ
ȖȚȕȖȠȍȕȐȑ ș ȒȖȕȚȘȈȋȍȕȚȈȔȐ. ǵȈ șȍȋȖȌȕȧȠȕȐȑ ȌȍȕȤ ȗȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊșȒȐȍ ȉȈȕȒȐ ȏȈȗȖȓȕȧȦȚ ȗȖȌȘȖȉȕȣȍ
ȈȕȒȍȚȣ ȗȘȐ ȖȚȒȘȣȚȐȐ șȟȍȚȖȊ Ȋ ȉȈȕȒȈȝ ǸǼ Ȑ ȌȍȚȈȓȤȕȖ ȘȈșȒȘȣȊȈȦȚ ȐȕȜȖȘȔȈȞȐȦ Ȗ ȚȖȔ, ȒȈȒȐȍ
ȚȘȍȉȖȊȈȕȐȧ ȊȣȗȖȓȕȧȦȚșȧ ȐȔȐ Ȋ șȜȍȘȍ ǷǶǬ/ǼǺ.
ǷȖȔȐȔȖ ȊȕȍȠȕȐȝ ȖȉȢȍȒȚȐȊȕȣȝ ȗȘȐȟȐȕ ȗȘȐȕȧȚȐȧ ȏȈȒȖȕȖȌȈȚȍȓȤșȚȊȈ Ȋ șȜȍȘȍ ǷǶǬ/ǼǺ Ȑ
ȗȖȧȊȓȍȕȐȧ ȕȖȊȣȝ ȚȘȍȉȖȊȈȕȐȑ Ȓ șțȉȢȍȒȚȈȔ ȗȍȘȊȐȟȕȖȋȖ ȔȖȕȐȚȖȘȐȕȋȈ, ȍșȚȤ Ȑ ȊȕțȚȘȍȕȕȐȍ țșȓȖȊȐȧ Ȑ
ȕȍȖȉȝȖȌȐȔȖșȚȤ. ǺȈȒ, șȐșȚȍȔȈ ȗȍȘȊȐȟȕȖȋȖ ȒȖȕȚȘȖȓȧ, ȖșțȡȍșȚȊȓȧȍȔȖȋȖ ȉȈȕȒȈȔȐ ȏȈ ȜȐȕȈȕșȖȊȖȑ
ȌȍȧȚȍȓȤȕȖșȚȤȦ șȊȖȐȝ ȒȓȐȍȕȚȖȊ, ȗȘȐȏȊȈȕȈ ȗȖȔȖȟȤ ȋȖșțȌȈȘșȚȊț șȊȖȍȊȘȍȔȍȕȕȖ ȊȣȧȊȓȧȚȤ ȘȐșȒȐ,
ȗȘȖȚȐȊȖȗȘȈȊȕȣȍ ȌȍȑșȚȊȐȧ, țȒȓȖȕȍȕȐȍ ȖȚ țȗȓȈȚȣ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊ, ȓȍȋȈȓȐȏȈȞȐȦ șȘȍȌșȚȊ, ȗȖȓțȟȍȕȕȣȝ Ȋ
ȘȍȏțȓȤȚȈȚȍ șȖȊȍȘȠȍȕȐȧ ȗȘȍșȚțȗȓȍȕȐȑ. ǺȈȒȐȔ
ǾȍȕȚȘȈȓȤȕȣȑ ȉȈȕȒ
ȖȉȘȈȏȖȔ, ȗȘȖȚȐȊȖȓȍȋȈȓȐȏȈȞȐȖȕȕȖȍ ȏȈȒȖȕȖȌȈȚȍȓȤșȚȊȖ
ȕȈȒȓȈȌȣȊȈȍȚ ȕȈ ȉȈȕȒȐ șȖȞȐȈȓȤȕțȦ ȜțȕȒȞȐȦ
ȖȟȐșȚȒȐ ȉȐȏȕȍșȈ ȖȚ ȕȍȌȖȉȘȖșȖȊȍșȚȕȣȝ țȟȈșȚȕȐȒȖȊ.
ǶșțȡȍșȚȊȓȧȧ ȜțȕȒȞȐȐ ȗȖ ǷǶǬ/ǼǺ, ȋȖșțȌȈȘșȚȊȖ
ǭȌȐȕȈȧ
ȊȣșȚțȗȈȍȚ ȗȖȓțȟȈȚȍȓȍȔ ȖȗȘȍȌȍȓȨȕȕȖȑ ȏȈȒȖȕȖȔ
ȐȕȜȖȘȔȈȞȐȖȕȕȈȧ
șȐșȚȍȔȈ
ȐȕȜȖȘȔȈȞȐȐ, Ȉ ȒȘȍȌȐȚȕȣȍ ȖȘȋȈȕȐȏȈȞȐȐ – ȍȨ
ȗȖșȚȈȊȡȐȒȈȔȐ. ǵȍȐșȗȖȓȕȍȕȐȍ ȐȓȐ ȕȍȕȈȌȓȍȎȈȡȍȍ
ȐșȗȖȓȕȍȕȐȍ ȉȈȕȒȖȔ șȊȖȐȝ ȖȉȧȏȈȕȕȖșȚȍȑ ȊȓȍȟȨȚ
ǹțȉȢȍȒȚȣ
ȗȍȘȊȐȟȕȖȋȖ ȒȖȕȚȘȖȓȧ
ȔȍȘȣ ȖȚȊȍȚșȚȊȍȕȕȖșȚȐ.
Ǫ ȕȈșȚȖȧȡȍȍ ȊȘȍȔȧ ȏȈȒȖȕȖȌȈȚȍȓȤșȚȊȖ ǷǴǸ Ȋ ǷȘȈȊȖȖȝȘȈȕȐȚȍȓȤȕȣȍ
ǷȘȖȒțȘȈȚțȘȈ
șȜȍȘȍ ǷǶǬ/ǼǺ ȖșȕȖȊȈȕȖ ȕȈ 40 ǸȍȒȖȔȍȕȌȈȞȐȧȝ
ȖȘȋȈȕȣ
ǼǨǺǼ (ȋȘțȗȗȈ ȘȈȏȘȈȉȖȚȒȐ ȜȐȕȈȕșȖȊȣȝ ȔȍȘ ȉȖȘȤȉȣ ș ǸȐș. 14. ǹȐșȚȍȔȈ ȜȐȕȈȕșȖȊȖȋȖ ȔȖȕȐȚȖȘȐȕȋȈ
ȖȚȔȣȊȈȕȐȍȔ Ȍȍȕȍȋ) Ȋ ȘȍȌȈȒȞȐȐ 2008 ȋȖȌȈ.
Ȋ ǷǴǸ
ǹȝȍȔȈȚȐȟȕȖ șȐșȚȍȔț ȜȐȕȈȕșȖȊȖȋȖ ȔȖȕȐȚȖȘȐȕȋȈ
26
ǪȍșȚȕȐȒ ǷȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊșȒȖȋȖ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȈȕșȒȖȋȖ ȉȈȕȒȈ ȹ3’2014
ǷȖ ȔȈȚȍȘȐȈȓȈȔ ȒȖȕȜȍȘȍȕȞȐȑ
Ȋ ǷȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊȤȍ ȔȖȎȕȖ ȗȘȍȌșȚȈȊȐȚȤ Ȋ ȊȐȌȍ ȗȐȘȈȔȐȌȣ, ȊȍȘȠȐȕț ȒȖȚȖȘȖȑ ȏȈȕȐȔȈȍȚ ȞȍȕȚȘȈȓȤȕȣȑ
ȉȈȕȒ ȒȈȒ țȗȖȓȕȖȔȖȟȍȕȕȣȑ ȖȘȋȈȕ (ȘȐș. 14). ǿȍȘȍȏ ǭȌȐȕțȦ ȐȕȜȖȘȔȈȞȐȖȕȕțȦ șȐșȚȍȔț, șȖȏȌȈȕȕțȦ Ȋ
ǷȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊșȒȖȔ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȈȕșȒȖȔ ȉȈȕȒȍ, ȖȚ șțȉȢȍȒȚȖȊ ȗȍȘȊȐȟȕȖȋȖ ȒȖȕȚȘȖȓȧ Ȋ ǷǸǩ ȗȖșȚțȗȈȍȚ
ȐȕȜȖȘȔȈȞȐȧ Ȗȉ ȖȗȍȘȈȞȐȧȝ Ȑ șȌȍȓȒȈȝ, Ȉ ȚȈȒȎȍ Ȗ ȓȐȞȈȝ, Ȑȝ șȖȊȍȘȠȈȦȡȐȝ.
Ǫ ȖșȕȖȊȈȕȐȐ ȗȐȘȈȔȐȌȣ ȕȈȝȖȌȧȚșȧ șțȉȢȍȒȚȣ ȗȍȘȊȐȟȕȖȋȖ ȔȖȕȐȚȖȘȐȕȋȈ, ȚȖ ȍșȚȤ ȖȘȋȈȕȐȏȈȞȐȐ,
ȖșțȡȍșȚȊȓȧȦȡȐȍ ȖȗȍȘȈȞȐȐ ș ȌȍȕȍȎȕȣȔȐ șȘȍȌșȚȊȈȔȐ Ȑ ȐȕȣȔ ȐȔțȡȍșȚȊȖȔ. ȅȚȖ ȒȘȍȌȐȚȕȣȍ
ȖȘȋȈȕȐȏȈȞȐȐ, ȗȘȖȜȍșșȐȖȕȈȓȤȕȣȍ țȟȈșȚȕȐȒȐ ȘȣȕȒȈ Ȟȍȕȕȣȝ ȉțȔȈȋ, șȚȘȈȝȖȊȣȍ ȖȘȋȈȕȐȏȈȞȐȐ Ȑ
ȓȐȏȐȕȋȖȊȣȍ ȒȖȔȗȈȕȐȐ, ȓȖȔȉȈȘȌȣ, ȖȘȋȈȕȐȏȈȞȐȐ, ȖșțȡȍșȚȊȓȧȦȡȐȍ ȒțȗȓȦ-ȗȘȖȌȈȎț ȌȘȈȋȖȞȍȕȕȣȝ
ȔȍȚȈȓȓȖȊ Ȑ ȌȘȈȋȖȞȍȕȕȣȝ ȒȈȔȕȍȑ, ȦȊȍȓȐȘȕȣȝ ȐȏȌȍȓȐȑ Ȑȏ ȕȐȝ Ȑ ȓȖȔȈ ȚȈȒȐȝ ȐȏȌȍȓȐȑ, ȖȘȋȈȕȐȏȈȞȐȐ
ȐȋȖȘȕȖȋȖ ȉȐȏȕȍșȈ Ȑ ȘȧȌ ȌȘțȋȐȝ (ȘȐș. 15). ǪșȍȋȖ ȕȈ ȚȍȒțȡȐȑ ȔȖȔȍȕȚ ȕȈșȟȐȚȣȊȈȍȚșȧ șȊȣȠȍ
170 ȗȖȌȖȉȕȣȝ șțȉȢȍȒȚȖȊ. ǩȍȏțșȓȖȊȕȖ, ȒȓȦȟȍȊȈȧ ȘȖȓȤ ȖȚȊȍȌȍȕȈ ȒȘȍȌȐȚȕȣȔ ȖȘȋȈȕȐȏȈȞȐȧȔ.
7,4%
8,0%
2,8%
ȒȘȍȌȐȚȕȣȍ ȖȘȋȈȕȐȏȈȞȐȐ
6,3%
1,7%
ȗȘȖȜȍșșȐȖȕȈȓȤȕȣȍ țȟȈșȚȕȐȒȐ ȘȣȕȒȈ Ȟȍȕȕȣȝ ȉțȔȈȋ
5,7%
2,8%
ȓȐȏȐȕȋȖȊȣȍ ȒȖȔȗȈȕȐȐ
șȚȘȈȝȖȊȣȍ ȖȘȋȈȕȐȏȈȞȐȐ
ȘȐȥȓȚȖȘșȒȐȍ ȖȘȋȈȕȐȏȈȞȐȐ
ȖȘȋȈȕȐȏȈȞȐȐ ȐȋȖȘȕȖȋȖ ȉȐȏȕȍșȈ
ȓȖȔȉȈȘȌȣ
24,4%
23,3%
ȕȖȚȈȘȐțșȣ
ȖȘȋȈȕȐȏȈȞȐȐ ȗȖȟȚȖȊȖȑ șȊȧȏȐ
10,2%
7,4%
ȖȘȋȈȕȐȏȈȞȐȐ, ȖȒȈȏȣȊȈȦȡȐȍ ȉțȝȋȈȓȚȍȘșȒȐȍ țșȓțȋȐ
ȖȘȋȈȕȐȏȈȞȐȐ, ȖșțȡȍșȚȊȓȧȦȡȐȍ ȒțȗȓȦ-ȗȘȖȌȈȎț ȌȘȈȋ. ȔȍȚȈȓȓȖȊ, ȌȘȈȋ. ȒȈȔȕȍȑ Ȑ ȦȊȍȓȐȘȕȣȝ ȐȏȌȍȓȐȑ
ǸȐș. 15. ǹȚȘțȒȚțȘȈ șțȉȢȍȒȚȖȊ, șȖșȚȖȧȡȐȝ ȕȈ țȟȨȚȍ Ȋ ǷǸǩ Ȋ Ȟȍȓȧȝ
ȐșȗȖȓȕȍȕȐȧ ȏȈȒȖȕȖȌȈȚȍȓȤșȚȊȈ Ȋ șȜȍȘȍ ǷǶǬ Ȑ ǼǺ
ǵȈ șțȉȢȍȒȚȖȊ ȗȍȘȊȐȟȕȖȋȖ ȔȖȕȐȚȖȘȐȕȋȈ ȊȖȏȓȖȎȍȕȣ șȓȍȌțȦȡȐȍ ȖȉȧȏȈȕȕȖșȚȐ:
ȐȏțȟȍȕȐȍ țȟȈșȚȕȐȒȖȊ ȗȘȖȊȖȌȐȔȣȝ ȖȗȍȘȈȞȐȑ (șțȉȢȍȒȚȕȖȋȖ șȖșȚȈȊȈ), ȈȕȈȓȐȏ ȝȈȘȈȒȚȍȘȈ
ȖȗȍȘȈȞȐȑ ȕȈ ȗȘȍȌȔȍȚ Ȑȝ șȖȖȚȊȍȚșȚȊȐȧ ȌȍȧȚȍȓȤȕȖșȚȐ ȒȓȐȍȕȚȖȊ Ȑ ȚȖȑ ȐȌȍȕȚȐȜȐȒȈȞȐȖȕȕȖȑ
ȐȕȜȖȘȔȈȞȐȐ, ȒȖȚȖȘțȦ ȒȓȐȍȕȚȣ Ȗ șȍȉȍ ȗȘȍȌȖșȚȈȊȐȓȐ. ǰȝ ȖșȕȖȊȕȈȧ ȏȈȌȈȟȈ – ȘȍȈȓȐȏȈȞȐȧ ȗȘȐȕȞȐȗȈ
«ȏȕȈȑ șȊȖȍȋȖ ȒȓȐȍȕȚȈ», ȒȖȚȖȘȣȑ ȗȘȍȌțșȔȈȚȘȐȊȈȍȚ ȗȖȓțȟȍȕȐȍ, ȕȈȒȖȗȓȍȕȐȍ, ȈȕȈȓȐȏ Ȑ ȖȞȍȕȒț
ȐȕȜȖȘȔȈȞȐȐ Ȗ ȒȓȐȍȕȚȍ Ȑ șȖȊȍȘȠȈȍȔȣȝ ȖȗȍȘȈȞȐȧȝ;
ȖȘȋȈȕȐȏȈȞȐȧ ȊȕțȚȘȍȕȕȍȋȖ ȒȖȕȚȘȖȓȧ ȏȈ ȊșȍȔ ȖȉȢȨȔȖȔ ȗȘȖȊȖȌȐȔȣȝ ȖȗȍȘȈȞȐȑ Ȋ Ȟȍȓȧȝ
ȊȣȧȊȓȍȕȐȧ Țȍȝ Ȑȏ ȕȐȝ, ȒȖȚȖȘȣȍ ȗȖȚȍȕȞȐȈȓȤȕȖ ȔȖȋțȚ ȉȣȚȤ șȊȧȏȈȕȣ ș ȖȚȔȣȊȈȕȐȍȔ ȌȍȕȍȎȕȣȝ
șȘȍȌșȚȊ.
ǷȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊșȒȐȑ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȈȕșȒȐȑ ȉȈȕȒ 2 800,0
șȊȖȐ ȜțȕȒȞȐȐ ȖșțȡȍșȚȊȓȧȍȚ ȊȖ ȊȏȈȐȔȖȌȍȑșȚȊȐȐ
ș ȗȘȈȊȖȖȝȘȈȕȐȚȍȓȤȕȣȔȐ, ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȣȔȐ ȖȘȋȈȕȈȔȐ 2 100,0
Ȑ ȗȘȖȒțȘȈȚțȘȖȑ. Ǫ ȗȘȈȊȖȖȝȘȈȕȐȚȍȓȤȕȣȍ ȖȘȋȈȕȣ
ȕȈȗȘȈȊȓȧȍȚșȧ ȐȕȜȖȘȔȈȞȐȧ Ȗȉ ȖȗȍȘȈȞȐȧȝ, Ȋ 1 400,0
ȒȖȚȖȘȣȝ țșȔȈȚȘȐȊȈȦȚșȧ ȗȘȐȏȕȈȒȐ ȖȚȔȣȊȈȕȐȧ
700,0
ȗȘȍșȚțȗȕȣȝ ȌȖȝȖȌȖȊ ȐȓȐ șȖșȚȈȊȣ ȗȘȍȌȐȒȈȚȕȣȝ
ȗȘȍșȚțȗȓȍȕȐȑ, Ȍȓȧ ȌȈȓȤȕȍȑȠȐȝ ȖȗȍȘȈȚȐȊȕȣȝ Ȑ
0,0
ȗȘȖȊȍȘȖȟȕȣȝ
ȔȍȘȖȗȘȐȧȚȐȑ.
ǷȘȖȒțȘȈȚțȘȈ
2012 ȋȖȌ
2013 ȋȖȌ
țȗȖȓȕȖȔȖȟȍȕȈ ȊȖȏȉțȎȌȈȚȤ ȈȌȔȐȕȐșȚȘȈȚȐȊȕȖȍ
ȖȗȍȘȈȞȐȐ (șȌȍȓȒȐ), ȗȖȌȓȍȎȈȡȐȍ ȋȖș. ȒȖȕȚȘȖȓȦ
ȗȘȖȐȏȊȖȌșȚȊȖ
Ȋ
ȖȚȕȖȠȍȕȐȐ
șțȉȢȍȒȚȖȊ
ȗȖȌȖȏȘȐȚȍȓȤȕȣȍ ȖȗȍȘȈȞȐȐ (șȌȍȓȒȐ)
ȗȍȘȊȐȟȕȖȋȖ ȔȖȕȐȚȖȘȐȕȋȈ, ȕȍ ȊȣȗȖȓȕȧȦȡȐȝ
ǸȐș. 16. ǹȚȘțȒȚțȘȈ ȖȉȢȨȔȈ șȖȖȉȡȍȕȐȑ,
ȖȉȧȏȈȕȕȖșȚȐ,
ȗȘȍȌțșȔȖȚȘȍȕȕȣȍ
ȏȈȒȖȕȖȌȈȚȍȓȤșȚȊȖȔ
Ȋ
șȜȍȘȍ
ȖȚȔȣȊȈȕȐȧ ȗȘȍȌșȚȈȊȓȍȕȕȣȝ Ȋ ǷǸǩ șțȉȢȍȒȚȈȔȐ ȜȐȕȈȕșȖȊȖȋȖ
ȔȖȕȐȚȖȘȐȕȋȈ, Ȋ 2012-2013 ȋȋ. (ȠȚ.)
ȗȘȍșȚțȗȕȣȝ ȌȖȝȖȌȖȊ.
ǪȍșȚȕȐȒ ǷȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊșȒȖȋȖ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȈȕșȒȖȋȖ ȉȈȕȒȈ ȹ3’2014
27
ǷȖ ȔȈȚȍȘȐȈȓȈȔ ȒȖȕȜȍȘȍȕȞȐȑ
ǯȈ ȌȊȈ ȋȖȌȈ ȜțȕȒȞȐȖȕȐȘȖȊȈȕȐȧ Ȋ ǷȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊȤȍ șȐșȚȍȔȣ ȜȐȕȈȕșȖȊȖȋȖ ȔȖȕȐȚȖȘȐȕȋȈ ȟȍȘȍȏ
ǭȌȐȕțȦ ȐȕȜȖȘȔȈȞȐȖȕȕțȦ șȐșȚȍȔț ȖȚ șțȉȢȍȒȚȖȊ ȗȍȘȊȐȟȕȖȋȖ ȔȖȕȐȚȖȘȐȕȋȈ ȗȖșȚțȗȐȓȖ ȖȒȖȓȖ 5 800
șȖȖȉȡȍȕȐȑ, Ȑȏ ȕȐȝ ȌȖȓȧ ȖȗȍȘȈȞȐȑ, ȗȖȌȓȍȎȈȡȐȝ ȋȖșțȌȈȘșȚȊȍȕȕȖȔț ȒȖȕȚȘȖȓȦ, șȖșȚȈȊȐȓȈ 27%, Ȉ
ȌȖȓȧ ȗȖȌȖȏȘȐȚȍȓȤȕȣȝ ȖȗȍȘȈȞȐȑ – 73% (ȘȐș. 16).
ǵȍȖȉȝȖȌȐȔȖ ȗȖȕȐȔȈȚȤ, ȟȚȖ șȖȖȉȡȍȕȐȍ ȉȈȕȒȈ Ȗȉ ȖȗȘȍȌȍȓȨȕȕȖȑ ȜȐȕȈȕșȖȊȖȑ ȖȗȍȘȈȞȐȐ,
ȕȈȗȘȈȊȓȍȕȕȖȍ Ȋ ǷǸǩ, – ȥȚȖ ȕȍ ȈȊȚȖȔȈȚȐȟȍșȒȐ șȖȖȉȡȍȕȐȍ Ȗ ȗȘȈȊȖȕȈȘțȠȍȕȐȐ. ǺȖȓȤȒȖ ȗȘȐ ȕȈȓȐȟȐȐ
ȌȖșȚȈȚȖȟȕȣȝ Ȑ ȖȉȢȍȒȚȐȊȕȣȝ ȖșȕȖȊȈȕȐȑ, ȟȚȖ ȖȗȍȘȈȞȐȧ ȔȖȎȍȚ ȉȣȚȤ șȊȧȏȈȕȈ ș șȖȊȍȘȠȍȕȐȍȔ
ȗȘȍȌȐȒȈȚȕȣȝ ȗȘȍșȚțȗȓȍȕȐȑ ȐȓȐ ȖȚȔȣȊȈȕȐȍȔ ȗȘȍșȚțȗȕȣȝ ȌȖȝȖȌȖȊ, ȞȍȕȚȘȈȓȤȕȣȑ ȉȈȕȒ ȕȈȗȘȈȊȓȧȍȚ
ȐȕȜȖȘȔȈȞȐȦ Ȋ ȗȘȈȊȖȖȝȘȈȕȐȚȍȓȤȕȣȍ ȖȘȋȈȕȣ. Ǫ ȘȍȏțȓȤȚȈȚȍ ȗȘȖȊȍȌȨȕȕȖȑ ȏȈ ȌȊȈ ȋȖȌȈ ȘȈȉȖȚȣ Ȋ
ȗȘȈȊȖȖȝȘȈȕȐȚȍȓȤȕȣȍ ȖȘȋȈȕȣ ȕȈȗȘȈȊȓȍȕ 21 ȔȈȚȍȘȐȈȓ. ǬȈȕȕȈȧ ȐȕȜȖȘȔȈȞȐȧ ȐșȗȖȓȤȏțȍȚșȧ Ȋ
ȖȗȍȘȈȚȐȊȕȣȝ Ȟȍȓȧȝ; ȗȖ ȘȧȌț ȔȈȚȍȘȐȈȓȖȊ Ȋ ȕȈșȚȖȧȡȍȍ ȊȘȍȔȧ ȗȘȖȊȖȌȧȚșȧ ȖȗȍȘȈȚȐȊȕȣȍ ȔȍȘȖȗȘȐȧȚȐȧ,
ȊȖȏȉțȎȌȍȕȖ ȕȍșȒȖȓȤȒȖ țȋȖȓȖȊȕȣȝ Ȍȍȓ.
Ǫ ȗȘȈȊȖȖȝȘȈȕȐȚȍȓȤȕȣȍ ȖȘȋȈȕȣ ȕȈȗȘȈȊȓȧȓȈșȤ ȐȕȜȖȘȔȈȞȐȧ șȓȍȌțȦȡȍȋȖ ȝȈȘȈȒȚȍȘȈ:
1) ȗȖ ȖȗȍȘȈȞȐȧȔ șȕȧȚȐȧ ȌȍȕȍȎȕȣȝ șȘȍȌșȚȊ Ȋ ȕȈȓȐȟȕȖȑ ȜȖȘȔȍ Ȋ ȒȘțȗȕȣȝ ȘȈȏȔȍȘȈȝ, ȕȍ
ȖȉțșȓȖȊȓȍȕȕȣȝ ȝȈȘȈȒȚȍȘȖȔ ȌȍȧȚȍȓȤȕȖșȚȐ ȦȘȐȌȐȟȍșȒȐȝ Ȑ ȜȐȏȐȟȍșȒȐȝ ȓȐȞ;
2) ȗȖ ȖȗȍȘȈȞȐȧȔ ȗȍȘȍȊȖȌȈ ȌȍȕȍȎȕȣȝ șȘȍȌșȚȊ Ȋ ȖȜȜȠȖȘȕȣȍ ȏȖȕȣ ș ȞȍȓȤȦ ȊȣȊȖȌȈ ȒȈȗȐȚȈȓȈ Ȑ
(ȐȓȐ) țȒȓȖȕȍȕȐȧ ȖȚ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȖȉȓȖȎȍȕȐȧ;
3) ȗȖ ȖȗȍȘȈȞȐȧȔ, șȊȧȏȈȕȕȣȔ ș ȕȍȗȘȈȊȖȔȍȘȕȣȔ ȘȈșȝȖȌȖȊȈȕȐȍȔ ȌȍȕȍȎȕȣȝ șȘȍȌșȚȊ,
ȗȘȍȌȖșȚȈȊȓȍȕȕȣȝ ȗȖ ȒȘȍȌȐȚȈȔ ȕȈ ȒȖȕȒȘȍȚȕȣȍ ȞȍȓȐ;
4) ȗȖ ȖȗȍȘȈȞȐȧȔ, ȗȘȐȏȕȈȒȐ ȒȖȚȖȘȣȝ șȊȐȌȍȚȍȓȤșȚȊțȦȚ Ȗ ȊȖȏȔȖȎȕȖȔ șȖȊȍȘȠȍȕȐȐ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȣȝ
ȗȘȍșȚțȗȓȍȕȐȑ Ȑ ȗȖșȓȍȌțȦȡȍȑ ȓȍȋȈȓȐȏȈȞȐȐ șȖȒȘȣȚȣȝ ȖȚ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȖȉȓȖȎȍȕȐȧ șȘȍȌșȚȊ.
ǹȖȊȍȘȠȍȕșȚȊȖȊȈȕȐȍ ȏȈȒȖȕȖȌȈȚȍȓȤșȚȊȈ Ȋ Ȟȍȓȧȝ ȥȜȜȍȒȚȐȊȕȖȋȖ ȘȈȏȊȐȚȐȧ șȐșȚȍȔȣ ȜȐȕȈȕșȖȊȖȋȖ
ȔȖȕȐȚȖȘȐȕȋȈ ǷȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊșȒȐȑ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȈȕșȒȐȑ ȉȈȕȒ ȊȐȌȐȚ Ȋ șȓȍȌțȦȡȐȝ ȕȈȗȘȈȊȓȍȕȐȧȝ:
1. ǩȈȏȖȊȣȑ ȏȈȒȖȕ, ȋȘȈȎȌȈȕșȒȖȍ Ȑ țȋȖȓȖȊȕȖȍ ȏȈȒȖȕȖȌȈȚȍȓȤșȚȊȖ ȕȍȖȉȝȖȌȐȔȖ ȗȘȐȊȖȌȐȚȤ Ȋ
șȖȖȚȊȍȚșȚȊȐȍ ș ȕȖȊȖȑ ȘȍȌȈȒȞȐȍȑ ȘȍȒȖȔȍȕȌȈȞȐȑ ǼǨǺǼ ȖȚ 2012 ȋȖȌȈ. ǷȖ ȔȕȖȋȐȔ ȕȈȗȘȈȊȓȍȕȐȧȔ
ȔȍȘȣ ȗȘȖȚȐȊȖȌȍȑșȚȊȐȧ, Ȉ ȚȈȒȎȍ țȋȖȓȖȊȕȈȧ ȖȚȊȍȚșȚȊȍȕȕȖșȚȤ ȏȈ ȗȘȍȌȐȒȈȚȕȣȍ ȗȘȍșȚțȗȓȍȕȐȧ Ȑ
ȗȖșȓȍȌțȦȡȍȍ ȖȚȔȣȊȈȕȐȍ ȌȖȓȎȕȣ ȉȣȚȤ țȎȍșȚȖȟȍȕȣ, Ȉ ȗȖȓȕȖȔȖȟȐȧ ȕȈȌȏȖȘȕȣȝ ȖȘȋȈȕȖȊ ȘȈșȠȐȘȍȕȣ.
ǹȓȍȌțȍȚ ȒȖȕȒȘȍȚȐȏȐȘȖȊȈȚȤ ȗȘȈȊȈ Ȑ ȖȉȧȏȈȕȕȖșȚȐ șțȉȢȍȒȚȖȊ ȗȍȘȊȐȟȕȖȋȖ ȔȖȕȐȚȖȘȐȕȋȈ Ȑ
ȗȘȍȌțșȔȖȚȘȍȚȤ ȗȘȈȊȖȊȣȍ ȖșȕȖȊȈȕȐȧ Ȍȓȧ ȗȘȍȒȘȈȡȍȕȐȧ ȖȚȕȖȠȍȕȐȑ ș ȒȓȐȍȕȚȈȔȐ, ȕȍ ȐșȗȖȓȕȧȦȡȐȔȐ
ȚȘȍȉȖȊȈȕȐȧ ȉȈȕȒȈ, ȕȍȖȉȝȖȌȐȔȣȍ Ȍȓȧ ȖșțȡȍșȚȊȓȍȕȐȧ ȊȕțȚȘȍȕȕȍȋȖ ȒȖȕȚȘȖȓȧ Ȋ șȜȍȘȍ ǷǶǬ/ǼǺ.
ǿȚȖȉȣ ȏȈȒȖȕȖȌȈȚȍȓȤșȚȊȖ Ȋ șȜȍȘȍ ǷǶǬ/ǼǺ ȉȣȓȖ ȌȍȑșȚȊȍȕȕȣȔ Ȑ ȘȈȉȖȚȈȓȖ Ȋ ȗȖȓȕȖȔ ȖȉȢȨȔȍ,
ȕȍȖȉȝȖȌȐȔȖ ȗȖȕȐȔȈȕȐȍ șȖ șȚȖȘȖȕȣ șțȉȢȍȒȚȖȊ ȗȍȘȊȐȟȕȖȋȖ ȔȖȕȐȚȖȘȐȕȋȈ ȕȍȖȉȝȖȌȐȔȖșȚȐ
ȐșȗȖȓȕȍȕȐȧ țșȚȈȕȖȊȓȍȕȕȣȝ ȚȘȍȉȖȊȈȕȐȑ. ǺȈȒȎȍ ȊȈȎȕȈ șȖȋȓȈșȖȊȈȕȕȖșȚȤ ȌȍȑșȚȊȐȑ ǷǸǩ, ǪȍȘȝȖȊȕȖȋȖ
ǹȖȊȍȚȈ, ȐșȗȖȓȕȐȚȍȓȤȕȣȝ, șțȌȍȉȕȣȝ ȖȘȋȈȕȖȊ ȊȓȈșȚȐ Ȑ ǷȘȖȒțȘȈȚțȘȣ ǷȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊșȒȖȑ ǴȖȓȌȈȊșȒȖȑ
ǸȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȐ.
2. ǵȍȖȉȝȖȌȐȔȈ ȚȘȈȕșȜȖȘȔȈȞȐȧ ȗȖȕȧȚȐȧ «ȉȈȕȒȖȊșȒȈȧ ȚȈȑȕȈ» Ȋ ȒȖȕȚȍȒșȚȍ Țȍȝ ȔȍȘ, ȒȖȚȖȘȣȍ
ȋȖșțȌȈȘșȚȊȈ Ȋ șȖȖȚȊȍȚșȚȊȐȐ ș ȔȍȎȌțȕȈȘȖȌȕȣȔȐ șȚȈȕȌȈȘȚȈȔȐ ȌȖȓȎȕȣ ȗȘȐȔȍȕȧȚȤ Ȋ ȘȈȔȒȈȝ ȉȖȘȤȉȣ ș
ȖȚȔȣȊȈȕȐȍȔ Ȍȍȕȍȋ.
ǷȘȍȎȌȍ ȊșȍȋȖ, ȌȍȊȧȚȈȧ ȘȍȒȖȔȍȕȌȈȞȐȧ ȕȖȊȖȑ ȘȍȌȈȒȞȐȐ șȚȈȕȌȈȘȚȖȊ ǼǨǺǼ ȚȘȍȉțȍȚ ȖȚ șȚȘȈȕ,
ȟȚȖȉȣ ȏȈȒȖȕȖȌȈȚȍȓȤșȚȊȖ Ȗ ȏȈȡȐȚȍ ȚȈȑȕȣ ȜȐȕȈȕșȖȊȣȝ țȟȘȍȎȌȍȕȐȑ ȕȍ ȗȘȍȗȧȚșȚȊȖȊȈȓȖ ȘȍȈȓȐȏȈȞȐȐ
ȔȍȘ, ȖșțȡȍșȚȊȓȧȍȔȣȝ ȖȘȋȈȕȐȏȈȞȐȧȔȐ Ȑ ȋȖșțȌȈȘșȚȊȍȕȕȣȔȐ ȖȘȋȈȕȈȔȐ ȗȖ ȉȖȘȤȉȍ ș ȖȚȔȣȊȈȕȐȍȔ
ȌȍȕȍȎȕȣȝ șȘȍȌșȚȊ. ǴȐȘȖȊȖȍ șȖȖȉȡȍșȚȊȖ ȗȘȐȠȓȖ Ȓ ȖȉȖșȕȖȊȈȕȕȖȔț ȊȣȊȖȌț, ȟȚȖ «ȉȈȕȒȖȊșȒȈȧ ȚȈȑȕȈ»
ȗȘȍȊȘȈȚȐȓȈșȤ Ȋ ȐȕșȚȘțȔȍȕȚ, ȗȖȔȖȋȈȦȡȐȑ șȗȘȧȚȈȚȤ ȕȍȏȈȒȖȕȕȖ ȗȖȓțȟȍȕȕȣȍ șȘȍȌșȚȊȈ, țȒȘȣȚȤșȧ ȖȚ
ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊ, ȗȘȐȌȈȚȤ ȗȘȍșȚțȗȕȣȔ ȌȍȕȤȋȈȔ ȊȗȖȓȕȍ ȏȈȒȖȕȕȣȑ ȊȐȌ Ȑ ȐșȗȖȓȤȏȖȊȈȚȤ ȌȈȓȤȠȍ Ȋ ȓȍȋȈȓȤȕȖȑ
ȌȍȧȚȍȓȤȕȖșȚȐ. DzȓȈșșȐȟȍșȒȈȧ ȚȘȈȒȚȖȊȒȈ «ȉȈȕȒȖȊșȒȖȑ ȚȈȑȕȣ» ȗȖȏȊȖȓȧȍȚ «ȕȍȟȐșȚȖȗȓȖȚȕȣȔ
ȒȘȍȌȐȚȕȣȔ ȖȘȋȈȕȐȏȈȞȐȧȔ» ȗȘȐȒȘȣȊȈȚȤ șȖȔȕȐȚȍȓȤȕȣȍ ȖȗȍȘȈȞȐȐ șȊȖȐȝ ȒȓȐȍȕȚȖȊ, Ȉ ȕȍȘȍȌȒȖ
ȗȘȐȕȐȔȈȚȤ Ȋ ȕȐȝ șȈȔȖȍ ȈȒȚȐȊȕȖȍ țȟȈșȚȐȍ.
Ǫ ǭȊȘȖȗȍ, ǹȀǨ Ȑ ǸȖșșȐȐ ȕȈ șȈȔȖȔ ȊȣșȖȒȖȔ țȘȖȊȕȍ ȗȖșȚȖȧȕȕȖ ȋȖȊȖȘȧȚ Ȗȉ țșȐȓȍȕȐȐ
ȚȘȍȉȖȊȈȕȐȑ Ȓ ȖȚȒȘȣȚȖșȚȐ Ȑ ȗȘȖȏȘȈȟȕȖșȚȐ ȌȊȐȎȍȕȐȧ ȒȈȗȐȚȈȓȖȊ, ȘȈșȒȘȣȚȐȦ ȐȕȜȖȘȔȈȞȐȐ Ȗ
28
ǪȍșȚȕȐȒ ǷȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊșȒȖȋȖ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȈȕșȒȖȋȖ ȉȈȕȒȈ ȹ3’2014
ǷȖ ȔȈȚȍȘȐȈȓȈȔ ȒȖȕȜȍȘȍȕȞȐȑ
ȊȓȈȌȍȓȤȞȈȝ șȟȍȚȖȊ Ȑ ȓȐȞȈȝ, ȗȖȓțȟȈȦȡȐȝ ȊȣȋȖȌț ȖȚ ȖȗȍȘȈȞȐȑ Ȋ ȚȈȒ ȕȈȏȣȊȈȍȔȣȝ «ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȣȝ
țȉȍȎȐȡȈȝ». ǵȍ ȚȖȓȤȒȖ ȖȜȜȠȖȘȕȣȍ ȞȍȕȚȘȣ ȊȣȕțȎȌȍȕȣ ȖȚȒȘȣȊȈȚȤ ȐȔȍȕȈ ȘȍȈȓȤȕȣȝ ȊȓȈȌȍȓȤȞȍȊ
șȟȍȚȖȊ ȕȈ Ȑȝ ȚȍȘȘȐȚȖȘȐȧȝ, ȕȖ ȌȈȎȍ ȠȊȍȑȞȈȘșȒȐȍ ȉȈȕȒȐ ȗȖȌȟȐȕȧȦȚșȧ ȚȘȍȉȖȊȈȕȐȧȔ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȣȝ
ȖȘȋȈȕȖȊ ȌȘțȋȐȝ ȋȖșțȌȈȘșȚȊ Ȑ ȖșțȡȍșȚȊȓȧȦȚ ȒȖȕȚȘȖȓȤ ȏȈ «ȟȐșȚȖȚȖȑ» ȘȈȏȔȍȡȈȍȔȣȝ ț ȕȐȝ ȌȍȕȍȎȕȣȝ
șȘȍȌșȚȊ. «ǾȍȕȈ ȋȘȧȏȕȣȝ Ȍȍȕȍȋ» Ȍȓȧ ȌȍȓȖȊȖȑ ȘȍȗțȚȈȞȐȐ ȉȈȕȒȈ ȔȖȎȍȚ ȖȒȈȏȈȚȤșȧ șȓȐȠȒȖȔ ȊȣșȖȒȖȑ.
DzȘȖȔȍ ȖȋȘȈȕȐȟȐȚȍȓȤȕȣȝ ȔȍȘ ȕȈ ȖșțȡȍșȚȊȓȍȕȐȍ, Ȓ ȗȘȐȔȍȘț, ȗȓȈȚȍȎȍȑ Ȋ ȌȖȓȓȈȘȈȝ ǹȀǨ ȟȍȘȍȏ
ȒȓȐȘȐȕȋȖȊțȦ șȐșȚȍȔț ǹȀǨ, ȉȈȕȒȐ, țȓȐȟȨȕȕȣȍ Ȋ ȗȘȖȚȐȊȖȗȘȈȊȕȣȝ ȌȍȑșȚȊȐȧȝ, ȉțȌțȚ ȊȣȕțȎȌȍȕȣ
ȏȈȗȓȈȚȐȚȤ ȖȋȘȖȔȕȣȍ ȠȚȘȈȜȣ, ȐȏȔȍȘȧȍȔȣȍ ȌȍșȧȚȒȈȔȐ Ȑ șȖȚȕȧȔȐ ȔȐȓȓȐȖȕȖȊ ȌȖȓȓȈȘȖȊ.
Ǫ ȕȈșȚȖȧȡȍȍ ȊȘȍȔȧ ȗȍȘȍȌ ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȒȖȑ ǷȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊșȒȖȑ ǴȖȓȌȈȊșȒȖȑ ǸȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȐ șȚȖȧȚ ȕȍ
ȔȍȕȤȠȐȍ țȋȘȖȏȣ: ȈȒȚȐȊȕȖ ȐșȗȖȓȤȏțȦȚșȧ «ȖȜȜȠȖȘȕȣȍ șȝȍȔȣ» Ȍȓȧ ȊȣȊȖȌȈ ȌȍȕȍȎȕȣȝ șȘȍȌșȚȊ, țȝȖȌȈ
ȖȚ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȖȉȓȖȎȍȕȐȧ, șȖȒȘȣȚȐȧ ȘȍȈȓȤȕȣȝ ȊȓȈȌȍȓȤȞȍȊ ȉȐȏȕȍșȈ. ǷȘȐ ȥȚȖȔ ȌȊȐȎȍȕȐȍ ȌȍȕȍȎȕȣȝ
șȘȍȌșȚȊ ȗȖ ȉȈȕȒȖȊșȒȐȔ șȟȍȚȈȔ, ȒȈȒ ȍȌȐȕșȚȊȍȕȕȣȑ ȐșȚȖȟȕȐȒ ȐȕȜȖȘȔȈȞȐȐ Ȗ ȌȈȕȕȣȝ ȖȘȋȈȕȐȏȈȞȐȧȝ Ȑ
Ȑȝ ȌȍȧȚȍȓȤȕȖșȚȐ, ȏȈȡȐȡȈȍȚ ȉȈȕȒȖȊșȒȈȧ ȚȈȑȕȈ. Ǩ «ȏȈȊȐșȐȔȖȍ» ȗȘȖȜȍșșȐȖȕȈȓȤȕȖȍ șțȎȌȍȕȐȍ
ȌȖȓȎȕȖșȚȕȣȝ ȓȐȞ ȉȈȕȒȈ ȕȍ ȗȖȏȊȖȓȧȍȚ ȖȞȍȕȐȚȤ ȖȗȍȘȈȞȐȦ ȒȈȒ șȖȔȕȐȚȍȓȤȕțȦ Ȑ ȘȐșȒȖȊțȦ, Ȓ
ȗȘȐȔȍȘț, ȈȒȞȐȖȕȍȘȈ ȉȈȕȒȈ ȐȓȐ ȈȜȜȐȓȐȘȖȊȈȕȕȖȋȖ Ȓ ȕȍȔț ȒȓȐȍȕȚȈ ȉȈȕȒȈ ș ȖȘȋȈȕȐȏȈȞȐȧȔȐ,
ȏȈȘȍȋȐșȚȘȐȘȖȊȈȕȕȣȔȐ Ȋ ȖȜȜȠȖȘȕȣȝ ȚȍȘȘȐȚȖȘȐȧȝ.
Ǫ ȌȈȕȕȖȔ șȓțȟȈȍ ȋȖșțȌȈȘșȚȊȖ Ȋ ȓȐȞȍ ȞȍȕȚȘȈȓȤȕȖȋȖ ȉȈȕȒȈ ȒȈȒ țȗȖȓȕȖȔȖȟȍȕȕȖȋȖ ȖȘȋȈȕȈ ȖȉȧȏȈȕȖ
ȗȘȍȌțȗȘȍȎȌȈȚȤ Ȑ ȗȘȍȌȖșȚȍȘȍȋȈȚȤ ȒȘȍȌȐȚȕȣȍ ȖȘȋȈȕȐȏȈȞȐȐ ȖȚ Țȍȝ ȘȐșȒȖȊ, ȒȖȚȖȘȣȍ ȕȍșȨȚ Ȍȓȧ ȉȈȕȒȈ
ȘȈȉȖȚȈ ș ȚȈȒȐȔȐ ȒȓȐȍȕȚȈȔȐ, Ȉ ȚȈȒȎȍ ȕȍȗȘȍȌșȚȈȊȓȍȕȐȍ ȐȕȜȖȘȔȈȞȐȐ Ȗȉ ȖȗȍȘȈȞȐȧȝ Ȋ
șȖȖȚȊȍȚșȚȊțȦȡȐȑ ȖȘȋȈȕ Ȑ ȊȖșȗȘȍȗȧȚșȚȊȖȊȈȕȐȍ ȒȖȕȚȘȖȓȦ șȖ șȚȖȘȖȕȣ țȗȖȓȕȖȔȖȟȍȕȕȣȝ ȖȘȋȈȕȖȊ.
Ǭȓȧ ȥȜȜȍȒȚȐȊȕȖȋȖ ȒȖȕȚȘȖȓȧ ț ȞȍȕȚȘȈȓȤȕȖȋȖ ȉȈȕȒȈ ȌȖȓȎȕȣ ȉȣȚȤ ȌȍȑșȚȊȍȕȕȣȍ ȘȣȟȈȋȐ Ȑ
ȗȖȓȕȖȔȖȟȐȧ ȗȖ ȖȗȍȘȈȚȐȊȕȖȔț ȔȖȕȐȚȖȘȐȕȋț șȐȚțȈȞȐȐ, ȗȖȓțȟȍȕȐȦ ȕȍȖȉȝȖȌȐȔȖȑ ȐȕȜȖȘȔȈȞȐȐ.
ǷȖȥȚȖȔț ȏȈȒȖȕȖȌȈȚȍȓȤșȚȊȖ ǷǴǸ ȚȈȒȎȍ ȌȖȓȎȕȖ ȐȌȚȐ ȗȖ ȗțȚȐ ȘȍȋțȓȐȘȖȊȈȕȐȧ ȗȖȕȧȚȐȧ «ȉȈȕȒȖȊșȒȈȧ
ȚȈȑȕȈ», țȟȐȚȣȊȈȧ ȖȗȣȚ ǸȖșșȐȐ Ȑ ȏȈȗȈȌȕȖȍȊȘȖȗȍȑșȒȐȝ ȋȖșțȌȈȘșȚȊ. Ǫ ȥȚȖȔ ȕȈȗȘȈȊȓȍȕȐȐ Ȋ
ȉȈȕȒȖȊșȒȖȔ ȏȈȒȖȕȖȌȈȚȍȓȤșȚȊȍ ǷȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊȤȧ șȌȍȓȈȕȖ ȕȍȒȖȚȖȘȖȍ ȖȚșȚțȗȓȍȕȐȍ ȖȚ ȒȓȈșșȐȟȍșȒȖȋȖ
ȗȖȕȐȔȈȕȐȧ «ȉȈȕȒȖȊșȒȖȑ ȚȈȑȕȣ», ȟȚȖ ȗȖȏȊȖȓȧȍȚ ȞȍȕȚȘȈȓȤȕȖȔț ȉȈȕȒț ȐșȚȘȍȉȖȊȈȚȤ ȕȍȖȉȝȖȌȐȔțȦ
ȐȕȜȖȘȔȈȞȐȦ ț ȖȘȋȈȕȐȏȈȞȐȑ Ȑ ȓȐȞ, ȖșțȡȍșȚȊȓȧȦȡȐȝ ȖȗȍȘȈȞȐȐ ș ȌȍȕȍȎȕȣȔȐ șȘȍȌșȚȊȈȔȐ Ȑ ȐȕȣȔ
ȐȔțȡȍșȚȊȖȔ. Ǫ șȊȧȏȐ ș ȥȚȐȔ ȕȍ ȧȊȓȧȍȚșȧ ȘȈȏȋȓȈȠȍȕȐȍȔ ȉȈȕȒȖȊșȒȖȑ ȚȈȑȕȣ ȗȘȍȌȖșȚȈȊȓȍȕȐȍ
ȐȕȜȖȘȔȈȞȐȐ, șȖȌȍȘȎȈȡȍȑ ȗȘȐȏȕȈȒȐ ȖȚȔȣȊȈȕȐȧ, Ȋ ȗȘȈȊȖȖȝȘȈȕȐȚȍȓȤȕȣȍ ȖȘȋȈȕȣ, Ȉ ȚȈȒȎȍ Ȋ ȖȚȊȍȚ ȕȈ
ȏȈȗȘȖșȣ ȔȍȎȌțȕȈȘȖȌȕȣȝ ȖȘȋȈȕȐȏȈȞȐȑ Ȑ ȌȘțȋȐȝ ȋȖșțȌȈȘșȚȊ Ȋ ȘȈȔȒȈȝ ȔȍȎȌțȕȈȘȖȌȕȖȋȖ
șȖȚȘțȌȕȐȟȍșȚȊȈ.
Ǫ ȚȖ Ȏȍ ȊȘȍȔȧ ȐȔȍȍȚ ȔȍșȚȖ ȘȈȏȓȐȟȕȖȍ ȗȖȕȐȔȈȕȐȍ ȗȖȓȖȎȍȕȐȑ ȏȈȒȖȕȈ, ȒȈȒ șțȉȢȍȒȚȈȔȐ
ȗȍȘȊȐȟȕȖȋȖ ȔȖȕȐȚȖȘȐȕȋȈ, ȚȈȒ Ȑ șțȌȍȉȕȣȔȐ ȖȘȋȈȕȈȔȐ. ǷȖ ȔȕȍȕȐȦ ǷȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊșȒȖȋȖ
ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȈȕșȒȖȋȖ ȉȈȕȒȈ, Ȋ ȌȈȕȕȖȔ ȊȖȗȘȖșȍ ȕȍȖȉȝȖȌȐȔȖ ȐșȝȖȌȐȚȤ Ȑȏ ȚȖȋȖ, ȕțȎȍȕ ȓȐ ȔȖȕȐȚȖȘȐȕȋ
ȊȖȖȉȡȍ, ȍșȓȐ ț ȞȍȕȚȘȈȓȤȕȖȋȖ ȉȈȕȒȈ ȕȍ ȉțȌȍȚ ȗȖȓȕȖȔȖȟȐȑ ȗȖ ȕȍȗȘȍȘȣȊȕȖȔț ȒȖȕȚȘȖȓȦ ȏȈ
ȗȘȖȊȖȌȐȔȣȔȐ ȒȖȔȔȍȘȟȍșȒȐȔȐ ȉȈȕȒȈȔȐ Ȑ Ȑȝ ȒȓȐȍȕȚȈȔȐ ȖȗȍȘȈȞȐȧȔȐ.
ǯȈȒȖȕȖȌȈȚȍȓȤșȚȊȖ ȌȖȓȎȕȖ ȘȈȏȊȐȊȈȚȤșȧ ȕȍ Ȋ șȚȖȘȖȕț ȖȋȘȈȕȐȟȍȕȐȑ Ȑ țșȓȖȊȐȑ Ȍȓȧ ȌȖșȚțȗȈ Ȓ
ȉȈȕȒȖȊșȒȖȑ ȚȈȑȕȍ șȖ șȚȖȘȖȕȣ ȋȖșțȌȈȘșȚȊȍȕȕȣȝ ȖȘȋȈȕȖȊ, ȖȚȊȍȟȈȦȡȐȝ ȏȈ ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȟȍșȒțȦ
ȉȍȏȖȗȈșȕȖșȚȤ Ȑ ȜȐȕȈȕșȖȊțȦ șȐșȚȍȔț ȋȖșțȌȈȘșȚȊȈ. ǷȘȐ ȥȚȖȔ șȗȘȈȊȍȌȓȐȊȖȑ ȧȊȓȧȍȚșȧ ȗȖȏȐȞȐȧ
ȗȘȍȌșȚȈȊȐȚȍȓȍȑ ȘȖșșȐȑșȒȖȋȖ Ȑ ȏȈȗȈȌȕȖȋȖ ȉȈȕȒȖȊșȒȖȋȖ șȖȖȉȡȍșȚȊȈ, ȟȚȖ ȗȘȖȞȍșșȣ ȓȐȉȍȘȈȓȐȏȈȞȐȐ
ȉȈȕȒȖȊșȒȖȑ ȚȈȑȕȣ ȌȖȓȎȕȣ șȖȗȘȖȊȖȎȌȈȚȤșȧ țșȐȓȍȕȐȍȔ ȖȚȊȍȚșȚȊȍȕȕȖșȚȐ ȏȈ ȌȍȑșȚȊȐȧ, șȊȧȏȈȕȕȣȍ ș
ȍȨ ȕȍȗȘȈȊȖȔȍȘȕȣȔ ȐșȗȖȓȤȏȖȊȈȕȐȍȔ Ȑ ȘȈȏȋȓȈȠȍȕȐȍȔ ȐȕȣȔ ȓȐȞȈȔ.
3. ǵȍȖȉȝȖȌȐȔȖ ȐȏȔȍȕȍȕȐȍ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȖȋȖ, ȈȌȔȐȕȐșȚȘȈȚȐȊȕȖȋȖ, ȋȘȈȎȌȈȕșȒȖȋȖ, țȋȖȓȖȊȕȖȋȖ
ȏȈȒȖȕȖȌȈȚȍȓȤșȚȊȈ.
ǶșȕȖȊȕȈȧ ȗȖȏȐȞȐȧ ǷǸǩ ȏȈȒȓȦȟȈȍȚșȧ Ȋ ȚȖȔ, ȟȚȖ ȜțȕȒȞȐȧ ȞȍȕȚȘȈȓȤȕȖȋȖ ȉȈȕȒȈ ȌȖȓȎȕȈ
ȊȣȘȈȎȈȚȤșȧ ȕȍ ȚȖȓȤȒȖ Ȑ ȕȍ șȚȖȓȤȒȖ Ȋ ȊȣȧȊȓȍȕȐȐ ȕȍȐșȗȖȓȕȍȕȐȧ șțȉȢȍȒȚȈȔȐ ȗȍȘȊȐȟȕȖȋȖ
ȔȖȕȐȚȖȘȐȕȋȈ ȚȘȍȉȖȊȈȕȐȑ ȏȈȒȖȕȖȌȈȚȍȓȤșȚȊȈ, ȕȍ Ȋ ȒȖȓȐȟȍșȚȊȍ ȔȈȚȍȘȐȈȓȖȊ, ȕȈȗȘȈȊȓȍȕȕȣȝ Ȋ
ǷȘȖȒțȘȈȚțȘț ȐȓȐ ȗȘȈȊȖȖȝȘȈȕȐȚȍȓȤȕȣȍ ȖȘȋȈȕȣ. DzȈȒ ȘȈȏ ȉȖȓȤȠȐȍ țșȗȍȝȐ Ȑ ȞȐȜȘȣ Ȋ ȥȚȖȔ
ȕȈȗȘȈȊȓȍȕȐȐ șȊȐȌȍȚȍȓȤșȚȊțȦȚ, șȒȖȘȍȍ, Ȗ ȕȍȋȈȚȐȊȕȣȝ ȚȍȕȌȍȕȞȐȧȝ Ȋ ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȒȍ Ȑ ȉȈȕȒȖȊșȒȖȑ
ǪȍșȚȕȐȒ ǷȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊșȒȖȋȖ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȈȕșȒȖȋȖ ȉȈȕȒȈ ȹ3’2014
29
ǷȖ ȔȈȚȍȘȐȈȓȈȔ ȒȖȕȜȍȘȍȕȞȐȑ
șȐșȚȍȔȍ. ǫȓȈȊȕȈȧ ȕȈȠȈ ȏȈȌȈȟȈ – ȗȖșȣȓȈȚȤ șȐȋȕȈȓȣ ȏȈȒȖȕȖȌȈȚȍȓȤȕȖȔț ȖȘȋȈȕț ȊȓȈșȚȐ Ȑ
ȗȘȈȊȐȚȍȓȤșȚȊț Ȗ ȕȍȖȉȝȖȌȐȔȖșȚȐ ȐȏȔȍȕȍȕȐȧ ȏȈȒȖȕȖȌȈȚȍȓȤșȚȊȈ, țșȚȘȈȕȍȕȐȧ ȗȘȖȉȍȓȖȊ, ȗȖȏȊȖȓȧȦȡȐȝ
șȒȘȣȊȈȚȤ ȕȈȓȖȋȐ ȐȓȐ ȐȏȉȍȋȈȚȤ Ȑȝ țȗȓȈȚȣ ȊȖȊșȍ. ǵȍ șȍȒȘȍȚ, ȟȚȖ ȗȘȈȊȖȕȈȘțȠȐȚȍȓȐ ȊșȍȋȌȈ ȉțȌțȚ
ȊȗȍȘȍȌȐ. ǺȖȓȤȒȖ ȉȖȓȤȠțȦ ȗȖȓȤȏț ȋȖșțȌȈȘșȚȊț ȗȘȐȕȍșȨȚ ȗȘȍȌțȗȘȍȎȌȍȕȐȍ, țșȚȘȈȕȍȕȐȍ ȗȘȖȉȍȓȖȊ Ȋ
ȏȈȒȖȕȖȌȈȚȍȓȤșȚȊȍ, șȗȖșȖȉșȚȊțȦȡȐȝ ȕȈȘțȠȍȕȐȧȔ, ȕȍȎȍȓȐ ȊȣȧȊȓȍȕȐȍ ȗȘȍșȚțȗȓȍȕȐȑ Ȑ
ȗȘȈȊȖȕȈȘțȠȍȕȐȑ ȗȖșȚȜȈȒȚțȔ, ȒȖȋȌȈ ȊȘȍȌ ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȒȍ țȎȍ ȗȘȐȟȐȕȨȕ Ȑ ȏȈȟȈșȚțȦ ȕȍȖȉȘȈȚȐȔ.
ǸȍȏțȓȤȚȈȚ ȌȊțȝȓȍȚȕȍȋȖ ȔȖȕȐȚȖȘȐȕȋȈ ȖȗȍȘȈȞȐȑ, șȊȧȏȈȕȕȣȝ ș ȌȊȐȎȍȕȐȍȔ ȌȍȕȍȎȕȣȝ șȘȍȌșȚȊ ȕȈ
șȟȍȚȈ ȘȍȏȐȌȍȕȚȖȊ ȖȜȜȠȖȘȕȣȝ ȚȍȘȘȐȚȖȘȐȑ, ȖȚȒȘȣȚȣȝ Ȋ ȉȈȕȒȈȝ ǷǴǸ Ȑ Ȋ ȉȈȕȒȈȝ ȏȈ ȗȘȍȌȍȓȈȔȐ ǷǴǸ,
ȗȖȏȊȖȓȐȓ ȊȣȧȊȐȚȤ șȓȍȌțȦȡȐȍ ȚȍȕȌȍȕȞȐȐ.
ǵȈȉȓȦȌȈȍȚșȧ ȈȒȚȐȊȕȖȍ ȐșȗȖȓȤȏȖȊȈȕȐȍ «ȖȜȜȠȖȘȕȣȝ șȝȍȔ» Ȍȓȧ ȊȣȊȖȌȈ ȌȍȕȍȎȕȣȝ șȘȍȌșȚȊ,
țȝȖȌȈ ȖȚ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȖȉȓȖȎȍȕȐȧ, șȖȒȘȣȚȐȧ ȘȍȈȓȤȕȣȝ ȊȓȈȌȍȓȤȞȍȊ ȉȐȏȕȍșȈ. ǺȈȒȈȧ ȗȘȈȒȚȐȒȈ ȗȘȐȔȍȕȧȍȚșȧ Ȋ
ȐȔȗȖȘȚȕȣȝ șȌȍȓȒȈȝ ȗȖ ȗȖșȚȈȊȒȍ ȚȖȊȈȘȖȊ Ȑ țșȓțȋ, ȒȖȋȌȈ ȌȍȕȍȎȕȣȍ șȘȍȌșȚȊȈ ȗȍȘȍȟȐșȓȧȦȚșȧ
ȕȍȘȍȏȐȌȍȕȚȈȔ Ȑȏ ȖȜȜȠȖȘȕȣȝ șȚȘȈȕ.
ǵȍ Ȕȍȕȍȍ ȈȒȚȐȊȕțȦ ȌȍȧȚȍȓȤȕȖșȚȤ ȌȈȕȕȣȍ ȖȘȋȈȕȐȏȈȞȐȐ ȊȍȌțȚ Ȑ ȊȕțȚȘȐ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȐ, ȖȚȒȘȣȊȈȧ
șȟȍȚȈ Ȋ ȗȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊșȒȐȝ ȒȘȍȌȐȚȕȣȝ ȖȘȋȈȕȐȏȈȞȐȧȝ Ȑ ȖșțȡȍșȚȊȓȧȧ ȘȈșȟȨȚȣ ș ȖȚȍȟȍșȚȊȍȕȕȣȔȐ
ȝȖȏȧȑșȚȊțȦȡȐȔȐ șțȉȢȍȒȚȈȔȐ.
ǰȝ ȌȍȧȚȍȓȤȕȖșȚȤ ȝȈȘȈȒȚȍȘȐȏțȍȚșȧ ȕȈȓȐȟȐȍȔ ȕȖȔȐȕȈȓȤȕȣȝ ȐȓȐ, șȒȖȘȍȍ, ȜȐȒȚȐȊȕȣȝ
ȊȓȈȌȍȓȤȞȍȊ, ȖȚșțȚșȚȊȐȍȔ ȖȉȧȏȈȕȕȖșȚȍȑ ȗȍȘȍȌ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȣȔȐ ȖȘȋȈȕȈȔȐ ǷǴǸ ȗȖ ȗȖșȚȈȕȖȊȒȍ ȕȈ
ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȣȑ țȟȨȚ, ȗȘȍȌȖșȚȈȊȓȍȕȐȦ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȖȑ ȖȚȟȨȚȕȖșȚȐ Ȑ țȗȓȈȚȍ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȣȝ ȗȓȈȚȍȎȍȑ Ȋ ȉȦȌȎȍȚ
ǷǴǸ. ǵȈȓȖȋȖȊȖȍ ȏȈȒȖȕȖȌȈȚȍȓȤșȚȊȖ ȖșȊȖȉȖȎȌȈȍȚ ȌȖȝȖȌȣ, ȗȖȓțȟȍȕȕȣȍ ȕȍȘȍȏȐȌȍȕȚȈȔȐȦȘȐȌȐȟȍșȒȐȔȐ ȓȐȞȈȔȐ ȖȚ țȟȈșȚȐȧ Ȋ ȒȈȗȐȚȈȓȍ ȘȍȏȐȌȍȕȚȖȊ ǷǴǸ, Ȋ ȚȖȔ ȟȐșȓȍ ȌȐȊȐȌȍȕȌȣ. DzȖȕȍȟȕȖ,
ȏȈȒȖȕȖȌȈȚȍȓȤ ȗȘȍșȓȍȌȖȊȈȓ ȉȓȈȋțȦ ȞȍȓȤ: șȚȐȔțȓȐȘȖȊȈȚȤ
2,5% 6,0%
ȗȖșȚțȗȓȍȕȐȍ ȐȕȖșȚȘȈȕȕȖȋȖ ȒȈȗȐȚȈȓȈ, ȒȖȚȖȘȣȑ ȕȈȓȖȋȐ ș
8,5%
35,1%
ȗȖȓțȟȍȕȕȣȝ ȌȐȊȐȌȍȕȌȖȊ țȗȓȈȚȐȚ Ȋ șȚȘȈȕȍ ȘȍȋȐșȚȘȈȞȐȐ.
Dz șȖȎȈȓȍȕȐȦ, ȕȈ ȗȘȈȒȚȐȒȍ ȖȜȜȠȖȘȕȣȍ ȖȘȋȈȕȐȏȈȞȐȐ
șȚȈȓȐ ȈȒȚȐȊȕȖ ȊȝȖȌȐȚȤ Ȋ țșȚȈȊȕȣȑ Ȑ ȈȒȞȐȖȕȍȘȕȣȑ
ȒȈȗȐȚȈȓ ȘȍȏȐȌȍȕȚȖȊ. ǰ, ȒȈȒ șȓȍȌșȚȊȐȍ, ȌȐȊȐȌȍȕȌȣ
țȝȖȌȧȚ Ȋ ȖȜȜȠȖȘȕțȦ ȏȖȕț, Ȋ ȒȖȚȖȘȖȑ ȏȈȟȈșȚțȦ ȕȍ
47,9%
ȖȉȓȈȋȈȦȚșȧ ȕȈȓȖȋȈȔȐ ȐȓȐ ȖȉȓȈȋȈȦȚșȧ Ȋ ȕȍȏȕȈȟȐȚȍȓȤȕȖȔ
ȖȗȓȈȚȈ ȚȖȊȈȘȖȊ
ȘȈȏȔȍȘȍ. ǷȘȐ ȥȚȖȔ ȒȖȕȍȟȕȣȔȐ ȊȣȋȖȌȖȗȘȐȖȉȘȍȚȈȚȍȓȧȔȐ
ȊȖȏȊȘȈȚ șșțȌȣ ȕȍȘȍȏȐȌȍȕȚȈȔ
ȖȗȓȈȚȈ țșȓțȋ
ȧȊȓȧȦȚșȧ ȘȍȏȐȌȍȕȚȣ ǷǴǸ (ȦȘȐȌȐȟȍșȒȐȍ Ȑ ȜȐȏȐȟȍșȒȐȍ
ȌȐȊȐȌȍȕȌȣ
ȓȐȞȈ), ȐșȗȖȓȤȏțȦȡȐȍ șȊȖȑ ȖȜȜȠȖȘ Ȋ Ȟȍȓȧȝ
ȌȘțȋȐȍ ȚȘȈȕșȜȍȘȚȣ
ȖȗȚȐȔȐȏȈȞȐȐ
ȕȈȓȖȋȖȖȉȓȖȎȍȕȐȧ.
ǬȈȓȍȍ
ȌȍȕȤȋȐ,
ǸȐș. 17. ǹȚȘțȒȚțȘȈ ȚȘȈȕșȜȍȘȚȖȊ
ȊȣȊȍȌȍȕȕȣȍ Ȋ ȊȐȌȍ ȌȐȊȐȌȍȕȌȖȊ, ȟȈșȚȐȟȕȖ ȊȖȏȊȘȈȡȈȦȚșȧ
ȘȍȏȐȌȍȕȚȖȊ ǷǴǸ Ȋ ȗȖȓȤȏț ȓȐȞ,
ȘȍȏȐȌȍȕȚț Ȋ ȒȈȟȍșȚȊȍ ȏȈȑȔȖȊ ȈȒȞȐȖȕȍȘȖȊ (țȟȈșȚȕȐȒȖȊ)
ȏȈȘȍȋȐșȚȘȐȘȖȊȈȕȕȣȝ
Ȋ ȖȜȜȠȖȘȕȣȝ
șȖ ȊȏȐȔȈȕȐȍȔ ȗȘȖȞȍȕȚȖȊ ȏȈ ȐșȗȖȓȤȏȖȊȈȕȐȍ (ȘȐș. 17).
ȏȖȕȈȝ
ǷȘȐ ȥȚȖȔ ȗȖȓțȟȍȕȕȣȑ ȕȍȘȍȏȐȌȍȕȚȖȔ ȌȖȝȖȌ ȖȚ
ȗȘȍȌȖșȚȈȊȓȍȕȕȖȋȖ ȏȈȑȔȈ ȚȈȒȎȍ ȕȍ ȗȖȌȓȍȎȐȚ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȖȉȓȖȎȍȕȐȦ.
ǺȈȒȐȔ ȖȉȘȈȏȖȔ, ȕȈȓȐȟȐȍ ȗȘȖȉȍȓȖȊ Ȑ ȗȍȘȍȒȖșȖȊ Ȋ ȌȍȑșȚȊțȦȡȍȔ ȏȈȒȖȕȖȌȈȚȍȓȤșȚȊȍ,
ȖȉțșȓȈȊȓȐȊȈȍȚ ȐșȗȖȓȤȏȖȊȈȕȐȍ ȖȜȜȠȖȘȕȣȝ ȒȖȔȗȈȕȐȑ Ȋ șȊȖȨȔ șȈȔȖȔ ȗȘȧȔȖȔ ȕȈȏȕȈȟȍȕȐȐ –
ȖȗȚȐȔȐȏȈȞȐȐ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȖȉȓȖȎȍȕȐȧ. Ǫ șȊȖȦ ȖȟȍȘȍȌȤ, ȋȖșțȌȈȘșȚȊȖ ȕȍȌȖȗȖȓțȟȈȍȚ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȣȍ ȗȓȈȚȍȎȐ Ȋ
ȏȕȈȟȐȚȍȓȤȕȣȝ ȖȉȢȨȔȈȝ. ǷȘȐ ȥȚȖȔ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȈȧ șȐșȚȍȔȈ ȧȊȓȧȍȚșȧ ȜȈȒȚȐȟȍșȒȐ ȌȐșȒȘȐȔȐȕȈȞȐȖȕȕȖȑ ȗȖ
ȖȚȕȖȠȍȕȐȦ Ȓ ȌȖȉȘȖșȖȊȍșȚȕȣȔ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȗȓȈȚȍȓȤȡȐȒȈȔ, ȕȍ ȐșȗȖȓȤȏțȦȡȐȔ ȖȜȜȠȖȘȕȣȝ șȝȍȔ țȝȖȌȈ ȖȚ
ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊ.
ǺȈȒȎȍ Ȍȓȧ ȔȐȕȐȔȐȏȈȞȐȐ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȖȉȓȖȎȍȕȐȧ ȈȒȚȐȊȕȖ ȐșȗȖȓȤȏțȦȚșȧ ȌȖȋȖȊȖȘȣ ȗȍȘȍțșȚțȗȒȐ ȗȘȈȊ
ȚȘȍȉȖȊȈȕȐȧ ȖȚ ȦȘȐȌȐȟȍșȒȖȋȖ ȜȐȏȐȟȍșȒȖȔț ȓȐȞț (ȕȍȘȍȌȒȖ ȜȐȏȐȟȍșȒȖȍ ȓȐȞȖ ȊȣșȚțȗȈȍȚ
țȟȘȍȌȐȚȍȓȍȔ ȖȘȋȈȕȐȏȈȞȐȐ), ȗȘȖȞȍȕȚȕȣȍ Ȑ ȉȍșȗȘȖȞȍȕȚȕȣȍ ȏȈȑȔȣ, ȏȈȊȣȠȍȕȐȍ ȚȘȈȕșȗȖȘȚȕȣȝ,
ȒȖȕșțȓȤȚȈȞȐȖȕȕȣȝ, ȐȕȜȖȘȔȈȞȐȖȕȕȣȝ țșȓțȋ, ȊȍȒșȍȓȧ. ǶȚșțȚșȚȊȐȍ ȒȈȒȐȝ-ȓȐȉȖ ȖȋȘȈȕȐȟȍȕȐȑ Ȍȓȧ
ȜȐȏȐȟȍșȒȐȝ ȓȐȞ ȕȈ șȕȧȚȐȍ ȌȍȕȍȎȕȣȝ șȘȍȌșȚȊ Ȋ ȕȈȓȐȟȕȖȑ ȜȖȘȔȍ, Ȉ ȚȈȒȎȍ ȗȖȌȚȊȍȘȎȌȍȕȐȧ Ȑȝ
30
ǪȍșȚȕȐȒ ǷȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊșȒȖȋȖ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȈȕșȒȖȋȖ ȉȈȕȒȈ ȹ3’2014
ǷȖ ȔȈȚȍȘȐȈȓȈȔ ȒȖȕȜȍȘȍȕȞȐȑ
ȗȖȧȊȓȍȕȐȧ ȕȈ șȟȍȚȈȝ Ȑ ȌȈȓȤȕȍȑȠȍȋȖ ȐșȗȖȓȤȏȖȊȈȕȐȧ ȗȘȐȊȖȌȧȚ Ȓ ȈȒȚȐȊȕȖȔț ȐșȗȖȓȤȏȖȊȈȕȐȦ șȝȍȔ ȗȖ
ȖȉȕȈȓȐȟȐȊȈȕȐȦ ȌȍȕȍȎȕȣȝ șȘȍȌșȚȊ ș ȐșȗȖȓȤȏȖȊȈȕȐȍȔ ȜȐȘȔ-ȖȉȕȈȓȤȡȐȒȖȊ.
ǷȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊșȒȐȑ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȈȕșȒȐȑ ȉȈȕȒ Ȋ ȗȘȍȌȍȓȈȝ șȊȖȍȑ ȒȖȔȗȍȚȍȕȞȐȐ țȎȍ ȗȘȍȌȗȘȐȕȧȓ ȘȧȌ
ȔȍȘ, Ȋ ȟȈșȚȕȖșȚȐ:
1) Ȋ ȗȖȘȧȌȖȒ ȖȚȒȘȣȚȐȧ șȟȍȚȖȊ ȦȘȐȌȐȟȍșȒȐȔ ȓȐȞȈȔ-ȕȍȘȍȏȐȌȍȕȚȈȔ, ȏȈȘȍȋȐșȚȘȐȘȖȊȈȕȕȣȔ Ȋ
ȖȜȜȠȖȘȕȣȝ ȏȖȕȈȝ, Ȋȕȍșȍȕȣ ȐȏȔȍȕȍȕȐȧ, ȗȘȍȌțșȔȈȚȘȐȊȈȦȡȐȍ, ȟȚȖ ȚȍȒțȡȐȑ șȟȨȚ Ȋ ȐȕȖșȚȘȈȕȕȖȑ
ȊȈȓȦȚȍ ȦȘȐȌȐȟȍșȒȖȔț ȓȐȞț-ȕȍȘȍȏȐȌȍȕȚț ȔȖȎȍȚ ȉȣȚȤ ȖȚȒȘȣȚ ȚȖȓȤȒȖ Ȋ ȖȌȕȖȔ țȟȘȍȎȌȍȕȐȐ ȉȈȕȒȈ
ȗȘȐ țșȓȖȊȐȐ ȖȚȒȘȣȚȐȧ ȐȔ ȚȍȒțȡȍȋȖ șȟȨȚȈ Ȋ Șțȉȓȧȝ ǷǴǸ Ȋ ȥȚȖȔ Ȏȍ ȉȈȕȒȍ. ǷȘȐ ȥȚȖȔ ȉȈȕȒ ȔȖȎȍȚ
ȖȚȒȘȣȚȤ ȚȍȒțȡȐȑ șȟȨȚ Ȋ Șțȉȓȧȝ ȗȘȐ ȗȘȍȌȖșȚȈȊȓȍȕȐȐ țșȚȈȕȖȊȓȍȕȕȖȋȖ ȗȍȘȍȟȕȧ ȌȖȒțȔȍȕȚȖȊ, Ȋ ȚȖȔ
ȟȐșȓȍ ȒȖȗȐȐ șȍȘȚȐȜȐȒȈȚȈ Ȗ ȗȖșȚȈȕȖȊȒȍ ȕȈ țȟȨȚ Ȋ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȖȔ ȖȘȋȈȕȍ. ǻȒȈȏȈȕȕȣȍ ȚȘȍȉȖȊȈȕȐȧ
ȕȈȗȘȈȊȓȍȕȣ ȕȈ șȚȐȔțȓȐȘȖȊȈȕȐȍ ȦȘȐȌȐȟȍșȒȐȝ ȓȐȞ-ȕȍȘȍȏȐȌȍȕȚȖȊ ȗȘȍȌȖșȚȈȊȓȧȚȤ șȊȍȌȍȕȐȧ Ȗ șȍȉȍ Ȋ
ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȣȍ ȖȘȋȈȕȣ ȒȈȒ Ȍȓȧ Ȟȍȓȍȑ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȖȋȖ țȟȨȚȈ, ȚȈȒ Ȑ ȊȖȏȔȖȎȕȖȋȖ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȖȋȖ ȒȖȕȚȘȖȓȧ.
2) ȚȈȒȎȍ ȒȘȍȌȐȚȕȈȧ ȖȘȋȈȕȐȏȈȞȐȧ ȌȖȓȎȕȈ ȐșȚȘȍȉȖȊȈȚȤ ȖȗȘȍȌȍȓȨȕȕȣȍ ȕȖȘȔȈȚȐȊȕȣȔ ȗȘȈȊȖȊȣȔ
ȈȒȚȖȔ ǷǸǩ ȌȖȒțȔȍȕȚȣ Ȑ șȊȍȌȍȕȐȧ, ȗȖȏȊȖȓȧȦȡȐȍ țșȚȈȕȖȊȐȚȤ Ȑ ȐȌȍȕȚȐȜȐȞȐȘȖȊȈȚȤ ȒȖȕȍȟȕȖȋȖ
ȊȣȋȖȌȖȗȘȐȖȉȘȍȚȈȚȍȓȧ ȗȖ șȟȨȚț, ȖȚȒȘȣȚȖȔț ȖȜȜȠȖȘȕȖȑ ȖȘȋȈȕȐȏȈȞȐȐ.
ǵȖ ȌȍȑșȚȊȐȑ ȚȖȓȤȒȖ ȞȍȕȚȘȈȓȤȕȖȋȖ ȉȈȕȒȈ ȕȍȌȖșȚȈȚȖȟȕȖ. Ǫ ȕȈșȚȖȧȡȍȍ ȊȘȍȔȧ ȕȍȖȉȝȖȌȐȔȖ
ȗȘȐȕȧȚȤ Ȑ ȘȍȈȓȐȏȖȊȈȚȤ ȒȖȔȗȓȍȒș ȔȍȘȖȗȘȐȧȚȐȑ, ȏȈȒȓȦȟȈȦȡȐȝșȧ Ȋ ȖȉȧȏȈȚȍȓȤȕȖȑ ȗȖșȚȈȕȖȊȒȍ ȕȈ
ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȣȑ țȟȨȚ ȖȜȜȠȖȘȕȣȝ ȖȘȋȈȕȐȏȈȞȐȑ, ȖȚȒȘȣȊȠȐȝ șȟȍȚȈ Ȋ ȗȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊșȒȐȝ ȉȈȕȒȈȝ, Ȋ
ȒȖȘȘȍȒȚȐȘȖȊȒȍ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȖȋȖ ȏȈȒȖȕȖȌȈȚȍȓȤșȚȊȈ Ȑ ȖȉȡȍȔ ȗȖȘȧȌȒȍ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȖȉȓȖȎȍȕȐȧ ȌȖȝȖȌȖȊ,
ȗȖȓțȟȍȕȕȣȝ ȌȈȕȕȣȔȐ șțȉȢȍȒȚȈȔȐ Ȋ ǷǴǸ (ȊȖȏȔȖȎȕȖ, ȊȊȍșȚȐ Ȍȓȧ ȕȐȝ ȉȖȓȍȍ țȗȘȖȡȨȕȕțȦ șȐșȚȍȔț
ȕȈȓȖȋȖȖȉȓȖȎȍȕȐȧ). DzȘȖȔȍ ȚȖȋȖ, Ȋ Ȟȍȓȧȝ țșȚȘȈȕȍȕȐȧ țșȓȖȊȐȑ Ȍȓȧ ȈȒȚȐȊȕȖȋȖ Ȑ ȉȍșȗȘȍȗȧȚșȚȊȍȕȕȖȋȖ
ȖșțȡȍșȚȊȓȍȕȐȧ ȕȍȌȖȉȘȖșȖȊȍșȚȕȣȝ ȌȍȑșȚȊȐȑ ȊȈȎȕȖ țșȐȓȍȕȐȍ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȖȋȖ ȒȖȕȚȘȖȓȧ.
Ǫ țșȓȖȊȐȧȝ ȕȍȗȘȐȏȕȈȕȕȖșȚȐ, ȗȖșȚȖȧȕȕȖ ȊȊȖȌȐȔȣȝ șȖ șȚȖȘȖȕȣ șȖȗȘȍȌȍȓȤȕȣȝ ȋȖșțȌȈȘșȚȊ
ȖȋȘȈȕȐȟȍȕȐȧȝ, ȒȘȍȌȐȚȕȣȍ ȖȘȋȈȕȐȏȈȞȐȐ Ȑ ǷȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊșȒȐȑ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȈȕșȒȐȑ ȉȈȕȒ ȌȖȓȎȕȣ
ȔȈȒșȐȔȈȓȤȕȖ ȌȖȊȍȘȧȚȤ ȌȘțȋ ȌȘțȋț, ȕȍ ȗȘȖȚȐȊȖȗȖșȚȈȊȓȧȧ ȐȕȚȍȘȍșȣ ȉȈȕȒȖȊșȒȖȋȖ ȉȐȏȕȍșȈ ȐȕȚȍȘȍșȈȔ
ȋȖșțȌȈȘșȚȊȈ, șȖȊȔȍșȚȕȖ ȊȣȗȖȓȕȧȚȤ ȊȖȏȓȖȎȍȕȕțȦ ȏȈȒȖȕȖȔ ȜțȕȒȞȐȦ ȗȖ ȖȟȐșȚȒȍ ȉȈȕȒȖȊșȒȖȋȖ
șȍȒȚȖȘȈ Ȑ ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȒȐ ȖȚ Țȍȝ ȥȓȍȔȍȕȚȖȊ, ȒȖȚȖȘȣȍ ȕȈȕȖșȧȚ ȊȘȍȌ. ǺȖȓȤȒȖ șȖȊȔȍșȚȕȣȍ țșȐȓȐȧ ȗȖȏȊȖȓȧȚ
ȌȖȒȈȏȈȚȤ ȌȘțȋȐȔ ȋȖșțȌȈȘșȚȊȈȔ, ȟȚȖ ȜȐȕȈȕșȖȊȈȧ Ȑ ȉȈȕȒȖȊșȒȈȧ șȐșȚȍȔȈ ǷǴǸ ȗȘȖȏȘȈȟȕȈ Ȑ ȖȚȒȘȣȚȈ.
DzȘȖȔȍ ȚȖȋȖ, Ȋ Ȟȍȓȧȝ ȗȍȘșȗȍȒȚȐȊȕȖȋȖ ȘȈȏȊȐȚȐȧ ȊȈȎȕȖ țȎȍ șȍȋȖȌȕȧ țȌȍȓȧȚȤ ȌȖșȚȈȚȖȟȕȖ
ȊȕȐȔȈȕȐȧ ȗȖȌȋȖȚȖȊȒȍ șȗȍȞȐȈȓȐșȚȖȊ Ȋ ȌȈȕȕȖȑ ȖȉȓȈșȚȐ, Ȋ ȚȖȔ ȟȐșȓȍ ȗțȚȨȔ ȊȕȍȌȘȍȕȐȧ ȖșȕȖȊ
ȜȐȕȈȕșȖȊȖȋȖ ȔȖȕȐȚȖȘȐȕȋȈ Ȋ ȒțȘș ȐȏțȟȍȕȐȧ ȕȈ ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȟȍșȒȐȝ șȗȍȞȐȈȓȤȕȖșȚȧȝ.
ǪȍșȚȕȐȒ ǷȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊșȒȖȋȖ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȈȕșȒȖȋȖ ȉȈȕȒȈ ȹ3’2014
31
ǶȉȏȖȘȕȈȧ ȐȕȜȖȘȔȈȞȐȧ
ǴǶǵǰǺǶǸǰǵǫ DzǨDz ǵǶǪǨȇ ǼǶǸǴǨ
ǵǨdzǶǫǶǪǶǫǶ DzǶǵǺǸǶdzȇ
ǪȖȗȘȖșȣ ȔȖȕȐȚȖȘȐȕȋȈ Ȋ șȐșȚȍȔȍ ȋȖșțȌȈȘșȚȊȍȕȕȖȋȖ țȗȘȈȊȓȍȕȐȧ ȘȈșșȔȈȚȘȐȊȈȦȚșȧ Ȋ
ȖșȕȖȊȕȖȔ ȗȘȐȔȍȕȐȚȍȓȤȕȖ Ȓ ȜȐȕȈȕșȖȊȖȔț ȔȖȕȐȚȖȘȐȕȋț, ȕȈȗȘȈȊȓȍȕȕȖȔț ȕȈ ȉȖȘȤȉț ș
ȖȚȔȣȊȈȕȐȍȔ ȌȖȝȖȌȖȊ, ȗȖȓțȟȍȕȕȣȝ ȗȘȍșȚțȗȕȣȔ ȗțȚȍȔ, Ȑ ȔȖȕȐȚȖȘȐȕȋț ȗȘȍȌȗȘȐȧȚȐȑ
ȘȍȈȓȤȕȖȋȖ șȍȒȚȖȘȈ, ȒȖȚȖȘȣȍ ȖșțȡȍșȚȊȓȧȦȚșȧ ȞȍȕȚȘȈȓȤȕȣȔ ȉȈȕȒȖȔ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȐ.
ǹțȡȍșȚȊțȦȡȐȍ ȗȘȖȉȓȍȔȣ Ȋ ȉȦȌȎȍȚȕȖȑ șȜȍȘȍ ȌȐȒȚțȦȚ ȕȍȖȉȝȖȌȐȔȖșȚȤ
ȐșȗȖȓȤȏȖȊȈȕȐȧ ȌȈȕȕȖȋȖ ȐȕșȚȘțȔȍȕȚȈ Ȑ Ȋ ȗȘȖȞȍșșȍ țȗȘȈȊȓȍȕȐȧ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȣȔȐ
ȖȚȕȖȠȍȕȐȧȔȐ. Ǫ ȕȈșȚȖȧȡȍȑ șȚȈȚȤȍ ȗȘȍȌȓȈȋȈȍȚșȧ ȘȈșșȔȖȚȘȍȚȤ ȔȍȎȌțȕȈȘȖȌȕȣȑ ȖȗȣȚ
ȖȘȋȈȕȐȏȈȞȐȐ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȖȋȖ ȔȖȕȐȚȖȘȐȕȋȈ, ȖșȖȉȍȕȕȖșȚȐ ȔȍȝȈȕȐȏȔȖȊ ȍȋȖ ȖșțȡȍșȚȊȓȍȕȐȧ
Ȑ ȥȓȍȔȍȕȚȣ ȜȐșȒȈȓȤȕȖȋȖ ȒȖȕȚȘȖȓȧ Ȋ ǷȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊȤȍ.
ǵȈȓȖȋȖȊȣȑ ȒȖȕȚȘȖȓȤ – ȊȐȌ ȌȍȧȚȍȓȤȕȖșȚȐ ȜȐșȒȈȓȤȕȣȝ ȖȘȋȈȕȖȊ, ȘȍȈȓȐȏțȍȔȣȑ Ȋ ȘȈȏȓȐȟȕȣȝ
ȜȖȘȔȈȝ ș ȞȍȓȤȦ ȗȖȓțȟȍȕȐȧ ȐȕȜȖȘȔȈȞȐȐ Ȗ șȖȉȓȦȌȍȕȐȐ ȕȖȘȔ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȖȋȖ ȏȈȒȖȕȖȌȈȚȍȓȤșȚȊȈ Ȑ
ȗȘȖȊȍȘȒȐ
ȗȖȓȕȖȚȣ Ȑ
șȊȖȍȊȘȍȔȍȕȕȖșȚȐ
ȐșȗȖȓȕȍȕȐȧ șȖȖȚȊȍȚșȚȊțȦȡȐȝ ȖȉȧȏȈȚȍȓȤșȚȊ
ȝȖȏȧȑșȚȊțȦȡȐȔȐ șțȉȢȍȒȚȈȔȐ.
ǴȖȕȐȚȖȘȐȕȋ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȗȓȈȚȍȓȤȡȐȒȖȊ ȗȘȍȌșȚȈȊȓȧȍȚ șȖȉȖȑ ȘȈȏȕȖȊȐȌȕȖșȚȤ ȋȖșțȌȈȘșȚȊȍȕȕȖȋȖ
ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȖȋȖ ȒȖȕȚȘȖȓȧ, ȍȋȖ ȗȈșșȐȊȕțȦ (Ȋ ȖȚȓȐȟȐȍ ȖȚ ȖȗȍȘȈȚȐȊȕȖȋȖ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȖȋȖ ȒȖȕȚȘȖȓȧ:
ȒȖȕȚȘȖȓȤȕȈȧ ȏȈȒțȗȒȈ, ȗȘȖȊȍȘȒȈ, ȐȕȊȍȕȚȈȘȐȏȈȞȐȧ) ȜȖȘȔț. ǶșȕȖȊȕȈȧ ȏȈȌȈȟȈ ȔȖȕȐȚȖȘȐȕȋȈ –
ȗȖȓțȟȍȕȐȍ ȖȉȢȍȒȚȐȊȕȖȑ ȐȕȜȖȘȔȈȞȐȐ Ȗ ȚȍȒțȡȍȑ ȌȍȧȚȍȓȤȕȖșȚȐ ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȟȍșȒȐȝ ȈȋȍȕȚȖȊ, Ȋ ȚȖȔ
ȟȐșȓȍ ȒȖȕȚȘȖȓȤ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȣȝ ȗȖșȚțȗȓȍȕȐȑ. ǷȘȐ ȥȚȖȔ ȔȖȕȐȚȖȘȐȕȋ ȗȘȖȊȖȌȐȚșȧ ȗțȚȨȔ ȗȘȐȔȍȕȍȕȐȧ
șȐșȚȍȔȣ ȕȈȉȓȦȌȍȕȐȧ ȏȈ ȜȐȕȈȕșȖȊȖ-ȝȖȏȧȑșȚȊȍȕȕȖȑ ȌȍȧȚȍȓȤȕȖșȚȤȦ Ȍȓȧ ȖȗȘȍȌȍȓȍȕȐȧ ȘȍȈȓȤȕȖȑ
ȕȈȓȖȋȖȖȉȓȈȋȈȍȔȖȑ ȉȈȏȣ Ȑ ȈȕȈȓȐȏȈ ȖȉȖșȕȖȊȈȕȕȖșȚȐ ȜȖȘȔȐȘȖȊȈȕȐȧ șȍȉȍșȚȖȐȔȖșȚȐ ȚȖȊȈȘȖȊ (ȘȈȉȖȚ,
țșȓțȋ), șȖȉȓȦȌȍȕȐȧ ȜȐȕȈȕșȖȊȖȋȖ ȏȈȒȖȕȖȌȈȚȍȓȤșȚȊȈ. ǵȈȓȖȋȖȊȣȑ ȔȖȕȐȚȖȘȐȕȋ Ȋ ȘȈȏȕȣȝ șȚȘȈȕȈȝ
ȐȔȍȍȚ ȒȈȒ șȝȖȌȕȣȍ ȟȍȘȚȣ, ȚȈȒ Ȑ ȖȚȓȐȟȐȧ Ȋ șțȡȕȖșȚȐ Ȑ Ȟȍȓȧȝ ȍȋȖ ȗȘȖȊȍȌȍȕȐȧ, Ȋ ȖȚȕȖȠȍȕȐȐ
șțȉȢȍȒȚȖȊ, ȖȉȢȍȒȚȖȊ, ȗȘȖȌȖȓȎȐȚȍȓȤȕȖșȚȐ Ȑ ȌȘ.
Ǫ ȘȧȌȍ șȚȘȈȕ Ȋ ȒȈȟȍșȚȊȍ ȖȌȕȖȋȖ Ȑȏ ȔȍȚȖȌȖȊ ȚȍȒțȡȍȋȖ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȖȋȖ ȒȖȕȚȘȖȓȧ ȌȍȧȚȍȓȤȕȖșȚȐ
ȒȘțȗȕȣȝ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȗȓȈȚȍȓȤȡȐȒȖȊ ȗȘȐȔȍȕȧȍȚșȧ ȋȖȘȐȏȖȕȚȈȓȤȕȣȑ ȔȖȕȐȚȖȘȐȕȋ, ȗȖșȘȍȌșȚȊȖȔ ȒȖȚȖȘȖȋȖ
ȜȐșȒȈȓȤȕȣȔ ȖȘȋȈȕȖȔ ȖșțȡȍșȚȊȓȧȍȚșȧ ȗȘȖȞȍȌțȘȈ ȖȚșȓȍȎȐȊȈȕȐȧ Ȑ ȈȕȈȓȐȏȈ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȣȝ ȘȐșȒȖȊ ȗȖ
ȜȐȕȈȕșȖȊȖ-ȝȖȏȧȑșȚȊȍȕȕȣȔ ȖȗȍȘȈȞȐȧȔ, ȏȈȗȓȈȕȐȘȖȊȈȕȕȣȔ ȒȘțȗȕȣȔȐ ȗȘȍȌȗȘȐȧȚȐȧȔȐ. ǶșȕȖȊȕȈȧ
ȍȋȖ ȞȍȓȤ – șȖȏȌȈȕȐȍ ȗȈȘȚȕȨȘșȒȐȝ ȊȏȈȐȔȖȖȚȕȖȠȍȕȐȑ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȣȝ ȖȘȋȈȕȖȊ ș ȉȦȌȎȍȚȖȖȉȘȈȏțȦȡȐȔȐ
ȖȘȋȈȕȐȏȈȞȐȧȔȐ ȗțȚȨȔ șȊȖȍȊȘȍȔȍȕȕȖȋȖ ȘȍȈȋȐȘȖȊȈȕȐȧ Ȑ ȗȘȍȌțȗȘȍȎȌȍȕȐȧ ȖșțȡȍșȚȊȓȍȕȐȧ ȐȔȐ
ȘȐșȒȖȊȣȝ ȖȗȍȘȈȞȐȑ, ȒȖȚȖȘȣȍ ȔȖȋțȚ ȗȘȐȊȍșȚȐ Ȓ ȕȈȘțȠȍȕȐȧȔ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȖȋȖ ȏȈȒȖȕȖȌȈȚȍȓȤșȚȊȈ.
ǹȟȐȚȈȍȚșȧ, ȟȚȖ ȋȖȘȐȏȖȕȚȈȓȤȕȣȑ ȒȖȕȚȘȖȓȤ ȉȖȓȍȍ ȌȍȑșȚȊȍȕȕȣȑ, ȟȍȔ ȊȍȘȚȐȒȈȓȤȕȣȑ – Ȗȕ
țȔȍȕȤȠȈȍȚ ȈȌȔȐȕȐșȚȘȈȚȐȊȕțȦ ȕȈȋȘțȏȒț, țȓțȟȠȈȍȚ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȣȑ ȒȓȐȔȈȚ, ȗȖȊȣȠȈȍȚ țȘȖȊȍȕȤ
șȖȉȓȦȌȍȕȐȧ
ȏȈȒȖȕȖȌȈȚȍȓȤșȚȊȈ
ȕȈȓȖȋȖȗȓȈȚȍȓȤȡȐȒȈȔȐ,
țȊȍȓȐȟȐȊȈȍȚ
ȥȜȜȍȒȚȐȊȕȖșȚȤ
Ȑ
ȘȍȏțȓȤȚȈȚȐȊȕȖșȚȤ ȌȍȑșȚȊȐȑ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȣȝ ȖȘȋȈȕȖȊ.
Ǫ ǵȐȌȍȘȓȈȕȌȈȝ, ȒȖȚȖȘȣȍ ȧȊȓȧȦȚșȧ ȖșȕȖȊȈȚȍȓȧȔȐ ȒȖȕȞȍȗȞȐȐ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȖȋȖ ȋȖȘȐȏȖȕȚȈȓȤȕȖȋȖ
ȔȖȕȐȚȖȘȐȕȋȈ (ȊȗȍȘȊȣȍ ȔȍȚȖȌ ȐșȗȖȓȤȏȖȊȈȕ Ȋ 2005 ȋȖȌț), ȗȖșȓȍȌȕȐȑ șțȡȍșȚȊțȍȚ șȖȊȔȍșȚȕȖ ș
ȌȘțȋȐȔȐ ȊȐȌȈȔȐ ȒȖȕȚȘȖȓȧ Ȑ ȗȘȐȔȍȕȧȍȚșȧ Ȋ ȖȚȕȖȠȍȕȐȐ ȖȗȘȍȌȍȓȨȕȕȖȑ ȋȘțȗȗȣ
ȕȈȓȖȋȖȗȓȈȚȍȓȤȡȐȒȖȊ ȕȈ ȖșȕȖȊȍ Ȑȝ șȖȋȓȈȠȍȕȐȧ ș ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȖȑ șȓțȎȉȖȑ. ȅȚȖ șȖȋȓȈȠȍȕȐȍ ȒȈșȈȍȚșȧ Ȋșȍȝ
ȊȐȌȖȊ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊ, Ȉ ȦȘȐȌȐȟȍșȒȐȍ Ȑ ȕȖȘȔȈȚȐȊȕȣȍ ȗȘȈȊȈ Ȑ ȖȉȧȏȈȕȕȖșȚȐ ȖșȚȈȦȚșȧ Ȋ șȐȓȍ ȉȍȏ ȒȈȒȐȝ-ȓȐȉȖ
ȓȤȋȖȚ Ȑ ȖȋȘȈȕȐȟȍȕȐȑ.
ǹȖȋȓȈȠȍȕȐȍȔ țșȚȈȕȈȊȓȐȊȈȍȚșȧ ȖȉȧȏȈȕȕȖșȚȤ ȝȖȏȧȑșȚȊțȦȡȍȋȖ șțȉȢȍȒȚȈ șȖȖȉȡȈȚȤ Ȋ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊțȦ
șȓțȎȉț ȖȉȖ Ȋșȍȝ ȖȗȍȘȈȞȐȧȝ, ȜȈȒȚȈȝ Ȑ ȖȉșȚȖȧȚȍȓȤșȚȊȈȝ, șȖȌȍȘȎȈȡȐȝ ȊȖȏȔȖȎȕȣȑ Ȑ ȏȕȈȟȐȚȍȓȤȕȣȑ
ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȣȑ ȘȐșȒ; ȌȈȊȈȚȤ șȖȉșȚȊȍȕȕțȦ ȖȞȍȕȒț ȦȘȐȌȐȟȍșȒȐȔ ȗȖșȓȍȌșȚȊȐȧȔ ȌȈȕȕȣȝ ȖȗȍȘȈȞȐȑ. Ǫ
șȊȖȦ ȖȟȍȘȍȌȤ, ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȈȧ șȓțȎȉȈ Ȋ ȖȗȍȘȈȚȐȊȕȖȔ ȗȖȘȧȌȒȍ șȖȖȉȡȈȍȚ Ȗ șȊȖȨȔ ȊȏȋȓȧȌȍ ȖȚȕȖșȐȚȍȓȤȕȖ
32
ǪȍșȚȕȐȒ ǷȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊșȒȖȋȖ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȈȕșȒȖȋȖ ȉȈȕȒȈ ȹ3’2014
ǶȉȏȖȘȕȈȧ ȐȕȜȖȘȔȈȞȐȧ
ȗȓȈȕȐȘțȍȔȖȑ șȌȍȓȒȐ, ȖȞȍȕȐȊȈȍȚ ȒȖȘȗȖȘȈȚȐȊȕțȦ șțȔȔț ȖȉȓȖȎȍȕȐȧ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȔ, ȖȉșțȎȌȈȍȚ ș
ȝȖȏȧȑșȚȊțȦȡȐȔ șțȉȢȍȒȚȖȔ ȓȦȉȖȑ ȏȈȔȍȟȍȕȕȣȑ ȍȦ ȜȐșȒȈȓȤȕȣȑ ȘȐșȒ Ȑ ȌȘ. ǯȈȒȓȦȟȍȕȐȍ șȖȋȓȈȠȍȕȐȧ
ȌȖȉȘȖȊȖȓȤȕȖȍ Ȑ ȔȖȎȍȚ ȉȣȚȤ ȐȏȔȍȕȍȕȖ ȓȐȉȖ ȗȘȍȒȘȈȡȍȕȖ ȗȖ ȐȕȐȞȐȈȚȐȊȍ ȖȌȕȖȑ Ȑȏ șȚȖȘȖȕ.
ǺȈȒȐȔ ȖȉȘȈȏȖȔ, ȗȘȍȌȗȘȐȧȚȐȍ ȗȖȓțȟȈȍȚ ȖȚ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȖȑ șȓțȎȉȣ ȖȗȘȍȌȍȓȨȕȕȖșȚȤ ȖȚȕȖșȐȚȍȓȤȕȖ
șȊȖȍȋȖ ȗȖȓȖȎȍȕȐȧ. ǶȕȖ ȔȖȎȍȚ ȉȣșȚȘȖ ȗȖȓțȟȐȚȤ ȐȕȜȖȘȔȈȞȐȦ Ȗ ȔȈșȠȚȈȉȈȝ șȊȖȍȑ ȜȐȕȈȕșȖȊȖȑ
ȖȚȊȍȚșȚȊȍȕȕȖșȚȐ, Ȉ ț ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȖȑ șȓțȎȉȣ Ȋ ȚȈȒȖȔ șȓțȟȈȍ ȕȍ ȊȖȏȕȐȒȈȍȚ ȕȍȖȉȝȖȌȐȔȖșȚȐ ȗȘȖȊȖȌȐȚȤ
ȗȘȖȊȍȘȒȐ ȌȍȧȚȍȓȤȕȖșȚȐ ȖȘȋȈȕȐȏȈȞȐȐ Ȋ ȗȘȖȠȓȖȔ.
ȅȒșȗȍȘȐȔȍȕȚ Ȋ ǵȐȌȍȘȓȈȕȌȈȝ ȐȔȍȓ ȕȍȔȈȓȣȑ țșȗȍȝ. ǷȖȟȚȐ Ȋșȍ ȒȖȔȗȈȕȐȐ, ȗȘȐȕȐȔȈȊȠȐȍ Ȋ ȕȨȔ
țȟȈșȚȐȍ (ȖȒȖȓȖ 20), ȝȖȚȍȓȐ ȗȘȖȌȖȓȎȐȚȤ ȘȈȉȖȚț ȗȖ șȖȋȓȈȠȍȕȐȧȔ. ǷȖșȓȍ ȊȊȍȌȍȕȐȧ ȋȖȘȐȏȖȕȚȈȓȤȕȖȋȖ
ȔȖȕȐȚȖȘȐȕȋȈ, Ȋ ȟȈșȚȕȖșȚȐ, șȕȐȏȐȓșȧ țȘȖȊȍȕȤ ȈȌȔȐȕȐșȚȘȈȚȐȊȕȖȑ ȕȈȋȘțȏȒȐ ȕȈ ȜȐȘȔȣ, ȟȚȖ ȗȖȊȓȐȧȓȖ
ȕȈ Ȑȝ ȐȕȊȍșȚȐȞȐȖȕȕțȦ ȗȘȐȊȓȍȒȈȚȍȓȤȕȖșȚȤ.
ǵȈȞȐȖȕȈȓȤȕȈȧ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȈȧ șȓțȎȉȈ ǸȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȐ DzȖȘȍȧ ȗȖșȓȍȌȖȊȈȓȈ ȖȗȣȚț ǵȐȌȍȘȓȈȕȌȖȊ Ȑ Ȋ
2009 ȋȖȌț ȕȈȟȈȓȈ ȥȒșȗȍȘȐȔȍȕȚȈȓȤȕȣȑ ȗȘȖȍȒȚ ȗȖ ȊȊȍȌȍȕȐȦ ȋȖȘȐȏȖȕȚȈȓȤȕȖȋȖ ȔȖȕȐȚȖȘȐȕȋȈ.
ǶșȕȖȊȕȣȔȐ ȔȖȚȐȊȈȔȐ ȊȕȍȌȘȍȕȐȧ ȌȈȕȕȖȑ șȐșȚȍȔȣ ȒȖȕȚȘȖȓȧ Ȋ șȚȘȈȕȍ ȧȊȓȧȓȐșȤ țȔȍȕȤȠȍȕȐȍ
ȈȌȔȐȕȐșȚȘȈȚȐȊȕȖȋȖ ȌȈȊȓȍȕȐȧ Ȑ țșȒȖȘȍȕȐȍ ȊȕȍșȍȕȐȧ ȧșȕȖșȚȐ ȗȖ ȘȈȏȓȐȟȕȣȔ ȊȖȗȘȖșȈȔ
ȕȈȓȖȋȖȖȉȓȖȎȍȕȐȧ.
ǰȘȓȈȕȌșȒȐȑ ȗȖȌȝȖȌ ȉȈȏȐȘțȍȚșȧ ȕȈ ȗȘȐȔȍȕȍȕȐȐ șȝȍȔȣ ȌȖȉȘȖȊȖȓȤȕȣȝ ȌȖȋȖȊȖȘȨȕȕȖșȚȍȑ ȔȍȎȌț
ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȖȑ ȈȌȔȐȕȐșȚȘȈȞȐȍȑ Ȑ ȉȐȏȕȍșȖȔ. ǶȕȐ ȕȍ ȧȊȓȧȦȚșȧ ȜȖȘȔȈȓȤȕȣȔȐ șȖȋȓȈȠȍȕȐȧȔȐ,
ȗȖȌȖȉȕȣȔȐ ȚȍȔ, ȟȚȖ ȐșȗȖȓȤȏțȦȚșȧ Ȋ ǵȐȌȍȘȓȈȕȌȈȝ. ǵȈȓȖȋȖȊȈȧ ȈȌȔȐȕȐșȚȘȈȞȐȧ șȚȘȈȕȣ
ȕȍ ȗȘȍȌȖșȚȈȊȓȧȍȚ ȕȐȒȈȒȐȝ ȗȘȍȐȔțȡȍșȚȊ ȒȖȔȗȈȕȐȧȔ, ȗȖȌȗȐșȣȊȈȦȡȐȔ ȖȜȐȞȐȈȓȤȕȣȍ șȖȋȓȈȠȍȕȐȧ.
Ǫ șȖȊȘȍȔȍȕȕȖȑ ȔȐȘȖȊȖȑ ȗȘȈȒȚȐȒȍ ȋȖȘȐȏȖȕȚȈȓȤȕȣȑ ȔȖȕȐȚȖȘȐȕȋ ȒȊȈȓȐȜȐȞȐȘțȦȚ ȚȈȒȎȍ ȒȈȒ
ȖȌȐȕ Ȑȏ ȊȐȌȖȊ ȈȓȤȚȍȘȕȈȚȐȊȕȣȝ șȗȖșȖȉȖȊ ȗȘȍȌȖȚȊȘȈȡȍȕȐȧ Ȑ ȘȈȏȘȍȠȍȕȐȧ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȣȝ șȗȖȘȖȊ,
ȒȖȚȖȘȣȑ ȗȘȐȔȍȕȧȍȚșȧ ȊȖ Ȋșȍȝ ȘȈȏȊȐȚȣȝ șȚȘȈȕȈȝ: ǹȀǨ, ǪȍȓȐȒȖȉȘȐȚȈȕȐȐ, ǨȊșȚȘȈȓȐȐ, DzȈȕȈȌȍ,
ǼȘȈȕȞȐȐ, ǫȍȘȔȈȕȐȐ Ȑ ȌȘ. Ǫ ǪȍȓȐȒȖȉȘȐȚȈȕȐȐ, ȕȈȗȘȐȔȍȘ, Ȋ ȖȚȓȐȟȐȍ ȖȚ ǵȐȌȍȘȓȈȕȌȖȊ ȊȔȍșȚȖ
șȖȋȓȈȠȍȕȐȑ Ȑ ȔȍȔȖȘȈȕȌțȔȖȊ ȏȈȒȖȕȖȌȈȚȍȓȤȕȣȔ ȚȘȍȉȖȊȈȕȐȍȔ ȧȊȓȧȍȚșȧ ȗȖȌȗȐșȈȕȐȍ ȏȈȧȊȓȍȕȐȧ
Ȗ ȒȖȕȚȘȖȓȍ ȏȈ ȕȈȓȖȋȈȔȐ. ǹ ȗȖȌȗȐșȈȕȐȍȔ ȥȚȖȋȖ ȏȈȧȊȓȍȕȐȧ șȖȊȍȚ ȌȐȘȍȒȚȖȘȖȊ ȒȖȔȗȈȕȐȐ țȚȊȍȘȎȌȈȍȚ,
ȟȚȖ Ȗȕ ȒȖȕȚȘȖȓȐȘțȍȚ șȖȉșȚȊȍȕȕȣȍ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȣȍ ȘȐșȒȐ.
ǫȓȈȊȕȣȔ ȗȘȍȐȔțȡȍșȚȊȖȔ ȋȖȘȐȏȖȕȚȈȓȤȕȖȋȖ ȔȖȕȐȚȖȘȐȕȋȈ Ȍȓȧ ȋȖșțȌȈȘșȚȊȈ ȧȊȓȧȍȚșȧ
țȔȍȕȤȠȍȕȐȍ ȘȐșȒȖȊ ȗȘȐȔȍȕȍȕȐȧ ȉȐȏȕȍșȖȔ ȘȈȏȓȐȟȕȣȝ șȝȍȔ țȝȖȌȈ ȖȚ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊ, Ȉ Ȍȓȧ
ȕȈȓȖȋȖȗȓȈȚȍȓȤȡȐȒȖȊ – șȖȒȘȈȡȍȕȐȍ ȗȘȖȊȍȘȖȒ Ȑ șȊȧȏȈȕȕȣȝ ș ȥȚȐȔ ȘȈșȝȖȌȖȊ.
ǫȖȘȐȏȖȕȚȈȓȤȕȣȑ ȔȖȕȐȚȖȘȐȕȋ șțȡȍșȚȊțȍȚ Ȑ Ȋ șȚȘȈȕȈȝ ǹǵǫ, ȕȖ ȊȣȘȈȎȍȕ ȕȍșȒȖȓȤȒȖ ȐȕȈȟȍ.
Ǫ DzȈȏȈȝșȚȈȕȍ ȌȈȕȕȖȔț ȕȈȉȓȦȌȍȕȐȦ ȗȖȌȓȍȎȈȚ ȒȘțȗȕȣȍ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȗȓȈȚȍȓȤȡȐȒȐ, Ȓ ȒȖȚȖȘȣȔ
ȖȚȕȖșȧȚșȧ ȚȘȐșȚȈ ȖȘȋȈȕȐȏȈȞȐȑ, ȐȔȍȦȡȐȝ ȕȈȐȉȖȓȤȠȐȑ șȖȊȖȒțȗȕȣȑ ȋȖȌȖȊȖȑ ȌȖȝȖȌ8. Dz ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȖȑ
ȖȚȟȨȚȕȖșȚȐ ȗȖ ȔȖȕȐȚȖȘȐȕȋț, ȗȘȍȌȖșȚȈȊȓȧȍȔȖȑ ȍȎȍȒȊȈȘȚȈȓȤȕȖ Ȋ ȜȖȘȔȍ ȥȓȍȒȚȘȖȕȕȖȋȖ ȌȖȒțȔȍȕȚȈ,
ȖȚȕȖșȧȚșȧ: ȒȕȐȋȈ ȘȍȈȓȐȏȈȞȐȐ ȚȖȊȈȘȖȊ (ȘȈȉȖȚ, țșȓțȋ), ȒȕȐȋȈ ȗȖȒțȗȖȒ ȚȖȊȈȘȖȊ (ȘȈȉȖȚ, țșȓțȋ),
ȉțȝȋȈȓȚȍȘșȒȐȑ ȉȈȓȈȕș, ȖȚȟȨȚ Ȗ ȌȊȐȎȍȕȐȐ ȗȘȖȐȏȊȍȌȨȕȕȣȝ Ȑ ȗȘȐȖȉȘȍȚȨȕȕȣȝ ȚȖȊȈȘȖȊ (ȘȈȉȖȚ, țșȓțȋ),
șȍȉȍșȚȖȐȔȖșȚȤ ȗȘȖȌțȒȞȐȐ (ȘȈȉȖȚ, țșȓțȋ), ȖȚȟȨȚ Ȗ ȘȍȏțȓȤȚȈȚȈȝ ȜȐȕȈȕșȖȊȖ-ȝȖȏȧȑșȚȊȍȕȕȖȑ
ȌȍȧȚȍȓȤȕȖșȚȐ. ǶȌȕȐȔ Ȑȏ ȗȘȐȔȍȘȖȊ ȗȘȈȒȚȐȟȍșȒȖȋȖ ȗȘȐȔȍȕȍȕȐȧ ȥȓȍȒȚȘȖȕȕȖȋȖ ȔȖȕȐȚȖȘȐȕȋȈ
ȧȊȓȧȍȚșȧ ȗȖȌȚȊȍȘȎȌȍȕȐȍ ȌȖșȚȖȊȍȘȕȖșȚȐ șțȔȔ ȕȈȓȖȋȈ ȕȈ ȌȖȉȈȊȓȍȕȕțȦ șȚȖȐȔȖșȚȤ, ȗȘȍȌȢȧȊȓȍȕȕȖȋȖ
Ȓ ȊȖȏȔȍȡȍȕȐȦ, ȕȈ ȖșȕȖȊȍ ȗȘȖȊȍȘȒȐ ȌȈȕȕȣȝ, ȖȚȘȈȎȨȕȕȣȝ Ȋ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȖȑ ȖȚȟȨȚȕȖșȚȐ.
Ǫ 2011 ȋȖȌț ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȈȧ șȓțȎȉȈ ǻȒȘȈȐȕȣ ȕȈȟȈȓȈ ȘȍȜȖȘȔț Ȍȓȧ țȓțȟȠȍȕȐȧ ȈȌȔȐȕȐșȚȘȐȘȖȊȈȕȐȧ
ȒȘțȗȕȣȝ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȗȓȈȚȍȓȤȡȐȒȖȊ. ǰȔ ȗȘȍȌȓȈȋȈȓșȧ ȕȖȊȣȑ șȍȘȊȐș – ȋȖȘȐȏȖȕȚȈȓȤȕȣȑ ȔȖȕȐȚȖȘȐȕȋ – ȒȈȒ
ȖȌȕȖ Ȑȏ ȕȈȗȘȈȊȓȍȕȐȑ ȥȜȜȍȒȚȐȊȕȖȋȖ șȖȚȘțȌȕȐȟȍșȚȊȈ ș ȉȐȏȕȍșȖȔ, ȗȘȍȌțȗȘȍȎȌȍȕȐȧ ȊȖȏȕȐȒȕȖȊȍȕȐȧ
ȗȘȖȉȓȍȔȕȣȝ ȊȖȗȘȖșȖȊ Ȑ șȖȊȍȘȠȍȕșȚȊȖȊȈȕȐȧ ȖȉșȓțȎȐȊȈȕȐȧ ȚȈȒȐȝ ȗȘȍȌȗȘȐȧȚȐȑ. ǻȟȈșȚȐȍ Ȋ ȥȚȖȔ
ȥȒșȗȍȘȐȔȍȕȚȍ ȧȊȓȧȓȖșȤ ȌȖȉȘȖȊȖȓȤȕȣȔ. ǹ șȖȋȓȈșȐȧ ȝȖȏȧȑșȚȊțȦȡȍȋȖ șțȉȢȍȒȚȈ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȈȧ șȓțȎȉȈ
ȗȖȓțȟȈȍȚ ȌȖșȚțȗ Ȓ ȐȕȜȖȘȔȈȞȐȐ Ȗ ȍȋȖ ȜȐȕȈȕșȖȊȣȝ ȖȗȍȘȈȞȐȧȝ Ȋ ȘȍȎȐȔȍ ȖȕȓȈȑȕ, ȈȕȈȓȐȏȐȘțȍȚ
8
ɩȍȘȍȟȍȕȤ ȒȘțȗȕȣȝ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȗȓȈȚȍȓȤȡȐȒȖȊ, ȗȖȌȓȍȎȈȡȐȝ ȔȖȕȐȚȖȘȐȕȋț, țȚȊȍȘȎȌȈȍȚșȧ ǷȘȈȊȐȚȍȓȤșȚȊȖȔ
ǸȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȐ DzȈȏȈȝșȚȈȕ
ǪȍșȚȕȐȒ ǷȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊșȒȖȋȖ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȈȕșȒȖȋȖ ȉȈȕȒȈ ȹ3’2014
33
ǶȉȏȖȘȕȈȧ ȐȕȜȖȘȔȈȞȐȧ
ȘȐșȒȖȊȣȍ ȘȈșȟȨȚȣ, ȖȗȍȘȈȞȐȐ Ȑ țȒȈȏȣȊȈȍȚ ȕȈ ȊȖȏȔȖȎȕȣȍ ȕȈȘțȠȍȕȐȧ Ȑ șȖȔȕȐȚȍȓȤȕȣȝ ȒȖȕȚȘȈȋȍȕȚȖȊ.
ǪȈȎȕȖ, ȟȚȖ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȗȓȈȚȍȓȤȡȐȒ ȕȍ ȖȉȧȏȈȕ ȉȍȏțșȓȖȊȕȖ șȖȋȓȈȠȈȚȤșȧ ș ȐȕșȗȍȒȚȖȘȖȔ, Ȉ Ȋ șȓțȟȈȍ
ȊȖȏȕȐȒȕȖȊȍȕȐȧ șȗȖȘȕȣȝ ȊȖȗȘȖșȖȊ ȐȔȍȍȚ ȗȘȈȊȖ ȖȉȘȈȚȐȚȤșȧ Ȋ șțȌ.
ǷȖ șȖȖȉȡȍȕȐȧȔ Ȑȏ ǹǴǰ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȖȑ șȓțȎȉȖȑ ǻȒȘȈȐȕȣ ȉȣȓȐ ȏȈȒȓȦȟȍȕȣ ȔȍȔȖȘȈȕȌțȔȣ Ȗ
ȘȈȉȖȚȍ Ȋ ȚȍșȚȖȊȖȔ ȘȍȎȐȔȍ ȚȖȓȤȒȖ ș ȗȧȚȤȦ țȒȘȈȐȕșȒȐȔȐ ȒȖȔȗȈȕȐȧȔȐ: McDonaldĻs,
«dzțȒȖȑȓ - ǻȒȘȈȐȕȈ», «ǨȘșȍȓȖȘǴȐȚȚȈȓ DzȘȐȊȖȑ ǸȖȋ», «ǵȐȉțȓȖȕ» Ȑ «METRO Cash & Carry ǻȒȘȈȐȕȈ».
ǵȍȟȨȚȒȐȍ țșȓȖȊȐȧ șȖȚȘțȌȕȐȟȍșȚȊȈ, ȖȚșțȚșȚȊȐȍ ȖȚȊȍȚșȚȊȍȕȕȖșȚȐ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȣȝ ȖȘȋȈȕȖȊ Ȑ
ȖȗȘȍȌȍȓȨȕȕȣȝ ȐȔȐ ȒȖȕșțȓȤȚȐȘțȦȡȐȝ ȈțȌȐȚȖȘȖȊ ȖȗȘȍȌȍȓȐȓȐ ȖȚȒȈȏ ȖȚ țȟȈșȚȐȧ Ȋ ȥȒșȗȍȘȐȔȍȕȚȍ
ȉȖȓȤȠȖȋȖ ȟȐșȓȈ ȒȖȔȗȈȕȐȑ. DzȘȖȔȍ ȚȖȋȖ, ȉȐȏȕȍș ȖȎȐȌȈȓ, ȟȚȖ ȊȔȍșȚȍ ș ȕȖȊȣȔȐ ȐȕșȚȘțȔȍȕȚȈȔȐ
ȗȖȧȊȐȚșȧ Ȑ țȗȘȖȡȨȕȕȈȧ șȐșȚȍȔȈ ȊȖȏȊȘȈȚȈ ȕȈȓȖȋȈ ȕȈ ȌȖȉȈȊȓȍȕȕțȦ șȚȖȐȔȖșȚȤ, Ȉ ȕȍ ȚȖȓȤȒȖ
ȌȖȗȖȓȕȐȚȍȓȤȕȣȑ ȔȍȝȈȕȐȏȔ ȊȓȐȧȕȐȧ.
Ǫ ǸȖșșȐȑșȒȖȑ ǼȍȌȍȘȈȞȐȐ ȋȖȘȐȏȖȕȚȈȓȤȕȣȑ ȔȖȕȐȚȖȘȐȕȋ ȧȊȓȧȍȚșȧ ȕȖȊȣȔ șȗȖșȖȉȖȔ
ȊȏȈȐȔȖȌȍȑșȚȊȐȧ ȔȍȎȌț ȕȈȓȖȋȖȗȓȈȚȍȓȤȡȐȒȖȔ Ȑ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȣȔ ȖȘȋȈȕȖȔ. ǵȈ ȗȘȈȒȚȐȒȍ Ȗȕ ȉȣȓ
ȘȍȈȓȐȏȖȊȈȕ Ȋ ȒȖȕȞȍ 2012 ȋȖȌȈ ȗȖȌȗȐșȈȕȐȍȔ ǹȖȋȓȈȠȍȕȐȑ Ȗ ȘȈșȠȐȘȍȕȕȖȔ ȐȕȜȖȘȔȈȞȐȖȕȕȖȔ
ȊȏȈȐȔȖȌȍȑșȚȊȐȐ ȔȍȎȌț ǼȍȌȍȘȈȓȤȕȖȑ ǵȈȓȖȋȖȊȖȑ ǹȓțȎȉȖȑ ǸȖșșȐȐ (Ǽǵǹ) Ȑ ȒȖȔȗȈȕȐȧȔȐ ȒȘțȗȕȍȑȠȐȔȐ
ȕȈȓȖȋȖȗȓȈȚȍȓȤȡȐȒȈȔȐ
(ǶǨǶ «ǸțșȋȐȌȘȖ»,
ǶǨǶ
«ǰȕȚȍȘ
ǸǨǶ
ǭȅǹ»,
ǶǨǶ «ǴȖȉȐȓȤȕȣȍ ǺȍȓȍǹȐșȚȍȔȣ» (ǴǺǹ), ȔȍȎȌțȕȈȘȖȌȕȖȑ ȖȘȋȈȕȐȏȈȞȐȍȑ «ȅȘȕșȚ ȥȕȌ ȇȕȋ (ǹǵǫ)).
Ǫ șȖȖȚȊȍȚșȚȊȐȐ ș ȌȈȕȕȣȔȐ șȖȋȓȈȠȍȕȐȧȔȐ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȗȓȈȚȍȓȤȡȐȒ ȖȉȧȏțȍȚșȧ ȗȘȍȌȖșȚȈȊȓȧȚȤ
ȗȍȘȊȐȟȕțȦ ȖȚȟȨȚȕȖșȚȤ, ȊȒȓȦȟȈȧ ȘȍȏțȓȤȚȈȚȣ ȉțȝȋȈȓȚȍȘșȒȖȋȖ Ȑ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȖȋȖ țȟȨȚȈ, Ȉ ȚȈȒȎȍ ȓȦȉȣȍ
ȌȘțȋȐȍ ȌȖȒțȔȍȕȚȣ Ȑ ȔȈȚȍȘȐȈȓȣ, ȒȖȚȖȘȣȍ ȏȈȗȘȖșȐȚ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȣȑ ȖȘȋȈȕ, ȐȏȊȍȡȈȚȤ ȍȋȖ ȖȉȖ Ȋșȍȝ
ȖȗȍȘȈȞȐȧȝ Ȑ șȌȍȓȒȈȝ, ȒȖȚȖȘȣȍ ȔȖȋțȚ șȖȌȍȘȎȈȚȤ ȘȐșȒ. Ǫ șȊȖȦ ȖȟȍȘȍȌȤ, ȗȖșȓȍȌȕȐȑ ȖȉȧȏȈȕ Ȋ șȎȈȚȣȍ
șȘȖȒȐ șȖȖȉȡȈȚȤ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȗȓȈȚȍȓȤȡȐȒț șȊȖȨ ȘȍȠȍȕȐȍ ȗȖ ȒȖȕȒȘȍȚȕȣȔ ȊȖȗȘȖșȈȔ, ȒȖȕșțȓȤȚȐȘȖȊȈȚȤ ȍȋȖ
ȗȖ șȗȖȘȕȣȔ ȔȖȔȍȕȚȈȔ, ȒȈșȈȦȡȐȔșȧ ȚȘȈȒȚȖȊȒȐ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȖȋȖ ȏȈȒȖȕȖȌȈȚȍȓȤșȚȊȈ Ȑ ȖșțȡȍșȚȊȓȍȕȐȧ
șȌȍȓȖȒ.
ǹțȚȤ ȋȖȘȐȏȖȕȚȈȓȤȕȖȋȖ ȔȖȕȐȚȖȘȐȕȋȈ Ȋ ǸȖșșȐȐ ȏȈȒȓȦȟȈȍȚșȧ Ȋ ȚȖȔ, ȟȚȖ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȣȍ ȖȘȋȈȕȣ
ȗȖȓțȟȈȦȚ ȖȚȒȘȣȚȣȑ ȌȖșȚțȗ ȒȖ Ȋșȍȑ ȕȍȖȉȝȖȌȐȔȖȑ ȌȖȒțȔȍȕȚȈȞȐȐ ȕȈ ȗȘȍȌȗȘȐȧȚȐȐ. ǩȓȈȋȖȌȈȘȧ
ȥȚȖȔț, Ȋșȍ ȖȗȍȘȈȞȐȐ șȖ șȟȍȚȈȔȐ șȗȍȞȐȈȓȐșȚȣ Ǽǵǹ ȔȖȋțȚ ȖȚșȓȍȎȐȊȈȚȤ Ȋ ȘȍȎȐȔȍ ȘȍȈȓȤȕȖȋȖ
ȊȘȍȔȍȕȐ. ǷȖ ȏȈȔȣșȓț ȘȈȏȘȈȉȖȚȟȐȒȖȊ șȐșȚȍȔȣ, ȚȈȒȈȧ ȖȚȒȘȣȚȖșȚȤ șȗȖșȖȉȕȈ ȗȘȍȌȖȚȊȘȈȚȐȚȤ ȔȕȖȋȐȍ
ȗȘȈȊȖȕȈȘțȠȍȕȐȧ. ǸțȒȖȊȖȌșȚȊȖ ȒȖȔȗȈȕȐȑ ȔȖȎȍȚ șȖȋȓȈșȖȊȣȊȈȚȤ ș ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȐȒȈȔȐ ȍȡȨ ȚȖȓȤȒȖ
ȗȓȈȕȐȘțȦȡȐȍșȧ șȌȍȓȒȐ. ǩȖȕțșȈȔȐ ȕȖȊȖȑ șȐșȚȍȔȣ Ȍȓȧ ȖȘȋȈȕȐȏȈȞȐȑ ȧȊȓȧȍȚșȧ ȖȚșțȚșȚȊȐȍ
ȌȖȗȖȓȕȐȚȍȓȤȕȣȝ ȕȈȟȐșȓȍȕȐȑ, ȠȚȘȈȜȖȊ Ȑ ȗȍȕȐ, șȕȐȎȍȕȐȍ ȊȍȘȖȧȚȕȖșȚȐ ȖȚȊȓȍȟȍȕȐȧ ȏȕȈȟȐȚȍȓȤȕȣȝ
ȌȍȕȍȎȕȣȝ Ȑ ȚȘțȌȖȊȣȝ ȘȍșțȘșȖȊ Ȍȓȧ țȘȍȋțȓȐȘȖȊȈȕȐȧ șȗȖȘȖȊ Ȋ șțȌȍ. DzȘȖȔȍ ȚȖȋȖ, ȔȐȕȐȔȐȏȐȘțȦȚșȧ
ȏȈȚȘȈȚȣ ȕȈ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȖȍ ȈȌȔȐȕȐșȚȘȐȘȖȊȈȕȐȍ Ȑ ȗȖȊȣȠȈȍȚșȧ ȒȖȕȚȘȖȓȤ ȏȈ ȜȐȕȈȕșȈȔȐ ȒȖȔȗȈȕȐȑ.
ǫȖȘȐȏȖȕȚȈȓȤȕȣȑ ȔȖȕȐȚȖȘȐȕȋ ȊȊȖȌȐȓșȧ Ȋ ǸȖșșȐȐ Ȋ ȒȈȟȍșȚȊȍ ȥȒșȗȍȘȐȔȍȕȚȈ, șȓȍȌȖȊȈȚȍȓȤȕȖ, ȥȚȖȚ
ȐȕșȚȘțȔȍȕȚ ȕȍ ȏȈȒȘȍȗȓȨȕ ȕȖȘȔȈȔȐ ǵȈȓȖȋȖȊȖȋȖ ȒȖȌȍȒșȈ ǸȖșșȐȑșȒȖȑ ǼȍȌȍȘȈȞȐȐ. ǰȕȐȞȐȐȘȖȊȈȕȐȍ
șȖȖȚȊȍȚșȚȊțȦȡȐȝ ȗȖȗȘȈȊȖȒ Ȋ ǵDz ǸǼ ȗȘȖȐȏȖȑȌȨȚ ȗȖșȓȍ ȖȞȍȕȒȐ ȍȋȖ ȥȜȜȍȒȚȐȊȕȖșȚȐ.
Ǫ ǩȍȓȈȘțșȐ ȐȕșȚȐȚțȚ ȒȘțȗȕȣȝ ȗȓȈȚȍȓȤȡȐȒȖȊ, ȒȖȚȖȘȣȔ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȣȍ ȖȘȋȈȕȣ ȕȈȔȍȘȍȕȣ țȌȍȓȐȚȤ
ȖșȖȉȖȍ ȊȕȐȔȈȕȐȍ, ȊȊȖȌȐȚșȧ ș 2014 ȋȖȌȈ. ǷȍȘȍȟȍȕȤ ȚȈȒȐȝ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȗȓȈȚȍȓȤȡȐȒȖȊ țȚȊȍȘȎȌȈȍȚșȧ ȌȖ
1 ȖȒȚȧȉȘȧ Ȑ ȌȍȑșȚȊțȍȚ ȉȍȏ ȗȍȘȍșȔȖȚȘȈ Ȋ ȚȍȟȍȕȐȍ ȌȊțȝ ȒȈȓȍȕȌȈȘȕȣȝ ȓȍȚ. ǹȖȋȓȈșȐȍ ȖȘȋȈȕȐȏȈȞȐȐ ȕȈ
ȊȒȓȦȟȍȕȐȍ Ȋ ȗȍȘȍȟȍȕȤ ȕȍ ȚȘȍȉțȍȚșȧ – ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȣȑ ȖȘȋȈȕ ȕȈȗȘȈȊȓȧȍȚ ȍȑ șȖȖȚȊȍȚșȚȊțȦȡȍȍ
țȊȍȌȖȔȓȍȕȐȍ.
ǷȖ ȔȕȍȕȐȦ ȘȈȏȘȈȉȖȚȟȐȒȖȊ ȗȘȖȍȒȚȈ, ȉȖȓȍȍ ȚȡȈȚȍȓȤȕȣȑ ȜȐșȒȈȓȤȕȣȑ ȒȖȕȚȘȖȓȤ ȏȈ ȒȘțȗȕȣȔȐ
ȕȈȓȖȋȖȗȓȈȚȍȓȤȡȐȒȈȔȐ ȗȖȏȊȖȓȐȚ ȗȖȊȣșȐȚȤ ȒȈȟȍșȚȊȖ Ȑ ȥȜȜȍȒȚȐȊȕȖșȚȤ ȒȖȕȚȘȖȓȤȕȖȑ ȌȍȧȚȍȓȤȕȖșȚȐ, Ȉ
ȚȈȒȎȍ țșȖȊȍȘȠȍȕșȚȊȖȊȈȚȤ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȖȍ ȈȌȔȐȕȐșȚȘȐȘȖȊȈȕȐȍ Ȋ ȖȚȕȖȠȍȕȐȐ ȉȦȌȎȍȚȖȖȉȘȈȏțȦȡȐȝ
ȖȘȋȈȕȐȏȈȞȐȑ-ȥȒșȗȖȘȚȨȘȖȊ. ǶȉȧȏȈȕȕȖșȚȤ ȗȖ ȗȘȍȌȖșȚȈȊȓȍȕȐȦ țȒȈȏȈȕȕȣȔȐ ȗȓȈȚȍȓȤȡȐȒȈȔȐ
ȌȖȗȖȓȕȐȚȍȓȤȕȣȝ (ȗȖ șȘȈȊȕȍȕȐȦ ș ȖȉȡȍțșȚȈȕȖȊȓȍȕȕȣȔȐ) șȊȍȌȍȕȐȑ ȌȈșȚ ȊȖȏȔȖȎȕȖșȚȤ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȣȔ
ȖȘȋȈȕȈȔ ȘȈșȠȐȘȐȚȤ ȐȔȍȦȡțȦșȧ ȐȕȜȖȘȔȈȞȐȦ Ȗ ȗȓȈȚȍȓȤȡȐȒȍ, ȖșȖȉȍȕȕȖșȚȧȝ Ȑ ȗȍȘșȗȍȒȚȐȊȈȝ ȍȋȖ
34
ǪȍșȚȕȐȒ ǷȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊșȒȖȋȖ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȈȕșȒȖȋȖ ȉȈȕȒȈ ȹ3’2014
ǶȉȏȖȘȕȈȧ ȐȕȜȖȘȔȈȞȐȧ
ȜȐȕȈȕșȖȊȖ-ȝȖȏȧȑșȚȊȍȕȕȖȑ ȌȍȧȚȍȓȤȕȖșȚȐ, ȒȖȕȚȘȈȋȍȕȚȈȝ Ȑ ȌȘ., ȗȖȏȊȖȓȐȚ ȖȉȍșȗȍȟȐȚȤ ȉȖȓȍȍ
ȒȈȟȍșȚȊȍȕȕȖȍ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȖȍ șȖȗȘȖȊȖȎȌȍȕȐȍ Ȑ ȖȒȈȏȈȕȐȍ ȖȗȍȘȈȚȐȊȕȖȑ ȒȖȕșțȓȤȚȈȞȐȖȕȕȖȑ ȗȖȔȖȡȐ.
ǵȈȘȧȌț ș ȗȖȐșȒȖȔ ȉȖȓȍȍ ȥȜȜȍȒȚȐȊȕȣȝ ȗțȚȍȑ ȈȌȔȐȕȐșȚȘȐȘȖȊȈȕȐȧ țȗȓȈȚȣ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊ ȒȘțȗȕȣȔȐ
ȗȘȍȌȗȘȐȧȚȐȧȔȐ Ȋ ǩȍȓȈȘțșȐ ș ȖȒȚȧȉȘȧ 2012 ȋȖȌȈ ȉȣȓ ȊȊȍȌȨȕ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȣȑ ȔȖȕȐȚȖȘȐȕȋ Ȋ ȖȚȕȖȠȍȕȐȐ
ȖȘȋȈȕȐȏȈȞȐȑ, ȒȖȚȖȘȣȍ ȔȖȋțȚ ȏȈȕȐȎȈȚȤ șȊȖȐ ȌȖȝȖȌȣ. Ƕȕ ȗȘȐȔȍȕȧȍȚșȧ Ȍȓȧ ȖȗȍȘȈȚȐȊȕȖȑ ȖȞȍȕȒȐ
ȜȈȒȚȐȟȍșȒȖȋȖ șȖșȚȖȧȕȐȧ ȖȉȢȍȒȚȖȊ Ȑ țșȓȖȊȐȑ ȌȍȧȚȍȓȤȕȖșȚȐ șțȉȢȍȒȚȈ ȝȖȏȧȑșȚȊȖȊȈȕȐȧ ȕȈ ȗȘȍȌȔȍȚ
șȖȖȚȊȍȚșȚȊȐȧ ȚȘȍȉȖȊȈȕȐȧȔ ȏȈȒȖȕȖȌȈȚȍȓȤșȚȊȈ Ȑ ȕȈȗȘȈȊȓȍȕ, Ȋ ȗȍȘȊțȦ ȖȟȍȘȍȌȤ, ȕȈ ȗȘȍȌȖȚȊȘȈȡȍȕȐȍ,
ȗȘȖȜȐȓȈȒȚȐȒț ȗȘȈȊȖȕȈȘțȠȍȕȐȑ ȗȘȐ ȖșțȡȍșȚȊȓȍȕȐȐ ȗȘȍȌȗȘȐȕȐȔȈȚȍȓȤșȒȖȑ ȌȍȧȚȍȓȤȕȖșȚȐ.
ǵȈȗȘȐȔȍȘ, ȖȘȋȈȕȐȏȈȞȐȧ ȗȖȒȈȏȣȊȈȍȚ Ȋ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȖȑ ȖȚȟȨȚȕȖșȚȐ ȕȍȉȖȓȤȠȖȑ ȖȉȢȨȔ ȊȣȘțȟȒȐ, Ȉ Ȋ
ȘȍȏțȓȤȚȈȚȍ ȊȐȏțȈȓȤȕȖȋȖ ȔȖȕȐȚȖȘȐȕȋȈ (ș ȊȣȍȏȌȖȔ ȕȈ ȖȉȢȍȒȚ) ȊȣȧșȕȧȍȚșȧ, ȟȚȖ ȕȍ Ȋșȧ ȊȣȘțȟȒȈ
ȗȘȖȝȖȌȐȚ ȟȍȘȍȏ ȒȈșșȖȊȣȑ ȈȗȗȈȘȈȚ Ȑ, șȖȖȚȊȍȚșȚȊȍȕȕȖ, ȕȍ ȗȖȓȕȖșȚȤȦ ȖȚȘȈȎȈȍȚșȧ Ȋ ȖȚȟȨȚȕȖșȚȐ. ǷȖ
ȘȍȏțȓȤȚȈȚȈȔ ȔȖȕȐȚȖȘȐȕȋȈ șțȉȢȍȒȚț ȝȖȏȧȑșȚȊȖȊȈȕȐȧ ȕȈȗȘȈȊȓȧȦȚșȧ ȘȍȒȖȔȍȕȌȈȞȐȐ ȗȖ țșȚȘȈȕȍȕȐȦ
ȊȣȧȊȓȍȕȕȣȝ ȕȈȘțȠȍȕȐȑ (ȕȍȌȖșȚȈȚȒȖȊ), ȒȖȚȖȘȣȍ Ȗȕ ȊȗȘȈȊȍ ȌȖȉȘȖȊȖȓȤȕȖ țșȚȘȈȕȐȚȤ Ȑ
ȗȘȖȐȕȜȖȘȔȐȘȖȊȈȚȤ Ȗȉ ȥȚȖȔ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȣȑ ȖȘȋȈȕ Ȋ țșȚȈȕȖȊȓȍȕȕȣȑ șȘȖȒ. Ǫ ȟȈșȚȕȖșȚȐ,
ȕȈȓȖȋȖȗȓȈȚȍȓȤȡȐȒ ȗȘȍȌșȚȈȊȓȧȍȚ țȚȖȟȕȨȕȕțȦ ȌȍȒȓȈȘȈȞȐȦ Ȑ ȌȖȗȓȈȟȐȊȈȍȚ Ȋ ȉȦȌȎȍȚ ȕȈȓȖȋȐ. Ǫ
șȓțȟȈȍ ȊȣȗȖȓȕȍȕȐȧ ȘȍȒȖȔȍȕȌȈȞȐȑ Ȋ țșȚȈȕȖȊȓȍȕȕȣȑ șȘȖȒ ȔȍȘȣ ȖȚȊȍȚșȚȊȍȕȕȖșȚȐ Ȋ ȖȚȕȖȠȍȕȐȐ
șțȉȢȍȒȚȈ Ȑ (ȐȓȐ) ȍȋȖ ȌȖȓȎȕȖșȚȕȣȝ ȓȐȞ ȕȍ ȗȘȐȔȍȕȧȦȚșȧ. Ǫ ȥȚȖȔ Ȑ ȏȈȒȓȦȟȈȍȚșȧ ȌȖȊȍȘȐȍ
ȋȖșțȌȈȘșȚȊȈ – ȌȖȗțșȒȈȍȚșȧ, ȟȚȖ șțȉȢȍȒȚ ȗȘȍȌȗȘȐȕȐȔȈȚȍȓȤșȒȖȑ ȌȍȧȚȍȓȤȕȖșȚȐ ȐȔȍȍȚ ȗȘȈȊȖ ȕȈ
ȖȠȐȉȒț, ȕȖ ȍȔț ȌȈȨȚșȧ ȊȖȏȔȖȎȕȖșȚȤ ȍȨ ȌȖȉȘȖȊȖȓȤȕȖȋȖ ȐșȗȘȈȊȓȍȕȐȧ. ǶȌȕȈȒȖ ȍșȓȐ ȊȣȧȊȓȍȕȕȣȍ Ȋ
ȝȖȌȍ ȔȖȕȐȚȖȘȐȕȋȈ ȕȈȘțȠȍȕȐȧ ȕȍ ȉțȌțȚ țșȚȘȈȕȍȕȣ, ȚȖ ȥȚȖ ȈȊȚȖȔȈȚȐȟȍșȒȐ ȗȖșȓțȎȐȚ ȖșȕȖȊȈȕȐȍȔ
Ȍȓȧ ȕȈȏȕȈȟȍȕȐȧ ȗȘȖȊȍȘȒȐ.
Ǫ Ȟȍȓȧȝ ȒȖȕȚȘȖȓȧ ȚȍȒțȡȍȑ ȝȖȏȧȑșȚȊȍȕȕȖȑ ȌȍȧȚȍȓȤȕȖșȚȐ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȗȓȈȚȍȓȤȡȐȒȖȊ Ȑ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȣȝ
ȗȍȘȍȟȐșȓȍȕȐȑ ȗȘȐ ȖșțȡȍșȚȊȓȍȕȐȐ ȔȖȕȐȚȖȘȐȕȋȈ ȐșȗȖȓȤȏțȦȚșȧ ȚȈȒȐȍ ȜȖȘȔȣ, ȒȈȒ:
1. ǹȖȏȌȈȕȐȍ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȣȝ ȗȖșȚȖȊ – ȗȘȍșȓȍȌțȍȚ ȞȍȓȤ ȗȘȍȌțȗȘȍȎȌȍȕȐȧ Ȑ ȖȉȕȈȘțȎȍȕȐȧ șȓțȟȈȍȊ
ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȣȝ ȕȈȘțȠȍȕȐȑ, Ȋ ȚȖȔ ȟȐșȓȍ ȜȈȒȚȖȊ țȒȓȖȕȍȕȐȧ ȖȚ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȣȝ ȖȉȧȏȈȚȍȓȤșȚȊ, Ȉ ȚȈȒȎȍ Ȋ ȌȘțȋȐȝ
Ȟȍȓȧȝ. ǵȈȓȖȋȖȊȣȍ ȗȖșȚȣ ȔȖȋțȚ ȉȣȚȤ șȚȈȞȐȖȕȈȘȕȣȔȐ Ȑ ȗȍȘȍȌȊȐȎȕȣȔȐ. ǷȍȘȊȣȑ ȘȈșȗȖȓȈȋȈȍȚșȧ Ȋ
țșȚȈȕȖȊȓȍȕȕȖȔ Ȑ șȗȍȞȐȈȓȤȕȖ ȖȉȖȘțȌȖȊȈȕȕȖȔ ȔȍșȚȍ. ǷȍȘȍȌȊȐȎȕȖȑ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȣȑ ȗȖșȚ, Ȗȉȍșȗȍȟȍȕȕȣȑ
șȗȍȞȐȈȓȤȕȣȔȐ ȚȍȝȕȐȟȍșȒȐȔȐ șȘȍȌșȚȊȈȔȐ, Ȋ ȚȖȔ ȟȐșȓȍ ȚȘȈȕșȗȖȘȚȕȣȔȐ, ȗȍȘȍȔȍȡȈȍȚșȧ Ȋ
ȏȈȊȐșȐȔȖșȚȐ ȖȚ ȕȍȖȉȝȖȌȐȔȖșȚȐ Ȋ ȘȈȌȐțșȍ ȒȖȕȚȘȖȓȤȕȖȋȖ șȍȒȚȖȘȈ. Ǫ ǸǼ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȣȍ ȗȖșȚȣ
șȖȏȌȈȊȈȓȐșȤ, Ȋ ȟȈșȚȕȖșȚȐ, Ȋ Ȟȍȓȧȝ ȖȉȍșȗȍȟȍȕȐȧ ȒȖȕȚȘȖȓȧ ȏȈ ȗȖșȚțȗȓȍȕȐȍȔ ȈȒȞȐȏȖȊ ȕȈ
ȕȍȜȚȍȗȘȖȌțȒȚȣ; Ȋ ȖȘȋȈȕȐȏȈȞȐȧȝ, ȗȘȖȐȏȊȖȌȧȡȐȝ ȥȚȐȓȖȊȣȑ șȗȐȘȚ. Ǫ ǸȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȍ ǴȖȓȌȖȊȈ șȖȏȌȈȕȐȍ
ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȣȝ ȗȖșȚȖȊ ȗȓȈȕȐȘțȍȚșȧ ȕȈ ȗȘȍȌȗȘȐȧȚȐȧȝ, ȕȈȝȖȌȧȡȐȝșȧ Ȋ ȗȘȖȞȍșșȍ ȕȍșȖșȚȖȧȚȍȓȤȕȖșȚȐ, Ȍȓȧ
ȖȚșȓȍȎȐȊȈȕȐȧ Ȑȝ șȌȍȓȖȒ Ȑ ȗȖȋȈȠȍȕȐȧ ȌȍȉȐȚȖȘșȒȖȑ ȏȈȌȖȓȎȍȕȕȖșȚȐ Ȑ ȗȘȍȌȖȚȊȘȈȡȍȕȐȧ ȕȈȒȖȗȓȍȕȐȧ
ȕȖȊȣȝ ȌȖȓȋȖȊ Ȋ ȉȦȌȎȍȚ.
2. ǽȘȖȕȖȔȍȚȘȈȎȕȖȍ ȖȉșȓȍȌȖȊȈȕȐȍ – ȗȘȖȊȖȌȐȚșȧ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȣȔȐ ȖȘȋȈȕȈȔȐ ș ȞȍȓȤȦ țșȚȈȕȖȊȓȍȕȐȧ
ȜȈȒȚȐȟȍșȒȖȋȖ ȌȖȝȖȌȈ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȗȓȈȚȍȓȤȡȐȒȈ Ȑ ȏȈȚȘȈȚ, șȊȧȏȈȕȕȣȝ ș ȍȋȖ ȗȖȓțȟȍȕȐȍȔ.
Ǫ ǻȏȉȍȒȐșȚȈȕȍ, ȕȈȗȘȐȔȍȘ, ȝȘȖȕȖȔȍȚȘȐȘțȦȚ ȗȖșȚțȗȓȍȕȐȍ ȕȈȓȐȟȕȖȑ ȌȍȕȍȎȕȖȑ ȊȣȘțȟȒȐ. ǷȘȐ
ȥȚȖȔ Ȋ ȝȖȌȍ ȖșțȡȍșȚȊȓȍȕȐȧ ȖȉșȓȍȌȖȊȈȕȐȧ ȕȍ ȌȖȗțșȒȈȍȚșȧ ȗȘȖȊȍȌȍȕȐȍ ȗȘȖȊȍȘȒȐ, ȏȈȚȘȍȉȖȊȈȕȐȍ ț
ȕȈȓȖȋȖȗȓȈȚȍȓȤȡȐȒȈ ȒȈȒȖȑ-ȓȐȉȖ ȐȕȜȖȘȔȈȞȐȐ ȐȓȐ ȖȉȢȧșȕȍȕȐȑ, Ȉ ȚȈȒȎȍ ȓȦȉȖȍ ȐȕȖȍ ȊȔȍȠȈȚȍȓȤșȚȊȖ
Ȋ ȌȍȧȚȍȓȤȕȖșȚȤ ȗȘȍȌȗȘȐȧȚȐȧ. ǸȍȏțȓȤȚȈȚȣ ȝȘȖȕȖȔȍȚȘȈȎȈ ȗȖșȚțȗȓȍȕȐȧ ȌȍȕȍȎȕȖȑ ȊȣȘțȟȒȐ
ȐșȗȖȓȤȏțȦȚșȧ ȐșȒȓȦȟȐȚȍȓȤȕȖ Ȍȓȧ ȈȕȈȓȐȏȈ ȌȖșȚȖȊȍȘȕȖșȚȐ ȗȘȍȌșȚȈȊȓȧȍȔȖȑ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȖȑ ȖȚȟȨȚȕȖșȚȐ, Ȉ
ȚȈȒȎȍ Ȍȓȧ ȊȍȌȍȕȐȧ ȉȈȏȣ ȌȈȕȕȣȝ Ȗȉ ȖȉȢȍȒȚȈȝ ȖȉȓȖȎȍȕȐȧ (ȓȐȉȖ șȊȧȏȈȕȕȣȝ ș ȖȉȓȖȎȍȕȐȍȔ), Ȑ ȕȍ
ȔȖȋțȚ ȧȊȓȧȚȤșȧ ȖșȕȖȊȈȕȐȍȔ Ȍȓȧ ȗȘȐȊȓȍȟȍȕȐȧ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȗȓȈȚȍȓȤȡȐȒȈ Ȓ ȖȚȊȍȚșȚȊȍȕȕȖșȚȐ.
Ǫ ǫȘțȏȐȐ ȝȘȖȕȖȔȍȚȘȐȘțȍȔȣȍ ȖȉȢȍȒȚȣ ȏȕȈȟȐȚȍȓȤȕȖ ȠȐȘȍ, ȟȍȔ Ȋ ǻȏȉȍȒȐșȚȈȕȍ: ȌȖȝȖȌȣ, ȖȉȢȨȔȣ
ȗȖșȚȈȊȖȒ ȚȖȊȈȘȖȊ/țșȓțȋ, ȟȐșȓȍȕȕȖșȚȤ ȕȈȨȔȕȣȝ ȘȈȉȖȚȕȐȒȖȊ (Ȍȓȧ ȊȣȧȊȓȍȕȐȧ ȜȈȒȚȖȊ ȊȣȗȓȈȚȣ
ȏȈȘȗȓȈȚȣ «Ȋ ȒȖȕȊȍȘȚȈȝ»). ǽȘȖȕȖȔȍȚȘȈȎ, ȒȈȒ ȗȘȈȊȐȓȖ, ȗȘȖȊȖȌȐȚșȧ ȕȈ ȗȘȖȚȧȎȍȕȐȐ ȒȈȓȍȕȌȈȘȕȖȋȖ
ȔȍșȧȞȈ Ȋ ȚȍȟȍȕȐȍ ȕȍ Ȕȍȕȍȍ 7 Ȍȕȍȑ. ǷȘȐ ȥȚȖȔ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȣȑ ȖȘȋȈȕ ȔȖȎȍȚ ȗȘȐȕȧȚȤ ȘȍȠȍȕȐȍ Ȗ ȍȋȖ
ȗȘȖȌȖȓȎȍȕȐȐ Ȋ șȓȍȌțȦȡȍȔ ȔȍșȧȞȍ Ȑ ȌȈȎȍ ȊȊȍȌȍȕȐȐ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȖȋȖ ȗȖșȚȈ Ȋ Ȟȍȓȧȝ ȕȈȉȓȦȌȍȕȐȧ ȏȈ
ǪȍșȚȕȐȒ ǷȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊșȒȖȋȖ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȈȕșȒȖȋȖ ȉȈȕȒȈ ȹ3’2014
35
ǶȉȏȖȘȕȈȧ ȐȕȜȖȘȔȈȞȐȧ
ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȟȍșȒȖȑ ȌȍȧȚȍȓȤȕȖșȚȤȦ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȗȓȈȚȍȓȤȡȐȒȈ ȕȈ ȖȉȢȍȒȚȍ. ǷȘȐ ȗȘȖȊȍȌȍȕȐȐ ȌȈȕȕȖȋȖ ȊȐȌȈ
ȔȖȕȐȚȖȘȐȕȋȈ ȗȘȍȌșȚȈȊȐȚȍȓȐ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȖȋȖ ȖȘȋȈȕȈ ȕȍ ȐȔȍȦȚ ȗȘȈȊȈ ȚȘȍȉȖȊȈȚȤ ȗȘȍȌșȚȈȊȓȍȕȐȧ țȟȨȚȕȖȑ
ȌȖȒțȔȍȕȚȈȞȐȐ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȗȓȈȚȍȓȤȡȐȒȈ ȐȓȐ ȐȕȖȑ ȐȕȜȖȘȔȈȞȐȐ, șȊȧȏȈȕȕȖȑ ș ȕȈȓȖȋȖȖȉȓȖȎȍȕȐȍȔ.
ǽȘȖȕȖȔȍȚȘȈȎȕȖȍ ȖȉșȓȍȌȖȊȈȕȐȍ Ȋ DzȣȘȋȣȏșȚȈȕȍ ȗȘȖȊȖȌȐȚșȧ ȖȘȋȈȕȈȔȐ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȖȑ șȓțȎȉȣ
șȖȊȔȍșȚȕȖ ș ȗȘȍȌșȚȈȊȐȚȍȓȧȔȐ ȖȘȋȈȕȖȊ ȔȍșȚȕȖȋȖ șȈȔȖțȗȘȈȊȓȍȕȐȧ Ȑ ȖȚȘȈșȓȍȊȖȑ ȉȐȏȕȍș-ȈșșȖȞȐȈȞȐȍȑ
Ȍȓȧ ȖȗȘȍȌȍȓȍȕȐȧ șțȔȔȣ ȕȈȓȖȋȈ ȕȈ ȖșȕȖȊȍ ȗȈȚȍȕȚȈ ȗȖ ȒȖȕȒȘȍȚȕȖȔț ȊȐȌț ȌȍȧȚȍȓȤȕȖșȚȐ. ǾȍȓȤȦ
ȚȈȒȖȋȖ ȖȉșȓȍȌȖȊȈȕȐȧ ȧȊȓȧȍȚșȧ ȖȗȘȍȌȍȓȍȕȐȍ șȘȍȌȕȍȑ ȌȖȝȖȌȕȖșȚȐ ȗȖ ȖȚȌȍȓȤȕȣȔ ȊȐȌȈȔ
ȌȍȧȚȍȓȤȕȖșȚȐ Ȑ ȘȍȋȐȖȕȈȔ, ȕȍȖȉȝȖȌȐȔȖȑ Ȍȓȧ ȗȘȐȔȍȕȍȕȐȧ șȗȍȞȐȈȓȤȕȖȋȖ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȖȋȖ ȘȍȎȐȔȈ.
ǽȘȖȕȖȔȍȚȘȈȎ ȗȘȖȊȖȌȐȚșȧ ȒȈȒ ș ȊȍȌȖȔȈ ȗȘȍȌȗȘȐȕȐȔȈȚȍȓȧ, ȚȈȒ Ȑ ȉȍȏ ȍȋȖ ȊȍȌȖȔȈ ȕȍ ȉȖȓȍȍ 1 ȘȈȏȈ Ȋ ȋȖȌ
Ȑ ȕȍ ȌȖȓȎȍȕ ȗȘȍȊȣȠȈȚȤ 15 Ȍȕȍȑ (ȗȖ ȊȐȌȈȔ ȌȍȧȚȍȓȤȕȖșȚȐ, ȐȔȍȦȡȐȔ șȍȏȖȕȕȣȑ ȝȈȘȈȒȚȍȘ, – ȕȍ ȉȖȓȍȍ
3-ȝ ȘȈȏ Ȋ ȋȖȌ). ǸȍȏțȓȤȚȈȚȣ ȖȉșȓȍȌȖȊȈȕȐȧ ȕȍ ȊȓȍȒțȚ ȏȈ șȖȉȖȑ ȐȏȔȍȕȍȕȐȧ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȣȝ ȖȉȧȏȈȚȍȓȤșȚȊ ȗȖ
ȒȖȕȒȘȍȚȕȖȔț ȕȈȓȖȋȖȗȓȈȚȍȓȤȡȐȒț.
Ǫ ǻȒȘȈȐȕȍ ȝȘȖȕȖȔȍȚȘȈȎ ȉȣȓ ȊȊȍȌȨȕ Ȋ 2010 ȋȖȌț ȒȈȒ ȖȌȐȕ Ȑȏ ȥȓȍȔȍȕȚȖȊ ȜȈȒȚȐȟȍșȒȖȑ
ȗȘȖȊȍȘȒȐ. ǭȋȖ ȔȈȒșȐȔȈȓȤȕȈȧ ȗȘȖȌȖȓȎȐȚȍȓȤȕȖșȚȤ ȕȍ ȗȘȍȊȣȠȈȍȚ 10 Ȍȕȍȑ (ș ȊȖȏȔȖȎȕȣȔ ȗȘȖȌȓȍȕȐȍȔ
ȕȍ ȉȖȓȍȍ ȟȍȔ ȕȈ 5 Ȍȕȍȑ). ǹȖȋȓȈșȕȖ ǵDz ǻȒȘȈȐȕȣ ȝȘȖȕȖȔȍȚȘȈȎ ȗȘȐȔȍȕȧȍȚșȧ ș ȞȍȓȤȦ țșȚȈȕȖȊȓȍȕȐȧ
ȘȍȈȓȤȕȣȝ ȗȖȒȈȏȈȚȍȓȍȑ ȌȍȧȚȍȓȤȕȖșȚȐ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȗȓȈȚȍȓȤȡȐȒȈ ȕȈ șȖȖȚȊȍȚșȚȊțȦȡȍȔ ȔȍșȚȍ ȍȨ
ȖșțȡȍșȚȊȓȍȕȐȧ. Ǫ ȚȖ Ȏȍ ȊȘȍȔȧ ȕȐ ȗȖȘȧȌȖȒ ȍȋȖ ȗȘȖȊȍȌȍȕȐȧ, ȕȐ ȗȍȘȍȟȍȕȤ ȚȈȒȐȝ ȗȖȒȈȏȈȚȍȓȍȑ Ȑ Ȑȝ
ȐșȗȖȓȤȏȖȊȈȕȐȧ Ȋ ȏȈȒȖȕȖȌȈȚȍȓȤșȚȊȍ ǻȒȘȈȐȕȣ ȕȍ ȖȋȖȊȖȘȍȕ, ȟȚȖ ȌȈȨȚ ȊȖȏȔȖȎȕȖșȚȤ ȔȍșȚȕȣȔ ȦȘȐșȚȈȔ
șȖȊȍȚȖȊȈȚȤ ȉȐȏȕȍșȔȍȕȈȔ ȖȚȒȈȏȣȊȈȚȤșȧ țȟȈșȚȊȖȊȈȚȤ Ȋ ȌȈȕȕȖȑ ȗȘȖȞȍȌțȘȍ.
Ǫ ǩȍȓȈȘțșȐ ș 2014 ȋȖȌȈ Ȋ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȖȍ ȏȈȒȖȕȖȌȈȚȍȓȤșȚȊȖ ȊȊȍȌȍȕȣ ȕȖȘȔȣ, ȗȘȍȌȖșȚȈȊȓȧȦȡȐȍ
ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȖȔț ȖȘȋȈȕț ȗȘȈȊȖ ȖȗȘȍȌȍȓȍȕȐȧ (țȊȍȓȐȟȍȕȐȧ) ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȖȑ ȉȈȏȣ ȏȈ ȖȚȟȨȚȕȣȑ ȗȍȘȐȖȌ ȗȖ
ȘȍȏțȓȤȚȈȚȈȔ ȕȈȉȓȦȌȍȕȐȧ ȝȘȖȕȖȔȍȚȘȈȎȕȣȔ ȔȍȚȖȌȖȔ. ǵȖȊȣȑ ȔȍȚȖȌ ȉțȌȍȚ ȐșȗȖȓȤȏȖȊȈȚȤșȧ, ȗȘȍȎȌȍ
ȊșȍȋȖ, Ȋ șȐșȚȍȔȍ ȖȉȡȍȗȐȚȈ, ȔȍȌȐȞȐȕșȒȐȝ Ȑ ȉȣȚȖȊȣȝ țșȓțȋ ș ȞȍȓȤȦ țșȚȈȕȖȊȓȍȕȐȧ ȜȈȒȚȐȟȍșȒȖȑ
ȊȣȘțȟȒȐ (ȌȖȝȖȌȈ) ȗȓȈȚȍȓȤȡȐȒȈ ȏȈ ȗȍȘȐȖȌ, Ȋ ȚȍȟȍȕȐȍ ȒȖȚȖȘȖȋȖ ȗȘȖȊȖȌȐȚșȧ ȕȈȉȓȦȌȍȕȐȍ (ȕȍ ȉȖȓȍȍ
15 ȘȈȉȖȟȐȝ Ȍȕȍȑ). ǵȈ ȖșȕȖȊȈȕȐȐ ȗȖȓțȟȍȕȕȣȝ ȌȈȕȕȣȝ ȉțȌȍȚ ȘȈșșȟȐȚȣȊȈȚȤșȧ șȘȍȌȕȍȌȕȍȊȕȈȧ
ȊȣȘțȟȒȈ Ȍȓȧ șȘȈȊȕȍȕȐȧ ȍȨ ș ȌȈȕȕȣȔȐ Ȑȏ ȗȖșȓȍȌȕȍȑ ȌȍȒȓȈȘȈȞȐȐ ȗȓȈȚȍȓȤȡȐȒȈ. ǭșȓȐ ȘȈșȝȖȎȌȍȕȐȍ
ȔȍȎȌț ȗȖȒȈȏȈȚȍȓȧȔȐ șȘȍȌȕȍȌȕȍȊȕȖȑ ȊȣȘțȟȒȐ ȗȖ ȘȍȏțȓȤȚȈȚȈȔ ȝȘȖȕȖȔȍȚȘȈȎȈ Ȑ ȌȍȒȓȈȘȈȞȐȐ
șȖșȚȈȊȐȚ 30% Ȑ ȉȖȓȍȍ, ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȣȑ ȐȕșȗȍȒȚȖȘ șȒȖȘȘȍȒȚȐȘțȍȚ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊțȦ ȉȈȏț ȏȈ ȗȘȖȠȓȣȑ ȗȍȘȐȖȌ Ȑ
ȌȖȕȈȟȐșȓȐȚ ȕȈȓȖȋ. ǷȘȐ ȥȚȖȔ șȘȈȊȕȍȕȐȧ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȣȝ ȉȈȏ ȉțȌțȚ ȗȘȖȐȏȊȖȌȐȚȤșȧ ș țȟȨȚȖȔ ȐȕȜȓȧȞȐȐ,
șȍȏȖȕȕȖșȚȐ ȘȈȉȖȚȣ ȗȘȖȊȍȘȧȍȔȖȋȖ ȖȉȢȍȒȚȈ Ȑ ȐȏȔȍȕȍȕȐȑ, șȊȧȏȈȕȕȣȝ ș ȟȐșȓȍȕȕȖșȚȤȦ ȍȋȖ
șȖȚȘțȌȕȐȒȖȊ Ȑ ȜȖȘȔȈȚȖȔ țșȓțȋ.
ǩȖȓȤȠȖȑ ȖȗȣȚ ȐșȗȖȓȤȏȖȊȈȕȐȧ ȝȘȖȕȖȔȍȚȘȈȎȈ (ȉȖȓȍȍ 10 ȓȍȚ) ȕȈȒȖȗȓȍȕ Ȋ DzȈȏȈȝșȚȈȕȍ. Ƕȕ
ȗȘȖȐȏȊȖȌȐȚșȧ Ȋ ȖȚȕȖȠȍȕȐȐ ȐȕȌȐȊȐȌțȈȓȤȕȣȝ ȗȘȍȌȗȘȐȕȐȔȈȚȍȓȍȑ Ȋ șȜȍȘȍ ȚȖȘȋȖȊȓȐ Ȑ ȖȒȈȏȈȕȐȧ
țșȓțȋ Ȑ ȕȈȗȘȈȊȓȍȕ ȕȈ șȖȒȘȈȡȍȕȐȍ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȣȝ ȗȘȖȊȍȘȖȒ Ȑ ȗȘȍȌȖșȚȈȊȓȍȕȐȍ ȗȘȍȌȗȘȐȕȐȔȈȚȍȓȧȔ
ȊȖȏȔȖȎȕȖșȚȐ țșȚȘȈȕȍȕȐȧ ȕȈȘțȠȍȕȐȑ ȉȍȏ ȘȐșȒȈ ȗȖȗȈșȚȤ ȗȖȌ ȠȚȘȈȜȕȣȍ șȈȕȒȞȐȐ. Ǫ șȚȘȈȕȍ
ȝȘȖȕȖȔȍȚȘȐȘțȍȚșȧ ȔȕȖȎȍșȚȊȖ ȗȈȘȈȔȍȚȘȖȊ9, ȌȓȐȚȍȓȤȕȖșȚȤ șȘȖȒȖȊ ȍȋȖ ȗȘȖȊȍȌȍȕȐȧ șȖșȚȈȊȓȧȍȚ ȖȚ
ȌȊțȝ ȌȖ ȟȍȚȣȘȨȝ ȕȍȌȍȓȤ. Ǫ ȘȍȏțȓȤȚȈȚȍ ȖȉșȓȍȌȖȊȈȕȐȧ șȖȉȐȘȈȦȚșȧ ȌȈȕȕȣȍ ȗȖ ȜȈȒȚȐȟȍșȒȐ
ȗȖȓțȟȍȕȕȣȔ ȌȖȝȖȌȈȔ Ȑ ȗȘȖȐȏȊȍȌȨȕȕȣȔ ȏȈȚȘȈȚȈȔ. ǵȈ Ȑȝ ȖșȕȖȊȈȕȐȐ ȗȘȖȊȍȘȧȍȚșȧ ȌȖșȚȖȊȍȘȕȖșȚȤ
ȏȈȌȍȒȓȈȘȐȘȖȊȈȕȕȣȝ (ȕȈȟȐșȓȍȕȕȣȝ Ȑ țȗȓȈȟȍȕȕȣȝ) ȗȓȈȚȍȎȍȑ Ȋ ȉȦȌȎȍȚ. ǷȘȐ ȕȍȖȉȝȖȌȐȔȖșȚȐ ȖȘȋȈȕȣ
ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȖȑ șȓțȎȉȣ ȊȖ ȊȘȍȔȧ ȝȘȖȕȖȔȍȚȘȈȎȈ ȐȔȍȦȚ ȗȘȈȊȖ ȗȘȖȊȖȌȐȚȤ ȐȕȊȍȕȚȈȘȐȏȈȞȐȦ ǺǴǾ.
ǸȍȏțȓȤȚȈȚȣ ȝȘȖȕȖȔȍȚȘȈȎȕȖȋȖ ȖȉșȓȍȌȖȊȈȕȐȧ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȗȓȈȚȍȓȤȡȐȒȖȊ țȟȐȚȣȊȈȦȚșȧ ȗȘȐ ȗȘȖȊȍȌȍȕȐȐ
ȕȈȟȐșȓȍȕȐȑ șțȔȔ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊ Ȑ ȌȘțȋȐȝ ȖȉȧȏȈȚȍȓȤȕȣȝ ȗȓȈȚȍȎȍȑ ȗȖ ȐȚȖȋȈȔ ȒȖȔȗȓȍȒșȕȖȑ ȐȓȐ
ȚȍȔȈȚȐȟȍșȒȖȑ ȗȘȖȊȍȘȒȐ.
9
ȓȦȉȣȍ ȐșȗȖȓȤȏțȍȔȣȍ Ȍȓȧ ȐȏȊȓȍȟȍȕȐȧ ȌȖȝȖȌȖȊ ȖȉȢȍȒȚȣ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȖȉȓȖȎȍȕȐȧ Ȑ ȖȉȢȍȒȚȣ, șȊȧȏȈȕȕȣȍ ș ȕȐȔ,
ȕȈȓȐȟȐȍ Ȍȍȕȍȋ, ȌȍȕȍȎȕȣȝ ȌȖȒțȔȍȕȚȖȊ, ȉțȝȋȈȓȚȍȘșȒȐȝ ȒȕȐȋ, ȖȚȟȨȚȖȊ, șȔȍȚ, Ȟȍȕȕȣȝ ȉțȔȈȋ, ȘȈșȟȨȚȖȊ,
ȌȍȒȓȈȘȈȞȐȑ Ȑ Ȑȕȣȝ ȌȖȒțȔȍȕȚȖȊ, șȊȧȏȈȕȕȣȝ ș ȖȉșȓȍȌțȍȔȣȔ ȖȉȢȍȒȚȖȔ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȖȉȓȖȎȍȕȐȧ. ǶȉȢȍȒȚȖȔ ȗȘȖȊȍȘȒȐ
ȚȈȒȎȍ ȔȖȎȍȚ ȉȣȚȤ ȜȈȒȚȐȟȍșȒȈȧ ȟȐșȓȍȕȕȖșȚȤ ȘȈȉȖȚȕȐȒȖȊ
36
ǪȍșȚȕȐȒ ǷȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊșȒȖȋȖ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȈȕșȒȖȋȖ ȉȈȕȒȈ ȹ3’2014
ǶȉȏȖȘȕȈȧ ȐȕȜȖȘȔȈȞȐȧ
ǰȕȚȍȘȍșȕȖȑ ȖșȖȉȍȕȕȖșȚȤȦ ȧȊȓȧȍȚșȧ ȚȖ, ȟȚȖ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȗȓȈȚȍȓȤȡȐȒ ȔȖȎȍȚ șȈȔ ȗȖȗȘȖșȐȚȤ Ȗ
ȝȘȖȕȖȔȍȚȘȈȎȍ. ǵȈ ȖșȕȖȊȈȕȐȐ ȈȒȚȈ ȖȉșȓȍȌȖȊȈȕȐȧ ȖȘȋȈȕȣ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȖȑ șȓțȎȉȣ ȗȘȖȐȏȊȖȌȧȚ ȊȖȏȊȘȈȚ
ȐȏȓȐȠȕȍ țȗȓȈȟȍȕȕȣȝ șțȔȔ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊ Ȑ ȌȘțȋȐȝ ȖȉȧȏȈȚȍȓȤȕȣȝ ȗȓȈȚȍȎȍȑ Ȑȏ ȉȦȌȎȍȚȈ
ȕȈȓȖȋȖȗȓȈȚȍȓȤȡȐȒț – șțȉȢȍȒȚț ȔȈȓȖȋȖ ȉȐȏȕȍșȈ, ȖșțȡȍșȚȊȓȧȦȡȍȔț ȌȍȧȚȍȓȤȕȖșȚȤ Ȋ șȗȍȞȐȈȓȤȕȖȔ
ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȖȔ ȘȍȎȐȔȍ ȕȈ ȖșȕȖȊȍ ȗȈȚȍȕȚȈ.
DzȘȖȔȍ ȚȖȋȖ, Ȋ DzȈȏȈȝșȚȈȕȍ ȐșȗȖȓȤȏțȍȚșȧ ȚȈȒȖȑ ȔȍȚȖȌ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȖȋȖ ȈȌȔȐȕȐșȚȘȐȘȖȊȈȕȐȧ șțȉȢȍȒȚȖȊ
ȔȈȓȖȋȖ ȉȐȏȕȍșȈ ȒȈȒ «ȔȖȉȐȓȤȕȣȍ ȋȘțȗȗȣ ȕȈȉȓȦȌȍȕȐȧ». ǴȖȉȐȓȤȕȈȧ ȋȘțȗȗȈ ȕȈȉȓȦȌȍȕȐȧ (Ǵǫǵ) ȏȈ
șȖȉȓȦȌȍȕȐȍȔ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȖȋȖ ȏȈȒȖȕȖȌȈȚȍȓȤșȚȊȈ ȧȊȓȧȍȚșȧ ȖȗȍȘȈȚȐȊȕȖȑ ȋȘțȗȗȖȑ ȚȍȘȘȐȚȖȘȐȈȓȤȕȖȋȖ
ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȖȋȖ ȒȖȔȐȚȍȚȈ ȕȈ ȒȖȕȒȘȍȚȕȖ ȏȈȒȘȍȗȓȨȕȕȖȔ țȟȈșȚȒȍ. Ǵǫǵ ȖȉȍșȗȍȟȐȊȈȦȚșȧ ȚȘȈȕșȗȖȘȚȕȣȔȐ Ȑ
ȚȍȝȕȐȟȍșȒȐȔȐ șȘȍȌșȚȊȈȔȐ Ȍȓȧ ȜȐȒșȐȘȖȊȈȕȐȧ (ȌȖȒțȔȍȕȚȐȘȖȊȈȕȐȧ) șȓțȟȈȍȊ ȕȈȘțȠȍȕȐȧ
ȌȍȑșȚȊțȦȡȍȋȖ ȏȈȒȖȕȖȌȈȚȍȓȤșȚȊȈ. Ǵǫǵ Ȋ ȝȖȌȍ ȔȍȘȖȗȘȐȧȚȐȑ ȊȣȗȖȓȕȧȍȚ șȓȍȌțȦȡȐȍ ȜțȕȒȞȐȐ:
ȊȣȧȊȓȧȍȚ ȕȍȏȈȘȍȋȐșȚȘȐȘȖȊȈȕȕȣȝ Ȋ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȖȔ ȖȘȋȈȕȍ ȝȖȏȧȑșȚȊțȦȡȐȝ șțȉȢȍȒȚȖȊ; ȊȐȏțȈȓȤȕȖ
țșȚȈȕȈȊȓȐȊȈȍȚ ȜȈȒȚȣ ȐșȗȖȓȤȏȖȊȈȕȐȧ ȖȉȢȍȒȚȖȊ Ȋ Ȟȍȓȧȝ ȗȘȍȌȗȘȐȕȐȔȈȚȍȓȤșȒȖȑ ȌȍȧȚȍȓȤȕȖșȚȐ;
ȗȘȖȊȍȘȧȍȚ ȌȈȕȕȣȍ Ȗ ȘȍȋȐșȚȘȈȞȐȐ ȖȘȋȈȕȐȏȈȞȐȑ, ȕȈȓȐȟȐȍ ȓȐȞȍȕȏȐȐ, ȗȘȐȔȍȕȍȕȐȍ ȒȖȕȚȘȖȓȤȕȖȒȈșșȖȊȣȝ ȈȗȗȈȘȈȚȖȊ.
Ǫ ȘȖșșȐȑșȒȖȔ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȖȔ ȏȈȒȖȕȖȌȈȚȍȓȤșȚȊȍ ȚȈȒȖȑ ȔȍȚȖȌ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȖȋȖ ȈȌȔȐȕȐșȚȘȐȘȖȊȈȕȐȧ
șțȉȢȍȒȚȖȊ ȔȈȓȖȋȖ ȉȐȏȕȍșȈ ȒȈȒ ȝȘȖȕȖȔȍȚȘȈȎ ȕȍ ȗȘȍȌțșȔȖȚȘȍȕ, ȝȖȚȧ Ȗȕ ȧȊȓȧȍȚșȧ ȌȖșȚȈȚȖȟȕȖ
ȌȍȑșȚȊȍȕȕȣȔ. Ǫ ȚȖ Ȏȍ ȊȘȍȔȧ Ȋ ǸȖșșȐȐ ȗȘȖȊȖȌȐȚșȧ ȔȖȕȐȚȖȘȐȕȋ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȖȑ ȕȈȋȘțȏȒȐ ȗȘȍȌȗȘȐȧȚȐȑ,
ȕȈȝȖȌȧȡȐȝșȧ ȕȈ ȖȉȡȍȔ ȘȍȎȐȔȍ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȖȉȓȖȎȍȕȐȧ. ǵȈȓȖȋȖȊȣȍ ȖȘȋȈȕȣ ȖșțȡȍșȚȊȓȧȦȚ ȔȖȕȐȚȖȘȐȕȋ
ȖȘȋȈȕȐȏȈȞȐȑ Ȍȓȧ șȖșȚȈȊȓȍȕȐȧ ȗȓȈȕȈ ȊȣȍȏȌȕȣȝ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȣȝ ȗȘȖȊȍȘȖȒ, ȖșȕȖȊȈȕȐȍȔ Ȍȓȧ ȒȖȚȖȘȣȝ
ȧȊȓȧȍȚșȧ ȍȨ ȗȖȗȈȌȈȕȐȍ Ȋ țșȚȈȕȖȊȓȍȕȕȣȑ ȗȍȘȍȟȍȕȤ ȒȘȐȚȍȘȐȍȊ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȣȝ ȘȐșȒȖȊ, Ȋ ȟȈșȚȕȖșȚȐ, Ȋ
șȓțȟȈȍ ȕȐȏȒȖȑ ȗȖ șȘȈȊȕȍȕȐȦ șȖ șȘȍȌȕȐȔ țȘȖȊȕȍȔ ȗȖ ȖȚȘȈșȓȐ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȖȑ ȕȈȋȘțȏȒȖȑ.
ǪșȍȋȖ ǷȘȐȒȈȏȖȔ Ǽǵǹ ǸȖșșȐȐ ȖȚ 30 ȔȈȧ 2007 ȋȖȌȈ ȹǴǴ-3-06/333 «Ƕȉ țȚȊȍȘȎȌȍȕȐȐ ȒȖȕȞȍȗȞȐȐ
șȐșȚȍȔȣ ȗȓȈȕȐȘȖȊȈȕȐȧ ȊȣȍȏȌȕȣȝ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȣȝ ȗȘȖȊȍȘȖȒ» ȗȘȍȌțșȔȖȚȘȍȕȣ 12 ȚȈȒ ȕȈȏȣȊȈȍȔȣȝ
ȖȉȡȍȌȖșȚțȗȕȣȝ ȒȘȐȚȍȘȐȍȊ șȈȔȖșȚȖȧȚȍȓȤȕȖȑ ȖȞȍȕȒȐ ȘȐșȒȖȊ Ȍȓȧ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȗȓȈȚȍȓȤȡȐȒȖȊ, Ȓ ȒȖȚȖȘȣȔ,
ȗȖȔȐȔȖ ȊȣȠȍȕȈȏȊȈȕȕȖȋȖ, ȖȚȕȖșȧȚșȧ:
- ȖȚȘȈȎȍȕȐȍ Ȋ ȉțȝȋȈȓȚȍȘșȒȖȑ ȐȓȐ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȖȑ ȖȚȟȨȚȕȖșȚȐ țȉȣȚȒȖȊ ȕȈ ȗȘȖȚȧȎȍȕȐȐ ȕȍșȒȖȓȤȒȐȝ
ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȣȝ ȗȍȘȐȖȌȖȊ;
- ȖȚȘȈȎȍȕȐȍ Ȋ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȖȑ ȖȚȟȨȚȕȖșȚȐ ȏȕȈȟȐȚȍȓȤȕȣȝ șțȔȔ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȣȝ ȊȣȟȍȚȖȊ ȏȈ ȖȗȘȍȌȍȓȨȕȕȣȑ
ȗȍȘȐȖȌ;
- ȖȗȍȘȍȎȈȦȡȐȑ ȚȍȔȗ ȘȖșȚȈ ȘȈșȝȖȌȖȊ ȕȈȌ ȚȍȔȗȖȔ ȘȖșȚȈ ȌȖȝȖȌȖȊ ȖȚ ȘȍȈȓȐȏȈȞȐȐ ȚȖȊȈȘȖȊ (ȘȈȉȖȚ,
țșȓțȋ);
- ȊȣȗȓȈȚȈ șȘȍȌȕȍȔȍșȧȟȕȖȑ ȏȈȘȈȉȖȚȕȖȑ ȗȓȈȚȣ ȕȈ ȖȌȕȖȋȖ ȘȈȉȖȚȕȐȒȈ ȕȐȎȍ șȘȍȌȕȍȋȖ țȘȖȊȕȧ ȗȖ
ȊȐȌț ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȟȍșȒȖȑ ȌȍȧȚȍȓȤȕȖșȚȐ Ȋ șțȉȢȍȒȚȍ ǸǼ;
- ȕȍȖȌȕȖȒȘȈȚȕȖȍ ȗȘȐȉȓȐȎȍȕȐȍ Ȓ ȗȘȍȌȍȓȤȕȖȔț ȏȕȈȟȍȕȐȦ țșȚȈȕȖȊȓȍȕȕȣȝ ǵȈȓȖȋȖȊȣȔ ȒȖȌȍȒșȖȔ
ǸǼ ȊȍȓȐȟȐȕ ȗȖȒȈȏȈȚȍȓȍȑ, ȗȘȍȌȖșȚȈȊȓȧȦȡȐȝ ȗȘȈȊȖ ȗȘȐȔȍȕȧȚȤ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȗȓȈȚȍȓȤȡȐȒȈȔ șȗȍȞȐȈȓȤȕȣȍ
ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȣȍ ȘȍȎȐȔȣ;
- ȖȚȘȈȎȍȕȐȍ ȐȕȌȐȊȐȌțȈȓȤȕȣȔ ȗȘȍȌȗȘȐȕȐȔȈȚȍȓȍȔ șțȔȔȣ ȘȈșȝȖȌȈ, ȔȈȒșȐȔȈȓȤȕȖ
ȗȘȐȉȓȐȎȍȕȕȖȑ Ȓ șțȔȔȍ ȍȋȖ ȌȖȝȖȌȈ, ȗȖȓțȟȍȕȕȖȋȖ ȏȈ ȒȈȓȍȕȌȈȘȕȣȑ ȋȖȌ;
- ȗȖșȚȘȖȍȕȐȍ ȜȐȕȈȕșȖȊȖ-ȝȖȏȧȑșȚȊȍȕȕȖȑ ȌȍȧȚȍȓȤȕȖșȚȐ ȕȈ ȖșȕȖȊȍ ȏȈȒȓȦȟȍȕȐȧ ȌȖȋȖȊȖȘȖȊ ș
ȒȖȕȚȘȈȋȍȕȚȈȔȐ-ȗȍȘȍȒțȗȡȐȒȈȔȐ ȐȓȐ ȗȖșȘȍȌȕȐȒȈȔȐ («ȞȍȗȖȟȒȐ ȒȖȕȚȘȈȋȍȕȚȖȊ») ȉȍȏ ȕȈȓȐȟȐȧ
ȘȈȏțȔȕȣȝ ȥȒȖȕȖȔȐȟȍșȒȐȝ ȐȓȐ Ȑȕȣȝ ȗȘȐȟȐȕ (ȌȍȓȖȊȖȑ ȞȍȓȐ);
- ȕȍȗȘȍȌșȚȈȊȓȍȕȐȍ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȗȓȈȚȍȓȤȡȐȒȖȔ ȗȖȧșȕȍȕȐȑ ȕȈ țȊȍȌȖȔȓȍȕȐȍ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȖȋȖ ȖȘȋȈȕȈ Ȗ
ȊȣȧȊȓȍȕȐȐ ȕȍșȖȖȚȊȍȚșȚȊȐȧ ȗȖȒȈȏȈȚȍȓȍȑ ȌȍȧȚȍȓȤȕȖșȚȐ;
- ȕȍȖȌȕȖȒȘȈȚȕȖȍ șȕȧȚȐȍ ș țȟȨȚȈ Ȑ ȗȖșȚȈȕȖȊȒȈ ȕȈ țȟȨȚ Ȋ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȣȝ ȖȘȋȈȕȈȝ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȗȓȈȚȍȓȤȡȐȒȈ
Ȋ șȊȧȏȐ ș ȐȏȔȍȕȍȕȐȍȔ ȔȍșȚȈ ȕȈȝȖȎȌȍȕȐȧ («ȔȐȋȘȈȞȐȧ» ȔȍȎȌț ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȣȔȐ ȖȘȋȈȕȈȔȐ);
- ȏȕȈȟȐȚȍȓȤȕȖȍ ȖȚȒȓȖȕȍȕȐȍ țȘȖȊȕȧ ȘȍȕȚȈȉȍȓȤȕȖșȚȐ ȗȖ ȌȈȕȕȣȔ ȉțȝȋȈȓȚȍȘșȒȖȋȖ țȟȨȚȈ ȖȚ țȘȖȊȕȧ
ȘȍȕȚȈȉȍȓȤȕȖșȚȐ Ȍȓȧ șȖȖȚȊȍȚșȚȊțȦȡȍȋȖ ȊȐȌȈ ȌȍȧȚȍȓȤȕȖșȚȐ ȗȖ ȌȈȕȕȣȔ șȚȈȚȐșȚȐȒȐ;
ǪȍșȚȕȐȒ ǷȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊșȒȖȋȖ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȈȕșȒȖȋȖ ȉȈȕȒȈ ȹ3’2014
37
ǶȉȏȖȘȕȈȧ ȐȕȜȖȘȔȈȞȐȧ
- ȊȍȌȍȕȐȍ ȜȐȕȈȕșȖȊȖ-ȝȖȏȧȑșȚȊȍȕȕȖȑ ȌȍȧȚȍȓȤȕȖșȚȐ ș ȊȣșȖȒȐȔ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȣȔ ȘȐșȒȖȔ.
ǹȕȐȎȍȕȐȍ ȘȐșȒȖȊ ȊȖȏȔȖȎȕȖ ȚȈȒȎȍ ȏȈ șȟȨȚ ȗȖȊȣȠȍȕȐȧ șȚȈȉȐȓȤȕȖșȚȐ ȗȘȈȊȖȊȖȋȖ ȘȍȋțȓȐȘȖȊȈȕȐȧ
ȕȈȓȖȋȖȖȉȓȖȎȍȕȐȧ Ȑ ȗȖȊȣȠȍȕȐȧ ȖȗȘȍȌȍȓȨȕȕȖșȚȐ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȣȝ ȕȖȘȔ. ǩȖȓȤȠțȦ ȘȖȓȤ Ȋ ȥȚȖȔ ȐȋȘȈȍȚ
ȐȕșȚȐȚțȚ ȗȘȍȌȊȈȘȐȚȍȓȤȕȖȋȖ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȖȋȖ ȘȍȋțȓȐȘȖȊȈȕȐȧ (ȒȖȕȚȘȖȓȧ) – ȗȘȍȌȊȈȘȐȚȍȓȤȕȖȍ
șȖȋȓȈșȖȊȈȕȐȍ ȗȘȈȊȖȊȖȑ ȒȊȈȓȐȜȐȒȈȞȐȐ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȣȝ ȗȖșȓȍȌșȚȊȐȑ Ȍȓȧ ȗȓȈȕȐȘțȍȔȣȝ șȌȍȓȖȒ Ȑ
ȖȗȍȘȈȞȐȑ. ǪȖȏȔȖȎȕȖșȚȤ ȚȈȒȖȋȖ ȒȖȕȚȘȖȓȧ șțȡȍșȚȊțȍȚ Ȋ ȉȖȓȤȠȐȕșȚȊȍ ȗȘȈȊȖȊȣȝ șȐșȚȍȔ ȔȐȘȈ.
ǷȘȐȔȍȘȖȔ ȚȈȒȖȋȖ ȔȍȚȖȌȈ șȕȐȎȍȕȐȧ ȘȐșȒȖȊ Ȋ ȏȈȘțȉȍȎȕȖȔ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȖȔ ȗȘȈȊȍ ȔȖȎȍȚ șȓțȎȐȚȤ ȚȈȒ
ȕȈȏȣȊȈȍȔȣȑ ȜȐșȒȈȓȤȕȣȑ ȘȍșȒȘȐȗȚ – ȗȘȖȞȍȌțȘȈ, ȗȖȏȊȖȓȧȦȡȈȧ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȗȓȈȚȍȓȤȡȐȒț ȗȖȓțȟȐȚȤ
ȗȘȍȌȊȈȘȐȚȍȓȤȕțȦ ȒȊȈȓȐȜȐȒȈȞȐȦ șȊȖȐȝ șȌȍȓȖȒ Ȑ ȝȖȏȧȑșȚȊȍȕȕȣȝ ȖȗȍȘȈȞȐȑ. ȅȚȖȚ ȔȍȝȈȕȐȏȔ
ȗȘȍȌȖșȚȈȊȓȧȍȚ ȌȖȉȘȖșȖȊȍșȚȕȖȔț ȗȓȈȚȍȓȤȡȐȒț ȊȖȏȔȖȎȕȖșȚȤ «ȏȈșȚȘȈȝȖȊȈȚȤșȧ» ȖȚ ȚȖȋȖ, ȟȚȖȉȣ ȍȋȖ
ȌȍȑșȚȊȐȧ Ȑ ȏȈȒȓȦȟȈȍȔȣȍ ȐȔ ȌȖȋȖȊȖȘȣ ȕȍ ȉȣȓȐ Ȋ ȌȈȓȤȕȍȑȠȍȔ ȒȊȈȓȐȜȐȞȐȘȖȊȈȕȣ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȖȑ
ȈȌȔȐȕȐșȚȘȈȞȐȍȑ ȒȈȒ ȏȓȖțȗȖȚȘȍȉȓȍȕȐȍ ȗȘȈȊȖȔ. ǺȍȔ șȈȔȣȔ ȔȐȕȐȔȐȏȐȘțȦȚșȧ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȣȍ ȘȐșȒȐ,
ȘȈșȝȖȌȣ ȕȈ șȖȌȍȘȎȈȕȐȍ ȒȖȕșțȓȤȚȈȕȚȖȊ Ȑ șțȌȍȉȕȣȍ ȐȏȌȍȘȎȒȐ.
Ǫ ǹȀǨ ȐȔȍȍȚșȧ ȈȕȈȓȖȋȐȟȕȈȧ ȗȘȖȞȍȌțȘȈ – ȗȐșȤȔȍȕȕȣȍ ȖȚȊȍȚȣ ȈȌȔȐȕȐșȚȘȈȞȐȐ
ȕȈȓȖȋȖȗȓȈȚȍȓȤȡȐȒț, ȖȉȘȈȚȐȊȠȍȔțșȧ ș ȗȘȍȌȊȈȘȐȚȍȓȤȕȣȔ ȏȈȗȘȖșȖȔ ȗȖ șȌȍȓȒȍ, ȒȖȚȖȘțȦ Ȗȕ
ȕȈȔȍȘȍȊȈȍȚșȧ ȏȈȒȓȦȟȐȚȤ. Ǫ ǫȍȘȔȈȕȐȐ ȗȘȖȞȍȌțȘȈ ȘȍșȒȘȐȗȚȈ ȖȋȘȈȕȐȟȍȕȈ ȒȖȕșțȓȤȚȐȘȖȊȈȕȐȍȔ ȗȖ
ȊȖȗȘȖșȈȔ ȕȈȓȖȋȈ ȕȈ ȏȈȘȗȓȈȚț Ȑ ȚȈȔȖȎȍȕȕȣȝ șȉȖȘȖȊ. ǶȗțȉȓȐȒȖȊȈȕȕȣȍ ȗȖȏȐȞȐȐ, ȊȣșȒȈȏȈȕȕȣȍ
ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȖȑ ȈȌȔȐȕȐșȚȘȈȞȐȍȑ, șȚȈȕȖȊȧȚșȧ ȖȉȧȏȈȚȍȓȤȕȣȔȐ Ȍȓȧ ȕȍȨ, ȕȖ ȗȘȐ ȥȚȖȔ ȕȍ ȕȈȒȓȈȌȣȊȈȦȚ
ȖȋȘȈȕȐȟȍȕȐȑ ȕȈ șțȌ. Ǫ ȘȖșșȐȑșȒȖȔ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȖȔ ȏȈȒȖȕȖȌȈȚȍȓȤșȚȊȍ ȗȘȖȞȍȌțȘȈ, ȗȖȌȖȉȕȈȧ
ȜȐșȒȈȓȤȕȖȔț ȘȍșȒȘȐȗȚț, ȘȈȏȊȐȚȈ ȍȡȍ ȕȍȌȖșȚȈȚȖȟȕȖ – ǴȐȕȜȐȕ ǸȖșșȐȐ, ȝȖȚȧ Ȑ ȌȈȨȚ ȗȐșȤȔȍȕȕȣȍ
ȘȈȏȢȧșȕȍȕȐȧ ȗȖ ȊȖȗȘȖșȈȔ ȗȘȐȔȍȕȍȕȐȧ ȏȈȒȖȕȖȌȈȚȍȓȤșȚȊȈ ǸǼ Ȗ ȕȈȓȖȋȈȝ Ȑ șȉȖȘȈȝ, ȕȖ ȕȍ ȧȊȓȧȍȚșȧ
șȊȧȏȈȕȕȣȔ ȌȈȕȕȣȔȐ ȖȚȊȍȚȈȔȐ. ǷȖȏȐȞȐȧ ȔȐȕȐșȚȍȘșȚȊȈ șȊȐȌȍȚȍȓȤșȚȊțȍȚ Ȗ ȕȍȖȉȧȏȈȚȍȓȤȕȖșȚȐ Ȍȓȧ
ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȣȝ ȖȘȋȈȕȖȊ ȘțȒȖȊȖȌșȚȊȖȊȈȚȤșȧ ȐȔȐ ȗȘȐ ȗȘȖȊȍȌȍȕȐȐ ȗȘȖȊȍȘȖȒ.
Ǫ ȕȈȠȍȑ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȍ Ȋ ȕȈșȚȖȧȡȍȍ ȊȘȍȔȧ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȖȍ ȈȌȔȐȕȐșȚȘȐȘȖȊȈȕȐȍ ȖșțȡȍșȚȊȓȧȍȚșȧ Ȋ
ȘȈȔȒȈȝ ǯȈȒȖȕȈ ǷǴǸ «Ƕ ȗȖȘȧȌȒȍ ȗȘȖȊȍȌȍȕȐȧ ȗȘȖȊȍȘȖȒ ȗȘȐ ȖșțȡȍșȚȊȓȍȕȐȐ ȋȖșțȌȈȘșȚȊȍȕȕȖȋȖ
ȒȖȕȚȘȖȓȧ (ȕȈȌȏȖȘȈ)». DzȈȒ ȖȚȔȍȟȈȍȚșȧ Ȋ «DzȖȕȞȍȗȞȐȐ ȉȦȌȎȍȚȕȖȑ Ȑ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȖȑ ȗȖȓȐȚȐȒȐ ǷǴǸ ȕȈ
2012 ȋȖȌ Ȑ șȘȍȌȕȍșȘȖȟȕțȦ ȗȍȘșȗȍȒȚȐȊț», ȊȣȠȍȕȈȏȊȈȕȕȣȑ ȏȈȒȖȕ ȗȘȈȒȚȐȟȍșȒȐ ȕȍ șȖȌȍȘȎȐȚ Ȋ șȍȉȍ
ȗȘȖȞȍȌțȘȣ ȗȘȖȊȍȌȍȕȐȧ ȖȗȍȘȈȚȐȊȕȖȋȖ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȖȋȖ ȒȖȕȚȘȖȓȧ, ȕȈȗȘȈȊȓȍȕȕȖȋȖ ȕȈ șȊȖȍȊȘȍȔȍȕȕȖȍ
ȗȘȍșȍȟȍȕȐȍ ȜȈȒȚȖȊ țȒȓȖȕȍȕȐȧ ȖȚ țȗȓȈȚȣ șȖȖȚȊȍȚșȚȊțȦȡȐȝ ȗȓȈȚȍȎȍȑ Ȑ șȉȖȘȖȊ. Ǫ șȐșȚȍȔȍ
ȏȈȒȖȕȖȌȈȚȍȓȤșȚȊȈ ȖȚșțȚșȚȊțȦȚ ȖȉȡȍȌȖșȚțȗȕȣȍ ȒȘȐȚȍȘȐȐ ȖȞȍȕȒȐ ȊȍȘȖȧȚȕȖșȚȐ țȒȓȖȕȍȕȐȧ ȖȚ țȗȓȈȚȣ
ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊ. ǺȈȒȈȧ șȐȚțȈȞȐȧ Ȋ șȜȍȘȍ ȗȘȈȊȖȊȖȋȖ ȘȍȋțȓȐȘȖȊȈȕȐȧ ȗȘȐȊȖȌȐȚ Ȓ ȏȕȈȟȐȚȍȓȤȕȣȔ șȖȒȘȣȚȐȧȔ
ȕȈȓȖȋȖȖȉȓȈȋȈȍȔȖȑ ȉȈȏȣ Ȑ ȗȖȚȍȘȧȔ ȋȖșțȌȈȘșȚȊȍȕȕȖȋȖ ȉȦȌȎȍȚȈ.
ǹȖȋȓȈșȕȖ DzȖȕȞȍȗȞȐȐ Ȋ ȟȈșȚȐ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȖȋȖ ȈȌȔȐȕȐșȚȘȐȘȖȊȈȕȐȧ, ȖȘȋȈȕȈȔ ȊȓȈșȚȐ Ȋ Ȟȍȓȧȝ
ȗȖȊȣȠȍȕȐȧ ȥȜȜȍȒȚȐȊȕȖșȚȐ ȒȖȕȚȘȖȓȧ ȏȈ șȖȉȓȦȌȍȕȐȍȔ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȣȝ ȏȈȒȖȕȖȊ Ȑ ȗȖȊȣȠȍȕȐȧ
ȜȐșȒȈȓȤȕȖȑ ȌȐșȞȐȗȓȐȕȣ ȉȣȓȈ ȗȖșȚȈȊȓȍȕȈ ȏȈȌȈȟȈ țșȚȈȕȖȊȐȚȤ ȕȈ ȏȈȒȖȕȖȌȈȚȍȓȤȕȖȔ țȘȖȊȕȍ ȚȈȒȖȑ
ȊȐȌ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȖȋȖ ȒȖȕȚȘȖȓȧ, ȒȈȒ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȣȑ ȔȖȕȐȚȖȘȐȕȋ. Ƕȕ ȗȘȍȌșȚȈȊȓȧȍȚ șȖȉȖȑ ȝȘȖȕȖȔȍȚȘȈȎȕȖȍ
ȕȈȉȓȦȌȍȕȐȍ ȏȈ ȜȐȕȈȕșȖȊȖ-ȝȖȏȧȑșȚȊȍȕȕȖȑ ȌȍȧȚȍȓȤȕȖșȚȤȦ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȗȓȈȚȍȓȤȡȐȒȈ ș ȞȍȓȤȦ
țșȚȈȕȖȊȓȍȕȐȧ ȍȋȖ ȜȈȒȚȐȟȍșȒȖȋȖ ȌȖȝȖȌȈ Ȑ ȜȈȒȚȐȟȍșȒȐȝ ȏȈȚȘȈȚ, șȊȧȏȈȕȕȣȝ ș ȗȖȓțȟȍȕȐȍȔ ȌȖȝȖȌȈ, Ȉ
ȚȈȒȎȍ ȘȈȏȔȍȘȖȊ Ȑȕȣȝ ȖȉȢȍȒȚȖȊ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȖȉȓȖȎȍȕȐȧ.
ǴȖȕȐȚȖȘȐȕȋ Ȑ ȗȘȍȌȊȈȘȐȚȍȓȤȕȣȑ ȈȕȈȓȐȏ ȗȖȏȊȖȓȧȦȚ ȖȗȘȍȌȍȓȐȚȤ ȗȍȘȍȟȍȕȤ ȗȘȍȌȗȘȐȧȚȐȑ ș
ȊȣșȖȒȖȑ șȚȍȗȍȕȤȦ ȘȐșȒȈ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȣȝ ȕȈȘțȠȍȕȐȑ, ȕȈ ȒȖȚȖȘȣȝ șȚȖȐȚ șȒȖȕȞȍȕȚȘȐȘȖȊȈȚȤ țșȐȓȐȧ
ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȣȝ ȐȕșȗȍȒȚȖȘȖȊ, ȟȚȖ ȕȈ ȜȖȕȍ șțȡȍșȚȊȍȕȕȖȋȖ șțȎȍȕȐȧ ȒȖȓȐȟȍșȚȊȈ ȊȣȍȏȌȕȣȝ ȒȖȕȚȘȖȓȤȕȣȝ
ȔȍȘȖȗȘȐȧȚȐȑ ȖșȊȖȉȖȌȐȚ ȊȘȍȔȧ ȕȈ ȗȘȖȜȐȓȈȒȚȐȒț ȗȘȈȊȖȕȈȘțȠȍȕȐȑ Ȋ ȌȈȕȕȖȑ șȜȍȘȍ. ǨȕȈȓȐȏ ȘȈȉȖȚȣ
ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȣȝ ȖȘȋȈȕȖȊ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȐ ȗȖȒȈȏȣȊȈȍȚ, ȟȚȖ ȒȖȓȐȟȍșȚȊȖ ȗȘȖȊȖȌȐȔȣȝ ȗȘȖȊȍȘȖȒ ȖȋȘȖȔȕȖ –
ȍȎȍȋȖȌȕȖ ȗȘȖȊȍȘȧȍȚșȧ ȌȖ 5-ȚȐ Țȣșȧȟ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȗȓȈȚȍȓȤȡȐȒȖȊ (ȊȒȓȦȟȈȧ ȐȕȌȐȊȐȌțȈȓȤȕȣȝ
ȗȘȍȌȗȘȐȕȐȔȈȚȍȓȍȑ Ȑ ȒȘȍșȚȤȧȕșȒȖ-ȜȍȘȔȍȘșȒȐȍ ȝȖȏȧȑșȚȊȈ). ǶȟȍȊȐȌȕȖ, ȉȖȓȤȠȐȕșȚȊȖ ȗȘȖȊȍȘȖȒ
ȏȈȒȈȕȟȐȊȈȦȚșȧ ȔȐȕȐȔȈȓȤȕȣȔ ȌȖȕȈȟȐșȓȍȕȐȍȔ ȗȓȈȚȍȎȍȑ ȓȐȉȖ țșȚȈȕȖȊȓȍȕȐȍȔ ȚȖȋȖ ȜȈȒȚȈ, ȟȚȖ
ȗȘȍȌȗȘȐȧȚȐȍ ȐșȗȘȈȊȕȖ ȗȓȈȚȐȚ ȕȈȓȖȋȐ. ǺȈȒ, șȖȋȓȈșȕȖ ȖȚȟȨȚț ǴȐȕȐșȚȍȘșȚȊȈ ȜȐȕȈȕșȖȊ ǷǴǸ Ȗ
38
ǪȍșȚȕȐȒ ǷȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊșȒȖȋȖ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȈȕșȒȖȋȖ ȉȈȕȒȈ ȹ3’2014
ǶȉȏȖȘȕȈȧ ȐȕȜȖȘȔȈȞȐȧ
ȌȍȧȚȍȓȤȕȖșȚȐ ȏȈ 2013 ȋȖȌ, ȊȍȓȐȟȐȕȈ ȌȖȕȈȟȐșȓȍȕȕȖȋȖ ȗȓȈȚȍȎȈ (ȉȍȏ țȟȨȚȈ ȜȐȕȈȕșȖȊȣȝ Ȑ ȠȚȘȈȜȕȣȝ
șȈȕȒȞȐȑ), ȗȘȐȝȖȌȧȡȈȧșȧ ȕȈ ȖȌȕȖȋȖ ȗȘȖȊȍȘȍȕȕȖȋȖ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȖȑ ȐȕșȗȍȒȞȐȍȑ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȗȓȈȚȍȓȤȡȐȒȈ,
șȖșȚȈȊȐȓȈ ȟțȚȤ ȉȖȓȍȍ 1 Țȣș. Șțȉ., Ȉ ș țȟȨȚȖȔ șȈȕȒȞȐȑ – ȗȖȘȧȌȒȈ 2,7 Țȣș. Șțȉ.
Ǫ ȥȚȖȑ șȊȧȏȐ ȗȘȍȌșȚȈȊȓȧȍȚșȧ ȉȖȓȍȍ ȘȈȞȐȖȕȈȓȤȕȣȔ ȕȍ ȗȘȖȊȍȘȒȈ Ȋșȍȝ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȗȓȈȚȍȓȤȡȐȒȖȊ ȕȈ
ȗȘȍȌȔȍȚ ȗȖȓȕȖȚȣ Ȑ ȗȘȈȊȐȓȤȕȖșȚȐ țȗȓȈȚȣ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊ, Ȉ ȐȏȉȐȘȈȚȍȓȤȕȣȑ ȗȖȌȝȖȌ ȗȘȐ ȖșțȡȍșȚȊȓȍȕȐȐ
ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȖȋȖ ȒȖȕȚȘȖȓȧ Țȍȝ ȝȖȏȧȑșȚȊțȦȡȐȝ șțȉȢȍȒȚȖȊ, Ȋ ȖȚȕȖȠȍȕȐȐ ȒȖȚȖȘȣȝ șțȡȍșȚȊțȍȚ ȉȖȓȤȠȈȧ
ȊȍȘȖȧȚȕȖșȚȤ șȖȊȍȘȠȍȕȐȧ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȣȝ ȗȘȈȊȖȕȈȘțȠȍȕȐȑ.
DzȘȖȔȍ ȚȖȋȖ, șțȡȍșȚȊțȍȚ ȗȘȖȉȓȍȔȈ ȊȏȣșȒȈȕȐȧ ȌȖȕȈȟȐșȓȍȕȕȣȝ ȗȓȈȚȍȎȍȑ, ȒȖȚȖȘȣȍ ȜȈȒȚȐȟȍșȒȐ
țȗȓȈȟȐȊȈȦȚșȧ Ȋ ȉȦȌȎȍȚ Ȋ ȘȈȏȔȍȘȍ ȖȒȖȓȖ 50% șȖȊȖȒțȗȕȖȑ șțȔȔȣ. ǷȘȐ ȥȚȖȔ Ȋ ȖȉȡȍȔ ȖȉȢȨȔȍ
ȌȖȕȈȟȐșȓȍȕȕȣȝ ȗȓȈȚȍȎȍȑ ȊȍșȖȔȈȧ ȟȈșȚȤ ȗȘȐȝȖȌȐȚșȧ ȕȈ ȜȐȕȈȕșȖȊȣȍ Ȑ ȠȚȘȈȜȕȣȍ șȈȕȒȞȐȐ, Ȉ ȌȖȓȧ
ȖșȕȖȊȕȣȝ ȗȓȈȚȍȎȍȑ Ȋ ȗȖșȓȍȌȕȐȍ ȌȊȈ ȋȖȌȈ ȕȈȝȖȌȐȚșȧ ȕȈ țȘȖȊȕȍ 41-43%. ǹȗȖșȖȉșȚȊȖȊȈȚȤ ȘȍȠȍȕȐȦ
ȥȚȖȑ ȗȘȖȉȓȍȔȣ ȔȖȋȓȖ ȉȣ ȐȏțȟȍȕȐȍ ȖȗȣȚȈ ǩȍȓȈȘțșȐ Ȑ DzȈȏȈȝșȚȈȕȈ, ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȣȑ ȔȖȕȐȚȖȘȐȕȋ ȒȖȚȖȘȣȝ
ȕȈȗȘȈȊȓȍȕ ȕȈ ȗȘȍȌțȗȘȍȎȌȍȕȐȍ ȗȘȈȊȖȕȈȘțȠȍȕȐȑ Ȑ ȗȘȍȌȖșȚȈȊȓȍȕȐȍ ȗȘȍȌȗȘȐȧȚȐȧȔ ȊȖȏȔȖȎȕȖșȚȐ
ȌȖȉȘȖȊȖȓȤȕȖȋȖ țșȚȘȈȕȍȕȐȧ ȕȍȌȖȟȨȚȖȊ ȉȍȏ ȗȘȐȔȍȕȍȕȐȧ Ȓ ȕȐȔ șȈȕȒȞȐȑ.
ǶȌȕȖȊȘȍȔȍȕȕȖ ȕȍȖȉȝȖȌȐȔȈ ȘȈȏȘȈȉȖȚȒȈ Ȑ șȖȊȍȘȠȍȕșȚȊȖȊȈȕȐȍ ȔȍȝȈȕȐȏȔȈ ȈȌȔȐȕȐșȚȘȐȘȖȊȈȕȐȧ
țȗȓȈȚȣ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊ ȒȘțȗȕȣȔȐ ȖȘȋȈȕȐȏȈȞȐȧȔȐ Ȑ ȗȖȘȧȌȒȈ Ȑȝ ȗȘȖȊȍȘȖȒ, ȒȖȚȖȘȣȑ ȗȖȏȊȖȓȐȚ ȊȕȍșȚȐ
ȉǗȓȤȠțȦ ȖȗȘȍȌȍȓȨȕȕȖșȚȤ Ȋ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȣȍ ȗȘȈȊȖȖȚȕȖȠȍȕȐȧ, ȉțȌȍȚ șȗȖșȖȉșȚȊȖȊȈȚȤ ȔȐȕȐȔȐȏȈȞȐȐ
ȖȠȐȉȖȒ Ȑ ȏȓȖțȗȖȚȘȍȉȓȍȕȐȑ, ȗȖȊȣȠȍȕȐȦ ȌȍȓȖȊȖȑ ȈȒȚȐȊȕȖșȚȐ Ȑ ȐȕȊȍșȚȐȞȐȖȕȕȖȑ
ȗȘȐȊȓȍȒȈȚȍȓȤȕȖșȚȐ. Ǫ ȖȚȕȖȠȍȕȐȐ ȖȘȋȈȕȐȏȈȞȐȑ ȔȈȓȖȋȖ ȉȐȏȕȍșȈ șȓȍȌțȍȚ ȐșȒȈȚȤ șȗȖșȖȉȣ ȉȖȘȤȉȣ ș
șȖȒȘȣȚȐȍȔ ȊȣȘțȟȒȐ ȕȈ ȖșȕȖȊȍ șȖȊȘȍȔȍȕȕȣȝ ȜȖȘȔ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊȖȋȖ ȒȖȕȚȘȖȓȧ, Ȋ ȟȈșȚȕȖșȚȐ,
ȝȘȖȕȖȔȍȚȘȈȎȕȣȝ ȖȉșȓȍȌȖȊȈȕȐȑ.
ȅȜȜȍȒȚȐȊȕȖȍ ȈȌȔȐȕȐșȚȘȐȘȖȊȈȕȐȍ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊ (ȗȘȐȔȍȕȍȕȐȍ ȘȈȏȓȐȟȕȣȝ ȜȖȘȔ ȜȐșȒȈȓȤȕȖȋȖ
ȒȖȕȚȘȖȓȧ) ȕȈ ȜȖȕȍ șȕȐȎȍȕȐȧ Ȑȝ țȘȖȊȕȧ ȧȊȓȧȍȚșȧ ȖșȕȖȊȕȣȔ ȕȈȗȘȈȊȓȍȕȐȍȔ ȘȍȠȍȕȐȧ ȗȘȖȉȓȍȔȣ
țȒȓȖȕȍȕȐȧ ȖȚ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȖȉȓȖȎȍȕȐȧ Ȑ ȗȘȍșȍȟȍȕȐȧ ȘȈȏȓȐȟȕȣȝ șȝȍȔ ȘȈȏȔȣȊȈȕȐȧ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȖȉȓȈȋȈȍȔȖȑ ȉȈȏȣ
Ȑ ȊȣȊȖȌȈ ȗȘȐȉȣȓȐ Ȑȏ-ȗȖȌ ȕȈȓȖȋȖȖȉȓȖȎȍȕȐȧ. ǺȈȒȖȑ ȗȖȌȝȖȌ șȗȖșȖȉȍȕ ȗȖȊȣșȐȚȤ șȖȉȐȘȈȍȔȖșȚȤ
ȕȈȓȖȋȖȊ ȉȍȏ țȎȍșȚȖȟȍȕȐȧ ȔȍȘ ȗȖ Ȑȝ șȉȖȘț Ȑ țȊȍȓȐȟȍȕȐȧ ȜȐșȒȈȓȤȕȖȑ ȕȈȋȘțȏȒȐ.
ǪȍșȚȕȐȒ ǷȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊșȒȖȋȖ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȈȕșȒȖȋȖ ȉȈȕȒȈ ȹ3’2014
39
Dz 20-ȓȍȚȐȦ Șțȉȓȧ ǷǴǸ: ȜȈȒȚȣ Ȗ ȉȈȕȒȕȖȚȈȝ Ȑ ȔȖȕȍȚȈȝ
ǾǭǵǺǸǶǩǨǵDzǰ
ǷǸǶǺǰǪ ǼǨdzȄȀǰǪǶǴǶǵǭǺǿǰDzǶǪ
ǷȘȖȉȓȍȔȍ ȜȈȓȤȠȐȊȖȔȖȕȍȚȕȐȟȍșȚȊȈ șȍȋȖȌȕȧ Ȋ ȏȕȈȟȐȚȍȓȤȕȖȑ șȚȍȗȍȕȐ ȗȘȐșțȡ
ȚȘȈȕșȕȈȞȐȖȕȈȓȤȕȣȑ ȝȈȘȈȒȚȍȘ. ǷȖșȚȖȧȕȕȖ ȘȈșȚȨȚ ȟȐșȓȖ ȋȖșțȌȈȘșȚȊ, ȊȈȓȦȚȈ ȒȖȚȖȘȣȝ
ȗȖȌȌȍȓȣȊȈȍȚșȧ, Ȑ ȒȖȓȐȟȍșȚȊȖ șȚȘȈȕ, Ȋ ȒȖȚȖȘȣȝ ȊȣȧȊȓȧȦȚșȧ ȜȈȓȤȠȐȊȣȍ ȌȍȕȍȎȕȣȍ
ȏȕȈȒȐ. Ǫ Ȟȍȓȧȝ ȉȖȘȤȉȣ ș ȜȈȓȤȠȐȊȖȔȖȕȍȚȟȐȒȈȔȐ ȗȘȍȌȗȘȐȧȚȐȧ - ȐȏȋȖȚȖȊȐȚȍȓȐ
ȌȍȕȍȎȕȣȝ ȏȕȈȒȖȊ ȗȖșȚȖȧȕȕȖ ȖșțȡȍșȚȊȓȧȦȚ ȔȍȘȖȗȘȐȧȚȐȧ ȗȖ șȖȊȍȘȠȍȕșȚȊȖȊȈȕȐȦ
șȐșȚȍȔȣ șȘȍȌșȚȊ Ȑȝ ȏȈȡȐȚȣ ȖȚ ȗȖȌȌȍȓȒȐ.
ǹȒȖȓȤȒȖ șțȡȍșȚȊțȦȚ ȌȍȕȤȋȐ, șȚȖȓȤȒȖ ȌȓȐȚșȧ ȉȖȘȤȉȈ ș ȗȖȌȌȍȓȒȈȔȐ Ȑ șȖȊȍȘȠȍȕșȚȊțȦȚșȧ
șȐșȚȍȔȣ ȏȈȡȐȚȣ. ǺȍȝȕȖȓȖȋȐȟȍșȒȈȧ ȏȈȡȐȚȈ ȗȘȍȌșȚȈȊȓȧȍȚ șȖȉȖȑ ȒȖȔȗȓȍȒș ȊȐȏțȈȓȤȕȖ
ȖȉȕȈȘțȎȐȊȈȍȔȣȝ ȗȘȐȏȕȈȒȖȊ, ȊȕȖșȐȔȣȝ Ȋ ȖȚȌȍȓȤȕȣȍ ȘȍȒȊȐȏȐȚȣ ȗțȚȨȔ ȐșȗȖȓȤȏȖȊȈȕȐȧ șȗȍȞȐȈȓȤȕȣȝ
ȗȘȐȨȔȖȊ. Dz ȕȐȔ ȖȚȕȖșȧȚșȧ șȗȍȞȐȈȓȤȕȣȍ ȊȐȌȣ ȉțȔȈȎȕȣȝ ȐȓȐ ȗȖȓȐȔȍȘȕȣȝ ȗȖȌȓȖȎȍȒ,
ȒȖȔȗȖȏȐȞȐȖȕȕȣȑ șȖșȚȈȊ ȉțȔȈȋȐ, ȊȖȌȧȕȣȍ ȏȕȈȒȐ, ȏȈȡȐȚȕȣȍ ȕȐȚȐ, ȊȖȓȖȒȕȈ, ȔȐȒȘȖȗȍȘȜȖȘȈȞȐȐ,
ȋȖȓȖȋȘȈȔȔȣ Ȑ Ț.Ȍ. ǵȖ Ȋșȍ ȥȚȐ șȗȍȞȐȈȓȐȏȐȘȖȊȈȕȕȣȍ șȘȍȌșȚȊȈ ȏȈȡȐȚȣ ȉțȌțȚ «ȘȈȉȖȚȈȚȤ» ȚȖȓȤȒȖ ȗȘȐ
țșȓȖȊȐȐ ȊȕȐȔȈȚȍȓȤȕȖșȚȐ Ȓ ȕȐȔ ȕȍȗȖșȘȍȌșȚȊȍȕȕȖ șȈȔȐȝ ȋȘȈȎȌȈȕ.
ǹȈȔȈȧ ȘȈșȗȘȖșȚȘȈȕȨȕȕȈȧ șȚȍȗȍȕȤ ȏȈȡȐȚȣ – ȊȖȌȧȕȖȑ ȏȕȈȒ. ǷȖȌ ȊȖȌȧȕȣȔ ȏȕȈȒȖȔ
ȗȖȌȘȈȏțȔȍȊȈȍȚșȧ ȜȘȈȋȔȍȕȚ ȐȏȖȉȘȈȎȍȕȐȧ ȕȈ ȉțȔȈȋȍ, ȖȚȚȍȕȖȒ ȒȖȚȖȘȖȋȖ
ȔȖȎȍȚ ȐȏȔȍȕȧȚȤșȧ ȕȈ ȉȖȓȍȍ șȊȍȚȓȣȑ ȐȓȐ ȚȨȔȕȣȑ, ȍșȓȐ ȗȘȖșȔȖȚȘȍȚȤ
ȘȐșțȕȖȒ ȕȈ ȗȘȖșȊȍȚ. ǵȈȗȘȐȔȍȘ, ț ȌȖȓȓȈȘȖȊ – ȥȚȖ ȗȖȘȚȘȍȚȣ
ȗȘȍȏȐȌȍȕȚȖȊ, ț ȍȊȘȖ – ȞȐȜȘȈ ȕȖȔȐȕȈȓȈ Ȑ ȈȘȝȐȚȍȒȚțȘȕȖȍ ȐȏȖȉȘȈȎȍȕȐȍ
ȕȈ ȓȐȞȍȊȖȑ șȚȖȘȖȕȍ, ț ȋȘȐȊȕȣ – ȚȘȍȏțȉȍȞ ȕȈ ȉȖȓȍȍ șȚȈȘȣȝ ȉȈȕȒȕȖȚȈȝ Ȑ
ȗȖȘȚȘȍȚ ȖȉȡȍșȚȊȍȕȕȣȝ ȌȍȧȚȍȓȍȑ – ȕȈ ȕȖȊȣȝ, ț Șțȉȓȧ ǷǴǸ –
ȔȕȖȋȖȚȖȕȖȊȣȑ ȊȖȌȧȕȖȑ ȏȕȈȒ Ȋ ȊȐȌȍ ȗȖȘȚȘȍȚȈ Ǩ.Ǫ. ǹțȊȖȘȖȊȈ. ǰȔȍȕȕȖ
ȊȖȌȧȕȣȍ ȏȕȈȒȐ ȧȊȓȧȦȚșȧ ȖȌȕȐȔ Ȑȏ ȕȈȐȉȖȓȍȍ ȌȘȍȊȕȐȝ șȗȖșȖȉȖȊ
ȏȈȡȐȚȣ ȌȍȕȍȎȕȣȝ ȉȈȕȒȕȖȚ ȖȚ ȗȖȌȌȍȓȖȒ. ǰȝ ȐșȚȖȘȐȧ ȊȍȌȨȚ ȖȚșȟȨȚ ș
XIII ȊȍȒȈ, ȒȖȋȌȈ ȗȘȖȐȏȊȖȌȐȚȍȓȐ ȉțȔȈȋȐ Ȋ ǰȚȈȓȐȐ ȊȗȍȘȊȣȍ ȗȘȐȔȍȕȐȓȐ
ȗȖȌȓȐȕȕȣȍ ȊȖȌȧȕȣȍ ȏȕȈȒȐ
ȗȖȌȖȉȕȣȍ ȔȍȚȖȌȣ ȐȌȍȕȚȐȜȐȒȈȞȐȐ șȖȉșȚȊȍȕȕȖȑ ȗȘȖȌțȒȞȐȐ, Ȑ ș Țȍȝ
ȗȖȘ ȊȖȌȧȕȣȍ ȏȕȈȒȐ ȗȖȓțȟȐȓȐ ȠȐȘȖȒȖȍ ȐșȗȖȓȤȏȖȊȈȕȐȍ Ȋ ȘȈȏȓȐȟȕȣȝ
Ȟȍȓȧȝ. ǷȖ șțȚȐ, ȊȖȌȧȕȖȑ ȏȕȈȒ ȗȘȍȌșȚȈȊȓȧȍȚ șȖȉȖȑ ȌȍȜȍȒȚ ȉțȔȈȋȐ,
ȕȈȔȍȘȍȕȕȖ șȖȏȌȈȕȕȣȑ ȗȘȖȐȏȊȖȌȐȚȍȓȍȔ, Ȑ ȍȋȖ șȗȍȞȐȜȐȟȍșȒȐȍ
ȝȈȘȈȒȚȍȘȐșȚȐȒȐ ȗȖȏȊȖȓȧȦȚ ș ȊȣșȖȒȖȑ ȌȖșȚȖȊȍȘȕȖșȚȤȦ ȖȗȘȍȌȍȓȐȚȤ
ȗȖȌȓȐȕȕȖșȚȤ ȐȏȌȍȓȐȧ.
ǵȈșȚȖȧȡȐȑ ȊȖȌȧȕȖȑ ȏȕȈȒ ȖȚȓȐȟȈȍȚșȧ ȖȚ ȜȈȓȤȠȐȊȖȋȖ
ȘȈșȗȓȣȊȟȈȚȣȔȐ ȒȖȕȚțȘȈȔȐ. ǵȖ Ȋ ȞȍȓȖȔ ȘȐșțȕȖȒ ȌȖȓȎȍȕ ȉȣȚȤ ȟȨȚȒȐȔ.
ǸȐșțȕȖȒ, ȐȔȐȚȐȘțȦȡȐȑ ȊȖȌȧȕȖȑ ȏȕȈȒ, ȟȈșȚȖ ȊȖșȗȘȖȐȏȊȖȌȐȚșȧ
ȉȍȓȖȑ ȒȘȈșȒȖȑ ȕȈ ȖȌȕȖȑ Ȑȏ șȚȖȘȖȕ ȖȌȕȖșȓȖȑȕȖȑ ȉȈȕȒȕȖȚȣ. Ǫ ȥȚȖȔ
șȓțȟȈȍ ȍȋȖ ȔȖȎȕȖ țȊȐȌȍȚȤ Ȋ ǻǼ-ȓțȟȈȝ. ǭșȓȐ ȗȖȌȌȍȓȒȈ ȊȣȗȖȓȕȍȕȈ ȕȈ
ȗȖȌȌȍȓȤȕȣȍ ȊȖȌȧȕȣȍ ȏȕȈȒȐ
ȌȊțȝ ȓȐșȚȈȝ ȚȖȕȒȖȑ ȉțȔȈȋȐ, ȚȖ, ȒȈȒ ȗȘȈȊȐȓȖ, ȊȖȌȧȕȣȍ ȏȕȈȒȐ
ȐȔȐȚȐȘțȦȚșȧ ȕȈ ȖȌȕȖȑ Ȑȏ ȊȕțȚȘȍȕȕȐȝ șȚȖȘȖȕ ȗȍȘȍȌ șȒȓȍȑȒȖȑ, Ȑ Ȋ ȥȚȖȔ șȓțȟȈȍ ȐȔȐȚȈȞȐȧ Ȋ ǻǼȓțȟȈȝ ȕȍ ȊȐȌȕȈ. ǰȔȐȚȈȞȐȧ ȊȖȌȧȕȖȋȖ ȏȕȈȒȈ ȌȈȊȓȍȕȐȍȔ (ȚȐșȕȍȕȐȍȔ) ȝȖȘȖȠȖ ȗȘȖșȔȈȚȘȐȊȈȍȚșȧ Ȋ
șȒȖȓȤȏȧȡȍȔ șȊȍȚȍ. ǷȖȊȣȠȍȕȕȣȑ ȋȓȧȕȍȞ ȕȈȉȓȦȌȈȍȚșȧ, Ȋ ȖȚȓȐȟȐȍ ȖȚ ȗȖȌȓȐȕȕȣȝ ȉȈȕȒȕȖȚ, ȕȈ ȉȖȓȍȍ
șȊȍȚȓȣȝ țȟȈșȚȒȈȝ ȘȐșțȕȒȈ, ȕȈ ȒȖȚȖȘȣȍ ȉȣȓȖ ȗȘȐȓȖȎȍȕȖ ȉȖȓȤȠȍȍ ȌȈȊȓȍȕȐȍ.
ǰȕȖȋȌȈ ȜȈȓȤȠȐȊȖȔȖȕȍȚȟȐȒȐ ȐșȗȖȓȤȏțȦȚ ȉțȔȈȋț ș ȊȖȌȧȕȣȔȐ ȏȕȈȒȈȔȐ, ȗȘȍȌȕȈȏȕȈȟȍȕȕțȦ Ȍȓȧ
ȌȘțȋȐȝ Ȟȍȓȍȑ, Ȉ ȐȔȍȕȕȖ: ȉȓȈȕȒȖȊ Ȟȍȕȕȣȝ ȐȓȐ ȖȜȐȞȐȈȓȤȕȣȝ ȉțȔȈȋ, ȗȖȚȘȍȉȐȚȍȓȤșȒȖȋȖ
(șțȊȍȕȐȘȕȖȋȖ) ȕȈȏȕȈȟȍȕȐȧ.
ǺȈȒȎȍ Ȍȓȧ ȏȈȡȐȚȣ ȖȚ ȗȖȌȌȍȓȖȒ ȌȍȕȍȎȕȣȍ ȏȕȈȒȐ șȕȈȉȎȈȦȚ ȏȈȡȐȚȕȖȑ ȕȐȚȤȦ. Ǫ ȕȈșȚȖȧȡȍȍ
40
ǪȍșȚȕȐȒ ǷȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊșȒȖȋȖ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȈȕșȒȖȋȖ ȉȈȕȒȈ ȹ3’2014
Dz 20-ȓȍȚȐȦ Șțȉȓȧ ǷǴǸ: ȜȈȒȚȣ Ȗ ȉȈȕȒȕȖȚȈȝ Ȑ ȔȖȕȍȚȈȝ
ȊȘȍȔȧ ȖȕȐ ȕȈȕȍșȍȕȣ ȕȈ ȉȖȓȍȍ 80% ȉȈȕȒȕȖȚ șȚȘȈȕ ȔȐȘȈ, Ȋ ȚȖȔ ȟȐșȓȍ Ȑ ȕȈ ȗȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊșȒȐȍ.
ǯȈȡȐȚȕȈȧ ȕȐȚȤ ȗȘȍȌșȚȈȊȓȧȍȚ șȖȉȖȑ ȚȖȕȒțȦ ȗȖȓȖșȒț Ȑȏ ȗȖȓȐȔȍȘȕȖȑ ȗȓȨȕȒȐ ȠȐȘȐȕȖȑ 0,5 ȔȔ Ȑ
ȉȖȓȍȍ ș ȘȈȏȕȖȖȉȘȈȏȕȣȔȐ ȊȐȌȈȔȐ ȗȖȒȘȣȚȐȑ Ȑ ȐȏȖȉȘȈȎȍȕȐȍȔ (ȚȍȒșȚȖȔ, ȘȐșțȕȒȖȔ Ȑ ȗȘ.), ȒȖȚȖȘȈȧ
ȊȊȖȌȐȚșȧ Ȋ ȉțȔȈȎȕțȦ ȔȈșșț ȗȘȐ ȍȨ ȐȏȋȖȚȖȊȓȍȕȐȐ ȕȈ ȕȈȟȈȓȤȕȖȑ șȚȈȌȐȐ ȜȖȘȔȐȘȖȊȈȕȐȧ ȉțȔȈȎȕȖȋȖ
ȗȖȓȖȚȕȈ.
ǸȈȏȓȐȟȈȦȚ ȕȐȚȤ, șȒȘȣȚțȦ Ȋ ȔȈșșȍ ȉțȔȈȋȐ, Ȑ ȕȣȘȧȦȡȍȋȖ ȚȐȗȈ,
ȟȈșȚȐȟȕȖ ȊȐȌȐȔțȦ ȕȈ ȗȖȊȍȘȝȕȖșȚȐ ȉȈȕȒȕȖȚȣ Ȋ ȊȐȌȍ ȗțȕȒȚȐȘȕȣȝ ȗȖȓȖș.
ǷȖȌȓȐȕȕȈȧ ȏȈȡȐȚȕȈȧ ȕȐȚȤ Ȋ ȔȈșșȍ ȉțȔȈȋȐ ȖȉȘȈȏțȍȚ țȚȖȓȡȍȕȐȍ Ȋ ȔȍșȚȍ ȍȨ
ȘȈșȗȖȓȖȎȍȕȐȧ. Ǫ ȖȚȘȈȎȨȕȕȖȔ șȊȍȚȍ ȗȖȌȓȐȕȕȈȧ ȕȐȚȤ ȕȍ ȖȉȕȈȘțȎȐȊȈȍȚșȧ,
Ȋ ȗȘȖȝȖȌȧȡȍȔ șȊȍȚȍ ȖȕȈ ȊȣȋȓȧȌȐȚ șȗȓȖȠȕȖȑ ȟȨȘȕȖȑ ȐȓȐ
ȗȖȓțȗȘȖȏȘȈȟȕȖȑ ȗȖȓȖșȖȑ ș ȚȍȒșȚȖȔ. ǪȊȍȌȍȕȐȍ ȕȣȘȧȦȡȍȑ ȕȐȚȐ
ȖȉȧȏȈȚȍȓȤȕȖ
șȖȗȘȖȊȖȎȌȈȍȚșȧ
ȖȉȘȈȏȖȊȈȕȐȍȔ
ȚȈȒ
ȕȈȏȣȊȈȍȔȣȝ
ȗșȍȊȌȖȊȖȌȧȕȣȝ ȏȕȈȒȖȊ – țȟȈșȚȒȖȊ ȉțȔȈȋȐ ș țȔȍȕȤȠȍȕȕȖȑ ȚȖȓȡȐȕȖȑ ȚȈȔ,
ȋȌȍ ȕȐȚȤ ȊȣȝȖȌȐȚ ȕȈ ȗȖȊȍȘȝȕȖșȚȤ, Ȑ țȊȍȓȐȟȍȕȕȖȑ – Ȋ ȔȍșȚȍ ȏȈȓȍȋȈȕȐȧ
ȕȐȚȐ Ȋ ȚȖȓȡȍ ȉțȔȈȋȐ. Ǫ ȗȘȖȝȖȌȧȡȍȔ șȊȍȚȍ ȖȕȐ ȊȣȋȓȧȌȧȚ ȒȈȒ ȜȈȓȤȠȐȊȈȧ ȗȖȌȓȐȕȕȈȧ
ȟȍȘȍȌțȦȡȐȍșȧ șȊȍȚȓȣȍ Ȑ ȚȨȔȕȣȍ ȗȘȧȔȖțȋȖȓȤȕȣȍ ȗȖȓȖșȣ, ȘȈșȗȖȓȖȎȍȕȕȣȍ ȗȍȘȗȍȕȌȐȒțȓȧȘȕȖ Ȓ
ȕȐȚȐ.
ǯȈȡȐȚȕȈȧ ȕȐȚȤ Ȋ ȚȖȓȡȍ ȉțȔȈȋȐ ȟȈșȚȖ ȐȔȐȚȐȘțȍȚșȧ ȕȈȌȗȍȟȈȚȒȖȑ ȗȖȓȖșȣ șȍȘȖȑ ȐȓȐ ȉȍȓȖȑ
ȒȘȈșȒȐ ȕȈ ȗȖȊȍȘȝȕȖșȚȐ ȉțȔȈȋȐ ȓȐȉȖ ȕȈȌȗȍȟȈȚȒȖȑ ȚȖȓȤȒȖ ȚȍȒșȚȈ. Ǫ ȗȖșȓȍȌȕȍȔ șȓțȟȈȍ ȗȖȓȖșȒț
ȚȍȒșȚȈ ȖȉȣȟȕȖ ȔȈșȒȐȘțȦȚ ȗȖȓȖșȒȖȑ ȉȍȓȖȑ ȒȘȖȦȡȍȑ ȒȘȈșȒȐ, ȗȖȊȍȘȝ
ȒȖȚȖȘȖȑ ȕȈȕȖșȧȚșȧ ȖșȕȖȊȕȣȍ ȐȏȖȉȘȈȎȍȕȐȧ ȉȈȕȒȕȖȚȣ.
ǵȣȘȧȦȡȈȧ ȕȐȚȤ ȖȉȣȟȕȖ ȉȣȊȈȍȚ ȉȓȍșȚȧȡȍȑ (ȔȍȚȈȓȓȐȏȐȘȖȊȈȕȕȖȑ) Ȑ,
ȒȈȒ ȗȘȈȊȐȓȖ, ȗȖȌȌȍȓȣȊȈȍȚșȧ ȕȈȌȗȍȟȈȚȒȖȑ ȐȓȐ ȕȈȌȘȐșȖȊȒȖȑ șȍȘȍȉȘȐșȚȖȑ
ȒȘȈșȒȖȑ țȟȈșȚȒȖȊ, ȘȈșȗȖȓȖȎȍȕȕȣȝ ȕȈ ȗȖȊȍȘȝȕȖșȚȐ ȉțȔȈȋȐ, ȓȐȉȖ
ȚȐșȕȍȕȐȍȔ ȚȖȕȒȐȝ ȒțșȖȟȒȖȊ ȜȖȓȤȋȐ, ȕȈ ȒȖȚȖȘȣȍ ȔȖȎȍȚ ȉȣȚȤ ȕȈȕȍșȨȕ
ȚȍȒșȚ. ǺȈȒȖȑ șȗȖșȖȉ ȗȖȌȌȍȓȒȐ ȕȍ ȗȖȏȊȖȓȧȍȚ ȐȔȐȚȐȘȖȊȈȚȤ ȊȐȌ ȕȈșȚȖȧȡȍȑ
ȏȈȡȐȚȕȖȑ ȕȐȚȐ, ȒȖȚȖȘȈȧ ȕȈ ȗȘȖșȊȍȚ ȐȔȍȍȚ ȊȐȌ șȗȓȖȠȕȖȑ ȚȨȔȕȖȑ ȗȖȓȖșȣ.
ǵȈ ȉȖȓȍȍ șȖȊȍȘȠȍȕȕȣȝ ȗȖȌȌȍȓȒȈȝ ȐȔȐȚȈȞȐȧ ȗțȕȒȚȐȘȕȖȑ ȕȐȚȐ
ȌȖȗȖȓȕȧȍȚșȧ ȚȖȕȒȖȑ ȗȖȓȖșȖȑ, ȕȈȌȗȍȟȈȚȈȕȕȖȑ șȍȘȖȑ ȐȓȐ ȉȍȓȖȑ ȒȘȈșȒȖȑ ș
ȜȈȓȤȠȐȊȈȧ ȗȖȌȓȐȕȕȈȧ
ȗȘȖȚȐȊȖȗȖȓȖȎȕȖȑ șȚȖȘȖȕȣ ȉȈȕȒȕȖȚȣ, ȗȖȊȍȘȝ ȒȖȚȖȘȖȑ ȕȈȕȖșȐȚșȧ
ȒȘȈșȖȟȕȖȍ ȐȏȖȉȘȈȎȍȕȐȍ.
ǯȈȡȐȚȕȣȍ ȊȖȓȖȒȕȈ – ȥȚȖ ȊȊȖȌȐȔȣȍ Ȋ ȉțȔȈȎȕțȦ ȔȈșșț Ȋ ȗȘȖȞȍșșȍ
ȖȚȓȐȊȈ ȉțȔȈȋȐ ȚȖȕȒȐȍ Ȑ ȖȚȕȖșȐȚȍȓȤȕȖ ȌȓȐȕȕȣȍ (ȖȚ 4 ȌȖ 8 ȔȔ)
șȐȕȚȍȚȐȟȍșȒȐȍ ȐȓȐ ȝȓȖȗȒȖȊȣȍ ȊȖȓȖȒȕȈ, ȘȈșȗȖȓȈȋȈȦȡȐȍșȧ ȖȉȣȟȕȖ Ȋ
ȚȖȓȡȍ ȉțȔȈȎȕȖȋȖ ȓȐșȚȈ. ǿȈșȚȤ Ȑȝ ȔȖȎȍȚ ȜȘȈȋȔȍȕȚȈȘȕȖ ȐȓȐ ȗȖȓȕȖșȚȤȦ
ȕȈȝȖȌȐȚȤșȧ ȕȈ ȍȋȖ ȗȖȊȍȘȝȕȖșȚȐ. ǰȝ ȏȕȈȟȍȕȐȍ ȒȈȒ ȏȈȡȐȚȕȖȋȖ ȗȘȐȏȕȈȒȈ
ȕȍȊȍȓȐȒȖ, ȕȖ Ȋ ȚȖ Ȏȍ ȊȘȍȔȧ ȖȕȐ ȗȘȍȗȧȚșȚȊțȦȚ ȗȘȧȔȖȔț ȐșȗȖȓȤȏȖȊȈȕȐȦ
ȜȈȓȤȠȐȊȖȔȖȕȍȚȟȐȒȈȔȐ Ȋșȍȝ ȚȐȗȖȊ ȗȖȚȘȍȉȐȚȍȓȤșȒȖȑ ȉțȔȈȋȐ, ȗȖșȒȖȓȤȒț Ȋ
ȕȐȝ ȏȈȡȐȚȕȣȍ ȊȖȓȖȒȕȈ ȖȚșțȚșȚȊțȦȚ. ǶȕȐ ȐȔȍȦȚ ȘȈȏȓȐȟȕȣȑ ȞȊȍȚ,
ȜȐȏȐȟȍșȒțȦ ȗȘȐȘȖȌț; șȊȍȟȍȕȐȍ Ȋ ǻǼ-ȓțȟȈȝ (ȗȘȐ ȥȚȖȔ ȞȊȍȚ șȊȍȟȍȕȐȧ
ȔȖȎȍȚ ȒȈȒ șȖȊȗȈȌȈȚȤ, ȚȈȒ Ȑ ȕȍ șȖȊȗȈȌȈȚȤ ș ȊȐȌȐȔȣȔ ȞȊȍȚȖȔ ȊȖȓȖȒȖȕ);
șȗȍȞȐȈȓȤȕȣȑ ȗȘȖȜȐȓȤ, ȊȐȌȐȔȣȑ, ȒȈȒ ȗȘȈȊȐȓȖ, ȚȖȓȤȒȖ ș ȗȖȔȖȡȤȦ ȔȐȒȘȖșȒȖȗȈ.
ǰȏȊȍșȚȕȣ șȓțȟȈȐ ȐȔȐȚȈȞȐȐ ȞȊȍȚȕȣȝ ȊȖȓȖȒȖȕ ȕȈȌȘȐșȖȊȒȖȑ Ȑ ȕȈȌȗȍȟȈȚȒȖȑ. ǺȈȒȐȍ ȊȖȓȖȒȕȈ
ȟȈșȚȖ șȖșȚȖȧȚ Ȑȏ ȞȊȍȚȕȣȝ ȚȖȟȍȒ (șȓȍȌșȚȊȐȍ ȘȈșȚȘȐȘȖȊȈȕȐȧ Ȑ ȞȊȍȚȖȌȍȓȍȕȐȧ). ǶȟȍȕȤ ȘȈșȗȘȖșȚȘȈȕȨȕ
șȓțȟȈȑ ȕȍțȔȣȠȓȍȕȕȖȑ ȐȔȐȚȈȞȐȐ, Ț.ȍ. ȒȖȗȐȘȖȊȈȕȐȧ ȗȖȌȓȐȕȕȖȑ ȉȈȕȒȕȖȚȣ ȊȔȍșȚȍ ș ȐȔȍȦȡȐȔȐșȧ
ȕȈ ȕȍȑ ȊȖȓȖȒȕȈȔȐ.
ǹțȡȍșȚȊțȍȚ ȚȈȒȖȑ ȊȐȌ ȏȈȡȐȚȕȖȋȖ ȊȖȓȖȒȕȈ, ȒȈȒ «ǯȖȕȈ». Ƕȕ șȓțȎȐȚ ȒȈȒ Ȍȓȧ ȗțȉȓȐȟȕȖȑ, ȚȈȒ Ȑ
Ȍȓȧ ȥȒșȗȍȘȚȕȖȑ ȐȌȍȕȚȐȜȐȒȈȞȐȐ. ȅȚȐ ȊȖȓȖȒȕȈ ȗȘȍȌșȚȈȊȓȧȦȚ șȖȉȖȑ ȞȍȗȖȟȒȐ Ȑȏ ȞȐȓȐȕȌȘȖȊ,
ǪȍșȚȕȐȒ ǷȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊșȒȖȋȖ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȈȕșȒȖȋȖ ȉȈȕȒȈ ȹ3’2014
41
Dz 20-ȓȍȚȐȦ Șțȉȓȧ ǷǴǸ: ȜȈȒȚȣ Ȗ ȉȈȕȒȕȖȚȈȝ Ȑ ȔȖȕȍȚȈȝ
ȐȔȍȦȡȐȝ ȘȈȏȓȐȟȕȣȑ ȌȐȈȔȍȚȘ Ȑ ȞȊȍȚ. ǰȝ ȗȍȘȍȔȍȕȕȣȑ ȌȐȈȔȍȚȘ ȐȔȍȍȚ șȚțȗȍȕȟȈȚȣȑ ȝȈȘȈȒȚȍȘ.
ǷȘȐȟȨȔ ȒȈȎȌȈȧ Ȑȏ ȚȈȒȐȝ «șȚțȗȍȕȍȑ» ȔȖȎȍȚ ȉȣȚȤ ȓȐȉȖ ȉȍșȞȊȍȚȕȖȑ, ȓȐȉȖ ȐȔȍȚȤ ȕȈșȣȡȍȕȕȣȑ ȞȊȍȚ.
DzȘȖȔȍ ȚȖȋȖ, ȥȚȐ șȚțȗȍȕȐ ȔȖȋțȚ ȉȣȚȤ ȓȐȉȖ ǻǼ-ȗȈșșȐȊȕȣ, ȓȐȉȖ ȐȔȍȚȤ ǻǼ-ȓȦȔȐȕȍșȞȍȕȞȐȦ
ȖȗȘȍȌȍȓȨȕȕȖȋȖ ȞȊȍȚȈ. ǬȈȕȕȣȍ ȊȖȓȖȒȕȈ ȧȊȓȧȦȚșȧ ȕȈȌȨȎȕȣȔ ȗțȉȓȐȟȕȣȔ
ȗȘȐȏȕȈȒȖȔ, ȗȖșȒȖȓȤȒț ȓȍȋȒȖ ȐȌȍȕȚȐȜȐȞȐȘțȦȚșȧ ȗȘȐ ȖȉȣȟȕȖȔ șȊȍȚȍ ș
ȐșȗȖȓȤȏȖȊȈȕȐȍȔ ȗȘȖșȚȖȑ ȓțȗȣ. ǰȝ ȔȖȎȕȖ țȊȐȌȍȚȤ Ȑ ȗȘȐ ȐșȗȖȓȤȏȖȊȈȕȐȐ
țȓȤȚȘȈȜȐȖȓȍȚȖȊȖȑ ȓȈȔȗȣ. Ǩ ș ȗȖȔȖȡȤȦ ȔȐȒȘȖșȒȖȗȈ ȥȒșȗȍȘȚ ȔȖȎȍȚ
ȐȌȍȕȚȐȜȐȞȐȘȖȊȈȚȤ șȓȖȎȕțȦ ȋȍȖȔȍȚȘȐȦ ȊȖȓȖȒȖȕ.
Ǫ ȕȈșȚȖȧȡȍȍ ȊȘȍȔȧ ȗȘȖȐȏȊȖȌȐȚȍȓȐ ȏȈȡȐȡȨȕȕȖȑ ȗȘȖȌțȒȞȐȐ ȊșȨ
ȠȐȘȍ ȊȕȍȌȘȧȦȚ ȚȍȝȕȖȓȖȋȐȐ ȔȐȒȘȖȗȍȘȜȖȘȈȞȐȐ, ȒȖȚȖȘȣȍ ȐșȗȖȓȤȏțȦȚșȧ
ȒȈȒ Ȋ ȉȈȕȒȕȖȚȕȖȔ ȗȘȖȐȏȊȖȌșȚȊȍ, ȚȈȒ Ȑ Ȍȓȧ ȏȈȡȐȚȣ ȗȈșȗȖȘȚȖȊ, «ǯȖȕȈ» ȗȘȐ ǻǼ-ȖșȊȍȡȍȕȐȐ
țȌȖșȚȖȊȍȘȍȕȐȑ, Ȟȍȕȕȣȝ ȉțȔȈȋ Ȑ ȌȘțȋȖȑ ȗȘȖȌțȒȞȐȐ. ǴȐȒȘȖȗȍȘȜȖȘȈȞȐȧ
ȒȈȒ ȖȌȕȈ Ȑȏ ȘȈȏȕȖȊȐȌȕȖșȚȍȑ ȚȍȝȕȖȓȖȋȐȟȍșȒȖȑ ȏȈȡȐȚȣ ȗȘȐȔȍȕȧȍȚșȧ Ȋ ȘȈȏȓȐȟȕȣȝ ȊȈȘȐȈȕȚȈȝ ȊȖ
ȔȕȖȋȐȝ ȍȊȘȖȗȍȑșȒȐȝ șȚȘȈȕȈȝ.
ǷȘȐȔȍȕȧȍȔȈȧ Ȍȓȧ ȏȈȡȐȚȣ ȉȈȕȒȕȖȚ ȚȍȝȕȖȓȖȋȐȧ MicroPerf®,
ȘȈȏȘȈȉȖȚȈȕȕȈȧ ȠȊȍȑȞȈȘșȒȖȑ ȒȖȔȗȈȕȐȍȑ Orell Füssli Security Printing,
ȧȊȓȧȍȚșȧ ȌȖșȚȈȚȖȟȕȖ ȕȍȌȖȘȖȋȐȔ Ȑ ȗȘȖșȚȣȔ Ȋ ȐșȗȖȓȤȏȖȊȈȕȐȐ, ȕȖ ȊȍșȤȔȈ
ȥȜȜȍȒȚȐȊȕȣȔ ȔȍȚȖȌȖȔ. ǹȖȏȌȈȊȈȍȔȣȑ ȘȐșțȕȖȒ ȕȍȌȖșȚțȗȍȕ Ȍȓȧ
ȞȐȜȘȖȊȖȋȖ ȊȖșȗȘȖȐȏȊȍȌȍȕȐȧ ȕȈ ȒȖȗȐȘȖȊȈȓȤȕȖ-ȔȕȖȎȐȚȍȓȤȕȖȑ ȚȍȝȕȐȒȍ Ȑ
ȕȍ ȔȖȎȍȚ ȉȣȚȤ ȗȖȌȌȍȓȈȕ ȕȐ ȖȌȕȖȑ ȗȖȓȐȋȘȈȜȐȟȍșȒȖȑ ȚȍȝȕȖȓȖȋȐȍȑ. Ƕȕ
șȖșȚȖȐȚ Ȑȏ ȖȊȈȓȤȕȣȝ ȔȐȒȘȖșȒȖȗȐȟȍșȒȐȝ ȖȚȊȍȘșȚȐȑ ȘȈȏȔȍȘȖȔ ȖȚ 85 ȌȖ
135 ȔȐȒȘȖȕ, ȗȍȘȜȖȘȐȘȖȊȈȕȕȣȝ ȓȈȏȍȘȕȣȔ ȓțȟȖȔ Ȑ ȖȉȘȈȏțȦȡȐȝ țȏȖȘȣ
ȐȓȐ ȕȈȌȗȐșȐ, ȊȐȌȐȔȣȍ ȚȖȓȤȒȖ ȕȈ ȗȘȖșȊȍȚ, ȟȚȖ ȧȊȓȧȍȚșȧ țȌȖȉȕȣȔ Ȍȓȧ
ȗȖȓȤȏȖȊȈȚȍȓȍȑ. ǪȔȍșȚȍ ș ȚȍȔ ȚȈȒȐȍ ȉȈȕȒȕȖȚȣ ȖȉȓȈȌȈȦȚ ȌȖșȚȈȚȖȟȕȖȑ
ȗȘȖȟȕȖșȚȤȦ Ȓ șȋȐȉȈȕȐȦ ȐȓȐ ȘȈȏȘȣȊț. ǴȐȒȘȖȗȍȘȜȖȘȈȞȐȧ ȗȘȈȒȚȐȟȍșȒȐ
ȕȍ ȊȐȌȕȈ, ȍșȓȐ ȘȈșșȔȈȚȘȐȊȈȚȤ ȉȈȕȒȕȖȚț Ȋ ȖȚȘȈȎȨȕȕȖȔ ȐȓȐ
ȒȖșȖȗȈȌȈȦȡȍȔ șȊȍȚȍ, ȖȌȕȈȒȖ ȖȟȍȕȤ ȝȖȘȖȠȖ ȊȐȌȕȈ ȕȈ ȗȘȖșȊȍȚ.
ǬȖșȚȖȐȕșȚȊȖȔ ȚȍȝȕȖȓȖȋȐȐ ȧȊȓȧȍȚșȧ ȚȖ, ȟȚȖ ȔȐȒȘȖȖȚȊȍȘșȚȐȧ,
ȊȣȗȖȓȕȍȕȕȈȧ ȓȈȏȍȘȕȣȔ ȓțȟȖȔ, ȕȍȖȡțȚȐȔȈ Ȋ ȖȚȓȐȟȐȍ ȖȚ
șȌȍȓȈȕȕȖȑ ȔȍȝȈȕȐȟȍșȒȐ (ȕȈȗȘȐȔȍȘ, ȚȖȕȒȖȑ ȐȋȖȓȒȖȑ). ǶȕȐ ȐȔȍȦȚ ȘȖȊȕȣȍ Ȑ ȋȓȈȌȒȐȍ ȒȘȈȧ, ȟȚȖ
ȐȔȐȚȐȘȖȊȈȚȤ ȖȟȍȕȤ șȓȖȎȕȖ.
ǶȌȕȐȔȐ
Ȑȏ
ȕȈȐȉȖȓȍȍ
ȕȈȌȨȎȕȣȝ
ȥȓȍȔȍȕȚȖȊ
ȚȍȝȕȖȓȖȋȐȟȍșȒȖȑ ȏȈȡȐȚȣ ȉȈȕȒȕȖȚ ȧȊȓȧȦȚșȧ ȋȖȓȖȋȘȈȔȔȣ Ȑ
ǺȈȒȐȍ
ȐȏȖȉȘȈȎȍȕȐȧ
ȔȖȋțȚ
ȉȣȚȤ
ȒȐȕȍȋȘȈȔȔȣ.
ȖȌȕȖȗȖȏȐȞȐȖȕȕȣȔȐ,
ȕȖ
șȖȏȌȈȦȡȐȔȐ
ȖȉȢȨȔȕȖȍ
ȐȏȖȉȘȈȎȍȕȐȍ (ȋȖȓȖȋȘȈȔȔȣ), ȐȓȐ ȔȕȖȋȖȗȖȏȐȞȐȖȕȕȣȔȐ
(ȒȐȕȍȋȘȈȔȔȣ). ǷȘȐ ȖȗȘȍȌȍȓȨȕȕȣȝ ȕȈȗȘȈȊȓȍȕȐȧȝ ȖșȊȍȡȍȕȐȧ
Ȋ ȒȐȕȍȋȘȈȔȔȍ ȌȖșȚȈȚȖȟȕȖ ȟȨȚȒȖ ȖȗȘȍȌȍȓȧȍȚșȧ ȕȍșȒȖȓȤȒȖ
ȗȖȌȓȐȕȕȈȧ
ȗȍȘȍȝȖȌȧȡȐȝ ȌȘțȋ Ȋ ȌȘțȋȈ ȐȏȖȉȘȈȎȍȕȐȑ, ȗȘȐ ȥȚȖȔ
Ȋ ȏȈȊȐșȐȔȖșȚȐ ȖȚ ȕȈȗȘȈȊȓȍȕȐȑ ȕȈȉȓȦȌȍȕȐȧ Ȑ ȖșȊȍȡȍȕȐȧ ȐȏȖȉȘȈȎȍȕȐȧ ȍȡȨ Ȑ ȉȓȐȒțȦȚ
ȘȈȏȕȣȔȐ ȞȊȍȚȈȔȐ. ǶșȕȖȊȕȣȔȐ ȐȏȖȉȘȈȎȍȕȐȧȔȐ ȕȈ ȒȐȕȍȋȘȈȔȔȈȝ ȧȊȓȧȦȚșȧ
ȘȈȏȓȐȟȕȣȍ ȝțȌȖȎȍșȚȊȍȕȕȣȍ ȥȓȍȔȍȕȚȣ, șȚȐȓȐȏȖȊȈȕȕȣȍ ȘȐșțȕȒȐ Ȑ ȚȍȒșȚȣ. Ǫ
ȖȚȌȍȓȤȕȣȝ ȐȏȖȉȘȈȎȍȕȐȧȝ ȕȈȕȍșȍȕȣ ȔȐȒȘȖȚȍȒșȚȣ, ȒȖȚȖȘȣȍ ȔȖȋțȚ ȉȣȚȤ
ȖȗȘȍȌȍȓȍȕȣ ȗȘȐ țȊȍȓȐȟȍȕȐȐ ș ȗȖȔȖȡȤȦ ȓțȗȣ, ȐȓȐ ȕȈȕȖȚȍȒșȚȣ, ȊȐȌȐȔȣȍ
ȚȖȓȤȒȖ Ȋ ȔȐȒȘȖșȒȖȗ. ǵȈȐȉȖȓȍȍ ȐȏȊȍșȚȕȣ ȋȖȓȖȋȘȈȜȐȟȍșȒȐȍ șȘȍȌșȚȊȈ
(ȗȖȓȖșȒȐ Ȑ ȧȘȓȣȟȒȐ) ȗȘȐȔȍȕȧȍȔȣȍ Ȍȓȧ ȏȈȡȐȚȣ ȍȊȘȖȉȈȕȒȕȖȚ. Ǫ ȟȈșȚȕȖșȚȐ,
ȕȈ ȜȈȓȤȠȐȊȣȝ ȍȊȘȖ ȒȐȕȍȋȘȈȔȔȈ ȐȔȐȚȐȘȖȊȈȕȈ ȚȐșȕȍȕȐȍȔ ȜȖȓȤȋȖȑ,
ȜȈȓȤȠȐȊȈȧ
ȐȏȖȉȘȈȎȍȕȐȍ ȈȘȒȐ Ȑ ȕȖȔȐȕȈȓȈ ȕȈȉȓȦȌȈȍȚșȧ ȗȖșȚȖȧȕȕȖ, ȗȖșȓȍȌȖȊȈȚȍȓȤȕȖȍ
42
ǪȍșȚȕȐȒ ǷȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊșȒȖȋȖ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȈȕșȒȖȋȖ ȉȈȕȒȈ ȹ3’2014
Dz 20-ȓȍȚȐȦ Șțȉȓȧ ǷǴǸ: ȜȈȒȚȣ Ȗ ȉȈȕȒȕȖȚȈȝ Ȑ ȔȖȕȍȚȈȝ
ȊȖșȗȘȖȐȏȊȍȌȍȕȐȍ ȐȏȖȉȘȈȎȍȕȐȧ ȗȘȐ ȐȏȔȍȕȍȕȐȐ țȋȓȈ ȏȘȍȕȐȧ ȕȍ ȌȖșȚȐȋȕțȚȖ, ȌȍȔȍȚȈȓȓȐȏȐȘȖȊȈȕȕȣȑ
ȏȕȈȒ «€» ȖȚșțȚșȚȊțȍȚ, ȔȐȒȘȖȚȍȒșȚ ȕȈ ȒȐȕȍȋȘȈȔȔȍ ȊȖșȗȘȖȐȏȊȍȌȨȕ ș ȐșȒȈȎȍȕȐȧȔȐ.
ǷȖȌ
ȋȐȓȤȖȠȐȘȕȣȔȐ
ȥȓȍȔȍȕȚȈȔȐ
ȗȖȕȐȔȈȦȚ
ȕȍȗȘȍȘȣȊȕȣȍ
ȗȍȘȍȗȓȍȚȈȦȡȐȍșȧ țȏȒȐȍ ȓȐȕȐȐ, ȖȉȘȈȏțȦȡȐȍ șȓȖȎȕȣȍ ȋȍȖȔȍȚȘȐȟȍșȒȐȍ
ȜȐȋțȘȣ, ȖȉȣȟȕȖ ȐșȗȖȓȤȏțȍȔȣȍ ȒȈȒ ȜȖȕ ȕȈ ȖȚȚȐșȒȍ. ǶȕȐ ȗȘȍȌșȚȈȊȓȧȦȚ
șȖȉȖȑ ȘȐșțȕȒȐ Ȑȏ ȔȕȖȎȍșȚȊȈ ȗȍȘȍșȍȒȈȦȡȐȝșȧ ȚȖȕȒȐȝ ȓȐȕȐȑ,
ȖȗȘȍȌȍȓȧȍȔȣȝ
șȓȖȎȕȍȑȠȐȔȐ
ȔȈȚȍȔȈȚȐȟȍșȒȐȔȐ
ȜȖȘȔțȓȈȔȐ
ș
ȒȖȥȜȜȐȞȐȍȕȚȈȔȐ Ȋ ȌȍșȧȚȖȒ ȞȐȜȘ ȗȖșȓȍ ȏȈȗȧȚȖȑ. ǵȍ ȏȕȈȧ ȚȖȟȕȖȑ ȜȖȘȔțȓȣ
ȗȖȌȓȐȕȕȈȧ
ȏȈȌȈȕȕȖȋȖ ȋȐȓȤȖȠȈ, ȊȖșȗȘȖȐȏȊȍșȚȐ ȍȋȖ ȗȘȈȒȚȐȟȍșȒȐ ȕȍȊȖȏȔȖȎȕȖ, ȚȖȋȌȈ ȒȈȒ
ȘȈȏȕȖȖȉȘȈȏȐȍ ȋȐȓȤȖȠȐȘȕȣȝ ȥȓȍȔȍȕȚȖȊ șȚȘȍȔȐȚșȧ Ȓ ȉȍșȒȖȕȍȟȕȖșȚȐ. Ǫ
ȕȈșȚȖȧȡȍȍ ȊȘȍȔȧ, ȓȐȌȐȘțȦȡȍȍ ȗȖȓȖȎȍȕȐȍ Ȋ ȔȐȘȍ ȏȈȕȐȔȈȍȚ ȒȖȔȗȈȕȐȧ Jura
JSP (ǪȍȕȋȘȐȧ/ǨȊșȚȘȐȧ), șȗȍȞȐȈȓȐȏȐȘțȦȡȈȧșȧ Ȋ ȗȍȘȊțȦ ȖȟȍȘȍȌȤ ȐȔȍȕȕȖ ȕȈ
ȊȖȗȘȖșȈȝ ȘȈȏȘȈȉȖȚȒȐ ȋȐȓȤȖȠȐȘȕȣȝ ȥȓȍȔȍȕȚȖȊ.
ǹȓȖȎȕțȦ ȒȖȔȗȖȏȐȞȐȦ Ȑȏ ȋȐȓȤȖȠȐȘȕȣȝ ȥȓȍȔȍȕȚȖȊ ȚȘțȌȕȖ
ȜȈȓȤȠȐȊȈȧ
ȊȖșȗȘȖȐȏȊȍșȚȐ ȕȈ ȔȕȖȎȐȚȍȓȤȕȖȔ ȈȗȗȈȘȈȚȍ Ȑȏ-ȏȈ șȓȐȠȒȖȔ ȔȈȓȖȑ ȚȖȓȡȐȕȣ
(40 ȌȖ 70 ȔȒȔ) Ȑ ȗȖșȚȖȧȕȕȖ ȔȍȕȧȦȡȍȑșȧ ȒȘȐȊȐȏȕȣ ȓȐȕȐȑ. ǿȚȖ ȒȈșȈȍȚșȧ ȋȐȓȤȖȠȐȘȕȖȑ
ȒȖȔȗȖȏȐȞȐȐ, ȗȖȓțȟȍȕȕȖȑ, ȕȈȗȘȐȔȍȘ, ȔȍȚȖȌȖȔ ȖȘȓȖȊșȒȖȑ ȗȍȟȈȚȐ, ȒȖȋȌȈ ȒȖ ȊșȍȔ ȋȍȖȔȍȚȘȐȟȍșȒȐȔ
șȓȖȎȕȖșȚȧȔ ȌȖȉȈȊȓȧȍȚșȧ ȗȓȈȊȕȖ Ȑ ȗȘȖȐȏȊȖȓȤȕȖ ȐȏȔȍȕȧȦȡȐȑșȧ ȞȊȍȚ ȒȈȎȌȖȑ ȓȐȕȐȐ, ȌȘțȋȐȔȐ
șȗȖșȖȉȈȔȐ (ȖȜșȍȚ, ȚȘȈȜȈȘȍȚȕȈȧ, ȊȣșȖȒȈȧ ȐȓȐ ȋȓțȉȖȒȈȧ ȗȍȟȈȚȤ) ȗȖȌȌȍȓȈȚȤ ȍȨ ȗȖȟȚȐ ȕȍȊȖȏȔȖȎȕȖ.
ǷȖȌȌȍȓȤȕȈȧ ȓȐȕȐȧ ȗȖȓțȟȐȚșȧ ȓȐȉȖ ȕȍȗȘȍȘȣȊȕȖȑ, ȕȖ ȔȖȕȖȝȘȖȔȕȖȑ, ȓȐȉȖ ȔȍȕȧȦȡȍȑ ȞȊȍȚ, ȕȖ
ȗȘȍȘȣȊȐșȚȖȑ, șȖșȚȖȧȡȍȑ Ȑȏ ȘȈșȚȘȖȊȣȝ ȚȖȟȍȒ. ǪȣȌȍȘȎȈȚȤ ȖȉȈ ȚȘȍȉȖȊȈȕȐȧ ȖȌȕȖȊȘȍȔȍȕȕȖ ȕȍ
ȗȖȓțȟȐȚșȧ. DzȘȖȔȍ ȊșȍȋȖ ȗȘȖȟȍȋȖ, ȌȈȎȍ ȔȖȕȖȝȘȖȔȕȣȍ ȋȐȓȤȖȠȐȘȕȣȍ ȥȓȍȔȍȕȚȣ șȓȖȎȕȣ Ȍȓȧ
șȒȈȕȐȘȖȊȈȕȐȧ, ȚȈȒ ȒȈȒ ȕȍȘȍȌȒȖ șȖȌȍȘȎȈȚ ȗȖȊȚȖȘȧȦȡȐȍșȧ ȗȍȘȐȖȌȐȟȍșȒȐȍ ȥȓȍȔȍȕȚȣ, șȗȖșȖȉȕȣȍ
ȏȈȋȘțȏȐȚȤ ȖȋȘȖȔȕȣȍ ȔȈșșȐȊȣ ȗȈȔȧȚȐ Ȑ ȏȈȚȘțȌȕȐȚȤ ȘȈȉȖȚț ȒȖȔȗȤȦȚȍȘȈ.
ǷȖȔȐȔȖ șȚȈȕȌȈȘȚȕȣȝ ȊȐȌȖȊ ȘȈșȚȘȖȊ (Ȋ ȊȐȌȍ ȒȘțȋȈ,
ȥȓȓȐȗșȈ, ȘȖȔȉȈ, ȏȊȨȏȌȖȟȒȐ Ȑ Ț.Ȍ.) șțȡȍșȚȊțȦȚ
șȗȍȞȐȈȓȤȕȣȍ ȘȈșȚȘȣ – ȖȚȓȐȟȈȦȡȐȍșȧ ȕȍȖȉȣȟȕȣȔȐ
ȜȖȘȔȈȔȐ (ȕȈȗȘȐȔȍȘ, ȒȖȕȞȍȕȚȘȐȟȍșȒȐȍ ȒȊȈȌȘȈȚȣ).
ǴȖȋțȚ
ȗȘȐȔȍȕȧȚȤșȧ
Ȑ
ȘȈȏȓȐȟȕȣȍ
șȐȔȊȖȓȣ,
ȐȏȖȉȘȈȎȍȕȐȧ
ȗȘȍȌșȚȈȊȐȚȍȓȍȑ
ȜȓȖȘȣ
Ȑ
ȜȈțȕȣ, ȉțȒȊȣ, șȖȏȌȈȦȡȐȍ ȜȖȕȖȊȖȍ ȐȏȖȉȘȈȎȍȕȐȍ, ȕȈȗȘȐȔȍȘ, ȌȈȓȤȕȍȋȖ ȉȍȘȍȋȈ ȘȍȒȐ ǨȔțȘ ȕȈ
ȓȐȞȍȊȖȑ șȚȖȘȖȕȍ ȕȖȊȖȑ ȉȈȕȒȕȖȚȣ 5 000 Șțȉȓȍȑ ǸǼ.
ǶȌȕȐȔ Ȑȏ ȕȈȐȉȖȓȍȍ ȘȈșȗȘȖșȚȘȈȕȨȕȕȣȝ șȘȍȌșȚȊ ȉȖȘȤȉȣ ș
ȐȏȋȖȚȖȊȐȚȍȓȧȔȐ ȗȖȌȌȍȓȖȒ ȧȊȓȧȍȚșȧ ȔȐȒȘȖȚȍȒșȚ – ȥȚȖ ȕȍȒȖȚȖȘȣȑ ȕȈȉȖȘ
șȐȔȊȖȓȖȊ ȟȘȍȏȊȣȟȈȑȕȖ ȔȈȓȖȋȖ ȘȈȏȔȍȘȈ (ȌȖ 0,2 ȔȔ ȊȣșȖȚȖȑ), ȊȣșȚȘȖȍȕȕȣȑ Ȋ
ȖȗȘȍȌȍȓȨȕȕȖȑ ȗȖșȓȍȌȖȊȈȚȍȓȤȕȖșȚȐ Ȑ ȊȖșȗȘȐȕȐȔȈȍȔȣȑ ȟȍȓȖȊȍȟȍșȒȐȔ
ȋȓȈȏȖȔ ȒȈȒ ȖȉȣȟȕȈȧ ȚȖȕȒȈȧ ȓȐȕȐȧ. ǸȈȏȋȓȧȌȍȚȤ ȍȋȖ ȔȖȎȕȖ ȚȖȓȤȒȖ ȗȘȐ
ȗȖȌȓȐȕȕȈȧ
ȗȖȔȖȡȐ ȖȗȚȐȒȐ (ȘȍȒȖȔȍȕȌțȍȚșȧ țȊȍȓȐȟȍȕȐȍ ȕȍ Ȕȍȕȍȍ 10 ȒȘȈȚ), Ȉ
ȊȖșȗȘȖȐȏȊȍȌȍȕȐȍ ȖȉȣȟȕȣȔȐ ȗȖȓȐȋȘȈȜȐȟȍșȒȐȔȐ ȔȍȚȖȌȈȔȐ șȐȓȤȕȖ
ȏȈȚȘțȌȕȍȕȖ. ǶșȖȉȍȕȕȖ ȔȐȒȘȖȚȍȒșȚ ȗȖȔȖȋȈȍȚ ȗȘȐ ȗȖȗȣȚȒȈȝ șȒȈȕȐȘȖȊȈȕȐȧ,
ȗȖșȒȖȓȤȒț șȒȈȕȍȘȣ ȕȍ ȔȖȋțȚ ȟȨȚȒȖ ȍȋȖ ȘȈșȗȖȏȕȈȚȤ. ǿȈȡȍ ȊșȍȋȖ
ȔȐȒȘȖȚȍȒșȚȖȔ ȐȏȖȉȘȈȎȈȦȚșȧ ȗȘȧȔȣȍ ȓȐȕȐȐ (ȕȈȗȘȐȔȍȘ, ȕȈ ȉȈȕȒȕȖȚȈȝ ș
ȜȈȓȤȠȐȊȈȧ
ȐȏȖȉȘȈȎȍȕȐȍȔ ȓȐȕȐȑ ȏȈȗȖȓȕȧȍȔȣȝ ȋȘȈȜ). ǪȔȍșȚȍ ș ȚȍȔ, ș ȗȖȔȖȡȤȦ
ȔȐȒȘȖȚȍȒșȚȈ ȔȖȎȕȖ șȖȏȌȈȊȈȚȤ ȐșȒȘȐȊȓȨȕȕȣȍ ȓȐȕȐȐ.
ǼȈȓȤȠȐȊȖȔȖȕȍȚȟȐȒȈȔ ȒȘȈȑȕȍ ȚȧȎȍȓȖ ȊȖșȗȘȖȐȏȊȍșȚȐ ȖȉȢȨȔȕȖȍ ȐȏȖȉȘȈȎȍȕȐȍ. ȅȚȖȚ ȥȜȜȍȒȚ
ȖșȕȖȊȈȕ ȕȈ ȖșȖȉȍȕȕȖșȚȧȝ ȟȍȓȖȊȍȟȍșȒȖȋȖ ȏȘȍȕȐȧ Ȑ șȖȏȌȈȨȚșȧ ȒȈȒ ȗțȚȨȔ ȐȏȔȍȕȍȕȐȧ ȠȐȘȐȕȣ,
ȗȓȖȚȕȖșȚȐ Ȑ ȕȈȗȘȈȊȓȍȕȐȧ ȓȐȕȐȑ, ȚȈȒ Ȑ ȗȘȐȔȍȕȍȕȐȍȔ șȗȍȞȐȈȓȤȕȣȝ ȊȐȌȖȊ ȗȍȟȈȚȐ.
ǹȒȘȣȚȣȍ (ȓȈȚȍȕȚȕȣȍ) ȐȏȖȉȘȈȎȍȕȐȧ – ȋȘȈȜȐȟȍșȒȐȍ ȐȏȖȉȘȈȎȍȕȐȧ, ȏȈȔȈșȒȐȘȖȊȈȕȕȣȍ ȌȘțȋȐȔȐ
ǪȍșȚȕȐȒ ǷȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊșȒȖȋȖ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȈȕșȒȖȋȖ ȉȈȕȒȈ ȹ3’2014
43
Dz 20-ȓȍȚȐȦ Șțȉȓȧ ǷǴǸ: ȜȈȒȚȣ Ȗ ȉȈȕȒȕȖȚȈȝ Ȑ ȔȖȕȍȚȈȝ
ȋȘȈȜȐȟȍșȒȐȔȐ ȖȉȢȍȒȚȈȔȐ. ǰȕȖȋȌȈ Ȑȝ ȕȈȏȣȊȈȦȚ «ȗȘȐȏȘȈȟȕȣȔȐ»
ȐȓȐ «ȜȈȕȚȖȔȕȣȔȐ», ȖȕȐ șȖȏȌȈȦȚșȧ ȕȈ ȖșȕȖȊȍ ȘȍȓȤȍȜȈ,
ȗȖȓțȟȍȕȕȖȋȖ ȋȓțȉȖȒȖȑ ȗȍȟȈȚȤȦ. ȅȜȜȍȒȚ șȒȘȣȚȖȋȖ ȐȏȖȉȘȈȎȍȕȐȧ
ȏȈȒȓȦȟȨȕ Ȋ ȚȖȔ, ȟȚȖ ȍșȓȐ ȗȖȊȍȘȕțȚȤ ȓȐșȚ ȉțȔȈȋȐ ȗȖȌ
ȖȗȘȍȌȍȓȨȕȕȣȔ țȋȓȖȔ, ȚȖ Ȋ ȕȨȔ ȗȖȧȊȓȧȦȚșȧ ȕȖȊȣȍ ȥȓȍȔȍȕȚȣ.
ǵȈȗȘȐȔȍȘ, ȗȘȐ ȘȈșșȔȖȚȘȍȕȐȐ Ȋ ȒȖșȖȗȈȌȈȦȡȍȔ șȊȍȚȍ ȜȘȈȋȔȍȕȚȈ
ȖȘȕȈȔȍȕȚȈȓȤȕȖȑ ȓȍȕȚȣ, ȘȈșȗȖȓȖȎȍȕȕȖȑ Ȋ ȕȐȎȕȍȑ ȟȈșȚȐ
ȓȐȞȍȊȖȑ șȚȖȘȖȕȣ ȘȖșșȐȑșȒȐȝ ȒțȗȦȘ, ȗȖȧȊȓȧȍȚșȧ șȒȘȣȚȖȍ
ȐȏȖȉȘȈȎȍȕȐȍ (ȒȐȗȗ-ȥȜȜȍȒȚ): ȊȐȌȕȣ ȉțȒȊȣ ǸǸ (ȘȖșșȐȑșȒȐȑ
ȘțȉȓȤ), ȒȖȚȖȘȣȍ Ȋ ȏȈȊȐșȐȔȖșȚȐ ȖȚ ȖȘȐȍȕȚȈȞȐȐ ȉȈȕȒȕȖȚȣ
ȧȊȓȧȦȚșȧ ȚȖ ȚȨȔȕȣȔȐ, ȚȖ șȊȍȚȓȣȔȐ.
ǹȓȍȌțȍȚ ȖȚȔȍȚȐȚȤ, ȟȚȖ țȊȐȌȍȚȤ ȌȈȕȕȣȑ ȥȜȜȍȒȚ ȌȖșȚȈȚȖȟȕȖ ȕȍȗȘȖșȚȖ. ǷȘȐ ȥȚȖȔ ȐȕȖȋȌȈ
ȊșȚȘȍȟȈȦȚșȧ ȗȖȌȌȍȓȒȐ, ȕȈ ȒȖȚȖȘȣȝ ȊȣȠȍțȗȖȔȧȕțȚȣȍ ȉțȒȊȣ ȊȐȌȕȣ ȝȖȘȖȠȖ,
ȗȘȐȟȨȔ ȗȖȌ ȓȦȉȣȔ țȋȓȖȔ. Ǫ șȊȧȏȐ ș ȥȚȐȔ ȗȘȍȌșȚȈȊȓȧȍȚșȧ ȐȕȚȍȘȍșȕȣȔ ȕȖȊȣȑ
ȏȈȡȐȚȕȣȑ ȥȓȍȔȍȕȚ MVC (Moire Variable Colour) – șȒȘȣȚȖȍ ȔțȈȘȖȊȖȍ
ȐȏȖȉȘȈȎȍȕȐȍ). Ƕȕ ȘȈȏȘȈȉȖȚȈȕ ǫȖȏȕȈȒȖȔ ǸȖșșȐȐ Ȑ țșȗȍȠȕȖ ȗȘȐȔȍȕȧȍȚșȧ Ȍȓȧ
ȏȈȡȐȚȣ Ȋșȍȝ ȕȖȔȐȕȈȓȖȊ Șțȉȓȍȑ ǩȈȕȒȈ ǸȖșșȐȐ ȔȖȌȐȜȐȒȈȞȐȐ 2004 ȋȖȌȈ.
ǪȏȋȓȧȕțȊ ȕȈ ȉȈȕȒȕȖȚț ȗȍȘȗȍȕȌȐȒțȓȧȘȕȖ – ȗȖȓȍ MVC ȊȣȋȓȧȌȐȚ
ȖȌȕȖȚȖȕȕȣȔ, ȚȖȋȌȈ ȒȈȒ ȗȘȐ ȘȈșșȔȈȚȘȐȊȈȕȐȐ ȗȖȌ ȖșȚȘȣȔ țȋȓȖȔ ȕȈ ȕȨȔ
ȊȖȏȕȐȒȈȦȚ ȔȕȖȋȖȞȊȍȚȕȣȍ ȘȈȌțȎȕȣȍ ȗȖȓȖșȣ. ǷȘȐ ȕȍȖȉȝȖȌȐȔȖșȚȐ ȕȈ ȥȚȖȔ
ȗȖȓȍ ȔȖȋțȚ ȉȣȚȤ șȜȖȘȔȐȘȖȊȈȕȣ șȐȔȊȖȓȣ ȐȓȐ ȉțȒȊȣ. Ǫ ȞȍȓȖȔ, ȌȖșȚȖȐȕșȚȊȖȔ
ȓȦȉȖȋȖ șȒȘȣȚȖȋȖ ȐȏȖȉȘȈȎȍȕȐȧ ȧȊȓȧȍȚșȧ ȚȖ, ȟȚȖ ȗȘȐ ȖȉȣȟȕȖȔ ȘȈșșȔȖȚȘȍȕȐȐ
ȖȕȖ ȖȉȣȟȕȖ ȕȍȏȈȔȍȚȕȖ, Ȑ ȓȐȠȤ ȗȘȐ ȖȗȘȍȌȍȓȨȕȕȣȝ țșȓȖȊȐȧȝ șȒȘȣȚȈȧ
ȐȕȜȖȘȔȈȞȐȧ șȚȈȕȖȊȐȚșȧ ȏȈȔȍȚȕȖȑ – Ȋ ȥȚȖȔ-ȚȖ Ȑ ȏȈȒȓȦȟȈȍȚșȧ Ȑȝ ȖșȖȉȈȧ
ȗȘȐȊȓȍȒȈȚȍȓȤȕȖșȚȤ.
ǭȡȨ ȖȌȕȐȔ Ȑȏ ȊȈȘȐȈȕȚȖȊ șȒȘȣȚȖȋȖ ȐȏȖȉȘȈȎȍȕȐȧ ȧȊȓȧȦȚșȧ șȖȊȔȍȡȈȦȡȐȍșȧ ȐȏȖȉȘȈȎȍȕȐȧ. ǹțȚȤ
șȖșȚȖȐȚ Ȋ ȚȖȔ, ȟȚȖ ȖȌȕȈ ȟȈșȚȤ ȐȏȖȉȘȈȎȍȕȐȧ ȗȍȟȈȚȈȍȚșȧ ȕȈ ȓȐȞȍȊȖȑ șȚȖȘȖȕȍ, Ȉ
ȊȚȖȘȈȧ ȕȈȕȖșȐȚșȧ ȕȈ ȖȉȖȘȖȚȕțȦ. ǵȈ ȗȘȖșȊȍȚ Ȋșȍ ȥȓȍȔȍȕȚȣ șȖȊȔȍȡȈȦȡȐȝșȧ
ȐȏȖȉȘȈȎȍȕȐȑ ȌȖȓȎȕȣ șȖȊȗȈșȚȤ Ȑ ȖȉȘȈȏȖȊȈȚȤ ȍȌȐȕȣȑ ȘȐșțȕȖȒ. ǿȈșȚȖ
ȗȖȌȖȉȕȣȍ ȐȏȖȉȘȈȎȍȕȐȧ ȌȍȓȈȦȚșȧ ȞȊȍȚȕȣȔȐ ȏȈ șȟȨȚ ȖȒȘȈȠȍȕȕȣȝ ȟȈșȚȍȑ
ȘȐșțȕȒȈ ȗȘȖȚȐȊȖȗȖȓȖȎȕȖȑ șȚȖȘȖȕȣ. ǰȏȋȖȚȖȊȓȍȕȐȍ șȖȊȔȍȡȈȦȡȐȝșȧ
ȗȖȌȓȐȕȕȈȧ
ȐȏȖȉȘȈȎȍȕȐȑ ȊȍȌȨȚșȧ ȕȈ șȗȍȞȐȈȓȤȕȣȝ ȔȈȠȐȕȈȝ, Ȑ ȗȖȓțȟȐȚȤ Ȑȝ Ȋ Ȗȉȣȟȕȣȝ
ȚȐȗȖȋȘȈȜșȒȐȝ țșȓȖȊȐȧȝ ȌȖșȚȈȚȖȟȕȖ șȓȖȎȕȖ. ǽȈȘȈȒȚȍȘȕȣȔ ȗȘȐȔȍȘȖȔ
șȖȊȔȍȡȈȦȡȐȝșȧ ȐȏȖȉȘȈȎȍȕȐȑ ȧȊȓȧȦȚșȧ ȞȐȜȘȣ ȕȖȔȐȕȈȓȈ ȕȈ ȍȊȘȖȉȈȕȒȕȖȚȈȝ.
ǻȓȤȚȘȈȜȐȖȓȍȚȖȊȈȧ ȏȈȡȐȚȈ ȖȉȍșȗȍȟȐȊȈȍȚșȧ ȊȊȍȌȍȕȐȍȔ Ȋ șȖșȚȈȊ ȒȘȈșȖȒ
ȊȍȡȍșȚȊ, ȖȉȓȈȌȈȦȡȐȝ șȊȖȑșȚȊȈȔȐ ȓȦȔȐȕȍșȞȍȕȞȐȐ. ǺȈȒ, ȕȈȗȘȐȔȍȘ, Ȋ
ȜȈȓȤȠȐȊȈȧ
ȗȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊșȒȐȝ ȉȈȕȒȕȖȚȈȝ ȕȖȔȐȕȈȓȖȔ 200 Șțȉȓȍȑ, ȝȈȖȚȐȟȍșȒȐ
ȊȕȍȌȘȨȕȕȣȍ Ȋ ȔȈșșț ȉțȔȈȋȐ ȊȖȓȖȒȕȈ ȒȘȈșȕȖȋȖ Ȑ ȎȨȓȚȖȋȖ ȞȊȍȚȖȊ,
ȓȦȔȐȕȍșȞȐȘțȦȚ Ȋ țȓȤȚȘȈȜȐȖȓȍȚȖȊȖȔ ȐȏȓțȟȍȕȐȐ ȎȨȓȚȣȔ, șȐȕȐȔ Ȑ
ȒȘȈșȕȣȔ ȞȊȍȚȈȔȐ.
ǪȣșȖȒțȦ șȚȍȗȍȕȤ ȏȈȡȐȚȣ ȖȉȍșȗȍȟȐȊȈȦȚ ȖȗȚȐȟȍșȒȐ ȗȍȘȍȔȍȕȕȣȍ
ȒȘȈșȒȐ, ȐȏȔȍȕȧȦȡȐȍ șȊȖȑ ȞȊȍȚ Ȋ ȏȈȊȐșȐȔȖșȚȐ ȖȚ țȋȓȈ ȏȘȍȕȐȧ.
ǵȈȗȘȐȔȍȘ, ȥȔȉȓȍȔȈ ǩȈȕȒȈ ǸȖșșȐȐ ȕȈ ȉȈȕȒȕȖȚȈȝ
ȌȖșȚȖȐȕșȚȊȖȔ 500 Șțȉȓȍȑ, ȖȚȗȍȟȈȚȈȕȕȈȧ Ȋ ȊȍȘȝȕȍȑ ȟȈșȚȐ
țȏȒȖȋȖ ȒțȗȖȕȕȖȋȖ ȗȖȓȧ ș ȓȐȞȍȊȖȑ șȚȖȘȖȕȣ, ȐȏȔȍȕȧȍȚ șȊȖȑ
ȞȊȍȚ ș ȒȘȈșȕȖ- ȖȘȈȕȎȍȊȖȋȖ ȕȈ ȎȨȓȚȖ-ȏȍȓȍȕȣȑ.
44
ǪȍșȚȕȐȒ ǷȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊșȒȖȋȖ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȈȕșȒȖȋȖ ȉȈȕȒȈ ȹ3’2014
Dz 20-ȓȍȚȐȦ Șțȉȓȧ ǷǴǸ: ȜȈȒȚȣ Ȗ ȉȈȕȒȕȖȚȈȝ Ȑ ȔȖȕȍȚȈȝ
ǸȍȓȤȍȜȕȣȑ ȚȍȒșȚ. ǰȔ șȌȍȓȈȕȣ ȗȘȈȒȚȐȟȍșȒȐ Ȋșȍ ȕȈȌȗȐșȐ ȕȈ ȒțȗȦȘȈȝ. ǷȘȐ ȥȚȖȔ
ȜȈȓȤȠȐȊȖȔȖȕȍȚȟȐȒȐ, ȒȈȒ ȗȘȈȊȐȓȖ, ȊȣȌȈȊȓȐȊȈȦȚ șȈȔț ȉțȔȈȋț ȉȈȕȒȕȖȚȣ. ǺȖȋȌȈ ȒȈȒ ȕȈ ȕȈșȚȖȧȡȐȝ
ȌȍȕȤȋȈȝ ȊȣȗțȒȓȖȑ ȧȊȓȧȍȚșȧ ȐȔȍȕȕȖ ȒȘȈșȒȈ. ǺȈȒȎȍ ȜȈȓȤȠȐȊȖȔȖȕȍȚȟȐȒȈȔ ȊȘȧȌ ȓȐ țȌȈșȚșȧ ȚȖȟȕȖ
ȗȍȘȍȌȈȚȤ șȚȍȗȍȕȤ țȗȘțȋȖșȚȐ (ȝȘțșȚȈ) ȕȈșȚȖȧȡȍȑ ȌȍȕȍȎȕȖȑ ȉțȔȈȋȐ ȒȈȎȌȖȑ ȖȚȌȍȓȤȕȖȑ ȊȈȓȦȚȣ. Dz
ȗȘȐȔȍȘț, Ȋ șȖșȚȈȊ ȍȊȘȖȒțȗȦȘ ȊȝȖȌȐȚ ȝȓȖȗȖȒ, Ȋ șȖșȚȈȊ ȌȖȓȓȈȘȖȊȣȝ ȉȈȕȒȕȖȚ – ȝȓȖȗȖȒ Ȑ ȓȨȕ. ǯȈ șȟȨȚ
ȥȚȖȋȖ ȌȍȕȤȋȐ ȌȖșȚȈȚȖȟȕȖ ȝȘțșȚȧȡȐȍ, ȕȖ ȗȓȖȚȕȣȍ. ǵȈȌȖȘȊȈȚȤ Ȑȝ șȓțȟȈȑȕȖ, șȚȍȘȍȚȤ ș ȕȐȝ ȒȘȈșȒț,
ȌȈȎȍ ȊȣșȚȐȘȈȊ Ȋ șȚȐȘȈȓȤȕȖȑ ȔȈȠȐȕȒȍ, ȌȖșȚȈȚȖȟȕȖ ȗȘȖȉȓȍȔȈȚȐȟȕȖ.
ǬȈȕȕȣȑ șȗȐșȖȒ ȥȓȍȔȍȕȚȖȊ ȏȈȡȐȚȣ ȌȈȓȍȒȖ ȕȍ ȗȖȓȕȣȑ, Ȑ șȗȖșȖȉȣ ȏȈȡȐȚȣ ȌȍȕȍȎȕȣȝ ȏȕȈȒȖȊ
ȗȖșȚȖȧȕȕȖ șȖȊȍȘȠȍȕșȚȊțȦȚșȧ. ǵȍȖȉȝȖȌȐȔȖ ȏȈȗȖȔȕȐȚȤ, ȟȚȖ Ȍȓȧ ȖȗȘȍȌȍȓȍȕȐȧ ȗȖȌȓȐȕȕȖșȚȐ
ȉȈȕȒȕȖȚȣ ȕȍȖȉȝȖȌȐȔȖ ȗȘȖȊȍȘȧȚȤ ȕȍ Ȕȍȕȍȍ 3-ȝ ȏȈȡȐȚȕȣȝ ȗȘȐȏȕȈȒȖȊ.
ǸȈșșȔȖȚȘȐȔ ȗȧȚȨȘȒț șȈȔȣȝ ȗȖȌȌȍȓȣȊȈȍȔȣȝ ȒțȗȦȘ ȔȐȘȈ:
1. ǹ ȕȈȟȈȓȈ ȖȒȚȧȉȘȧ 2013 ȋȖȌȈ ȕȍșȒȖȓȤȒȖ ȘȖșșȐȑșȒȐȝ ȉȈȕȒȖȊ ȖȚȒȈȏȈȓȐșȤ
ȗȘȐȕȐȔȈȚȤ Ȋ șȊȖȐ ȉȈȕȒȖȔȈȚȣ ȒțȗȦȘȣ ȌȖșȚȖȐȕșȚȊȖȔ Ȋ 5 000 Șțȉȓȍȑ ǸǼ. Ǫ
ȞȍȓȖȔ ȏȈ 2013 ȋȖȌ ȉȣȓȖ ȖȚȔȍȟȍȕȖ ȉȖȓȍȍ 35 Țȣș. șȓțȟȈȍȊ ȗȖȌȌȍȓȒȐ ȌȈȕȕȖȑ
ȉȈȕȒȕȖȚȣ, ȟȚȖ ȕȈ 8% ȉȖȓȤȠȍ, ȟȍȔ ȋȖȌȖȔ ȘȈȕȍȍ.
2. ǭȡȨ ȖȌȕȈ ȓȦȉȐȔȈȧ ȒțȗȦȘȈ ȜȈȓȤȠȐȊȖȔȖȕȍȚȟȐȒȖȊ – 1 000 Șțȉȓȍȑ ǸǼ. Ǫ
ȗȘȖȠȓȖȔ ȋȖȌț ȚȈȒȐȝ ȜȈȓȤȠȐȊȖȒ ȉȣȓȖ ȊȣȧȊȓȍȕȖ 27,6 Țȣș. ȠȚțȒ, ȚȖȋȌȈ ȒȈȒ Ȋ
2012 ȋȖȌț – ȗȖȘȧȌȒȈ 33 Țȣș.
3. ǹȚȖȌȖȓȓȈȘȖȊțȦ ȒțȗȦȘț ȊȖ ȊȚȖȘȖȑ ȗȖȓȖȊȐȕȍ XX ȊȍȒȈ ȖȒȘȍșȚȐȓȐ șȈȔȖȑ
ȟȈșȚȖ ȗȖȌȌȍȓȣȊȈȍȔȖȑ ȉȈȕȒȕȖȚȖȑ Ȋ ȔȐȘȍ. ǼȈȓȤȠȐȊȖȔȖȕȍȚȕȐȟȍșȚȊȖ Ȋ ǹȀǨ
ȊȗȍȘȊȣȍ ȗȘȐȖȉȘȍȓȖ ȉȖȓȤȠȖȑ ȘȈȏȔȈȝ țȎȍ Ȋ 1860-ȝ ȋȖȌȈȝ: ȍȎȍȕȍȌȍȓȤȕȖ
ȗȖȧȊȓȧȓȖșȤ ș ȌȍșȧȚȖȒ ȜȈȓȤȠȐȊȣȝ ȉȈȕȒȕȖȚ Ȑ ȞȐȘȒțȓȐȘȖȊȈȓȖ ȉȖȓȍȍ 4 000
ȊȐȌȖȊ ȜȈȓȤȠȐȊȣȝ ȌȖȓȓȈȘȖȊ. ǹȈȔȣȑ ȐȏȊȍșȚȕȣȑ ȈȔȍȘȐȒȈȕșȒȐȑ ȜȈȓȤȠȐȊȖȔȖȕȍȚȟȐȒ, ȅȔȈȕțȥȓ
ǵȐȕȌȎȍȘ, ȘȐșȖȊȈȓ ȌȖȓȓȈȘȣ ȖȚ ȘțȒȐ. Ǫ ȕȈșȚȖȧȡȍȍ ȊȘȍȔȧ Ȋ ȖȉȘȈȡȍȕȐȐ ȕȈȝȖȌȧȚșȧ ȒțȗȦȘȣ ș ȌȈȚȖȑ
ȊȣȗțșȒȈ ȕȍ ȘȈȕȍȍ 1928 ȋȖȌȈ.
4. dzȦȉȐȔȖȑ ȒțȗȦȘȖȑ țȒȘȈȐȕșȒȐȝ ȜȈȓȤȠȐȊȖȔȖȕȍȚȟȐȒȖȊ șȚȈȓȈ ȉȈȕȒȕȖȚȈ
ȕȖȔȐȕȈȓȖȔ Ȋ 200 ȋȘȐȊȍȕ. ǵȈȐȉȖȓȍȍ ȈȒȚȐȊȕȖ ȍȨ ȗȖȌȌȍȓȣȊȈȓȐ Ȋ 2010 ȋȖȌț.
ǺȖȋȌȈ ȜȈȓȤȠȐȊȖȔȖȕȍȚȟȐȒȐ ȏȈȕȐȔȈȓȐșȤ «șȖȏȌȈȕȐȍȔ» ȒțȗȦȘȣ 2001 ȋȖȌȈ
ȊȣȗțșȒȈ. DzȘȖȔȍ ȚȖȋȖ, țȒȘȈȐȕșȒȐȍ ȜȈȓȤȠȐȊȖȔȖȕȍȚȟȐȒȐ ȓȦȉȧȚ ȗȘȖșȚȖ
ȌȖȘȐșȖȊȣȊȈȚȤ ȕțȓȐ Ȋ ȒțȗȦȘȈȝ ȔȍȕȤȠȍȋȖ ȕȖȔȐȕȈȓȈ: Ȋ 2009 ȋȖȌț 2 ȋȘȐȊȕȣ ȟȈșȚȖ «ȗȘȍȊȘȈȡȈȓȐșȤ» Ȋ
20.
5. ǹȘȍȌȐ ȖȜȐȞȐȈȓȤȕȖȑ ȊȈȓȦȚȣ șȚȘȈȕ ǭȊȘȖȏȖȕȣ ȟȈȡȍ ȊșȍȋȖ ȗȖȌȌȍȓȣȊȈȦȚ
50 ȍȊȘȖ. ǹȘȍȌȐ ȖȉȡȍȋȖ ȖȉȢȨȔȈ ȜȈȓȤȠȐȊȣȝ ȍȊȘȖ ȌȈȕȕȣȍ ȉȈȕȒȕȖȚȣ șȖșȚȈȊȓȧȦȚ
ȖȒȖȓȖ 44%. ǪȚȖȘȖȍ ȔȍșȚȖ ȗȖ ȗȖȗțȓȧȘȕȖșȚȐ ȗȖȌȌȍȓȒȐ ȏȈȕȧȓȈ ȒțȗȦȘȈ Ȋ 20
ȍȊȘȖ, ȚȘȍȚȤȍ – Ȋ 100 ȍȊȘȖ.
ǪȍșȚȕȐȒ ǷȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊșȒȖȋȖ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȈȕșȒȖȋȖ ȉȈȕȒȈ ȹ3’2014
45
ǭȎȍȔȍșȧȟȕȣȑ ȖȉȏȖȘ
ȅDzǶǵǶǴǰǿǭǹDzǨȇ ǹǰǺǻǨǾǰȇ
Ǫ ǼǭǪǸǨdzǭ 2014 ǫǶǬǨ
Ǫ ȖȚȟȨȚȕȖȔ ȔȍșȧȞȍ ȖȚȔȍȟȈȓșȧ ȗȘȐȚȖȒ șȘȍȌșȚȊ Ȋ ȉȈȕȒȖȊșȒțȦ șȐșȚȍȔț ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȐ
(+62,0 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ.), ȗȖȗȖȓȕȍȕȐȍȔ ȗȘȍȐȔțȡȍșȚȊȍȕȕȖ ȝȈȘȈȒȚȍȘȐȏȖȊȈȓȐșȤ șȟȍȚȈ
ȕȈșȍȓȍȕȐȧ, ȟȚȖ ȖȉȍșȗȍȟȐȓȖ ȗȖȊȣȠȈȚȍȓȤȕțȦ ȌȐȕȈȔȐȒț ȒȘȍȌȐȚȖȊȈȕȐȧ ȘȍȈȓȤȕȖȋȖ
șȍȒȚȖȘȈ (+34,2 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ.).
Ǫ șȜȍȘȍ ȌȍȕȍȎȕȖȋȖ ȖȉȘȈȡȍȕȐȧ ȗȖșȓȍ ȘȖșȚȈ Ȋ ȗȘȍȌȣȌțȡȍȔ ȔȍșȧȞȍ Ȋ ȜȍȊȘȈȓȍ ȖșȚȈȚȒȐ
șȘȍȌșȚȊ ȕȈ ȚȍȒțȡȐȝ ȊȈȓȦȚȕȣȝ șȟȍȚȈȝ ȦȘȐȌȐȟȍșȒȐȝ ȓȐȞ șȖȒȘȈȚȐȓȐșȤ, ȖȉțșȓȖȊȐȊ
șȎȈȚȐȍ șȖȊȖȒțȗȕȖȋȖ ȖȉȢȨȔȈ ȌȍȕȍȎȕȖȋȖ ȗȘȍȌȓȖȎȍȕȐȧ (-141,1 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ. ȌȖ
6 129,9 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ.). ǵȈȉȓȦȌȈȍȔȖȍ țȔȍȕȤȠȍȕȐȍ ȊȈȓȦȚȕȖȑ șȖșȚȈȊȓȧȦȡȍȑ ȊȣȘȈȏȐȓȖșȤ Ȋ
șȕȐȎȍȕȐȐ șȚȍȗȍȕȐ ȊȈȓȦȚȐȏȈȞȐȐ (ȕȈ 0,9 ȗ.ȗ. ȌȖ 64,9%).
ǵȈ ȗȖȚȘȍȉȐȚȍȓȤșȒȖȔ ȘȣȕȒȍ șȘȍȌȕȐȑ țȘȖȊȍȕȤ Ȟȍȕ ȏȈ ȖȚȟȨȚȕȣȑ ȔȍșȧȞ ȊȖȏȘȖș ȕȈ 0,1%.
ǶȜȐȞȐȈȓȤȕȣȑ ȒțȘș ȌȖȓȓȈȘȈ ǹȀǨ șȖȝȘȈȕȐȓșȧ ȕȈ ȖȚȔȍȚȒȍ 11,1000 Șțȉ. ǷǴǸ.
ǰȕȜȓȧȞȐȧ
ȗȘȖȌȖȊȖȓȤșȚȊȍȕȕȣȍ ȚȖȊȈȘȣ
ȕȍȗȘȖȌȖȊȖȓȤșȚȊȍȕȕȣȍ ȚȖȊȈȘȣ
țșȓțȋȐ
ȜȍȊ.14
ȧȕȊ.14
ȌȍȒ.13
ȕȖȧ.13
ȖȒȚ.13
șȍȕ.13
ȈȊȋ.13
ȐȦȓ.13
ȐȦȕ.13
ȔȈȑ.13
ȈȗȘ.13
ȔȈȘ.13
ȧȕȊ.14
ȜȍȊ.14
ȌȍȒ.13
ȕȖȧ.13
97,0
ȖȒȚ.13
97,5
șȍȕ.13
98,5
ȈȊȋ.13
99,0
ȐȦȓ.13
100,0
ȐȦȕ.13
100,5
ȔȈȑ.13
101,5
ȈȗȘ.13
102,0
ȔȈȘ.13
103,0
ȜȍȊ.13
103,5
ȜȍȊ.13
ǷȖ ȌȈȕȕȣȔ ǫȖșțȌȈȘșȚȊȍȕȕȖȑ șȓțȎȉȣ șȚȈȚȐșȚȐȒȐ ǷǴǸ, ȗȖ ȐȚȖȋȈȔ ȜȍȊȘȈȓȧ șȘȍȌȕȐȍ Ȟȍȕȣ Ȑ
ȚȈȘȐȜȣ ȕȈ ȗȖȚȘȍȉȐȚȍȓȤșȒȐȍ ȚȖȊȈȘȣ Ȑ țșȓțȋȐ ȝȈȘȈȒȚȍȘȐȏȖȊȈȓȐșȤ ȗȘȈȒȚȐȟȍșȒȐ ȕțȓȍȊȣȔȐ ȚȍȔȗȈȔȐ
ȘȖșȚȈ (100,1%).
ǵȍȏȕȈȟȐȚȍȓȤȕȖȍ ȗȖȊȣȠȍȕȐȍ ȖȉȡȍȋȖ ȐȕȜȓȧȞȐȖȕȕȖȋȖ ȜȖȕȈ Ȋ ȗȘȖȌȖȊȖȓȤșȚȊȍȕȕȖȔ șȍȒȚȖȘȍ
(+0,6%) șȚȈȓȖ ȘȍȏțȓȤȚȈȚȖȔ ȗȘȖȌȖȓȎȐȊȠȍȋȖșȧ țȌȖȘȖȎȈȕȐȧ ȗȓȖȌȖȖȊȖȡȕȖȑ ȗȘȖȌțȒȞȐȐ ȕȈ 3,8%,
ȕȖșȧȡȍȋȖ șȍȏȖȕȕȣȑ ȝȈȘȈȒȚȍȘ (ȘȐș. 18). DzȈȘȚȖȜȍȓȤ ȊȣȘȖș Ȋ Ȟȍȕȍ ȕȈ 3,4%. ǵȐȊȍȓȐȘțȦȡȐȑ ȥȜȜȍȒȚ
ȖȒȈȏȈȓȖ țȌȍȠȍȊȓȍȕȐȍ ȧȐȞ (-9,8%) Ȑ șȣȘȈ (-2,1%). ǹȕȐȏȐȓȐșȤ ȚȈȒȎȍ Ȟȍȕȣ ȕȈ ȔȨȌ (-1,0%) Ȑ șȈȝȈȘ
(-0,1%).
ǹǰǷǾ
ȉȈȏȖȊȈȧ ȐȕȜȓȧȞȐȧ
ȕȍȉȈȏȖȊȈȧ ȐȕȜȓȧȞȐȧ
ǸȐș. 18. ǬȐȕȈȔȐȒȈ ȚȍȔȗȖȊ ȘȖșȚȈ ȗȖȚȘȍȉȐȚȍȓȤșȒȐȝ Ȟȍȕ,
% Ȓ ȗȘȍȌȣȌțȡȍȔț ȔȍșȧȞț
ǸȐș. 19. ǬȐȕȈȔȐȒȈ ȖșȕȖȊȕȣȝ șȖșȚȈȊȓȧȦȡȐȝ
ȐȕȜȓȧȞȐȐ, % Ȓ ȗȘȍȌȣȌțȡȍȔț ȔȍșȧȞț
ǷȘȖȚȐȊȖȗȖȓȖȎȕȈȧ șȐȚțȈȞȐȧ șȒȓȈȌȣȊȈȓȈșȤ Ȋ ȕȍȗȘȖȌȖȊȖȓȤșȚȊȍȕȕȖȔ șȍȋȔȍȕȚȍ, ȋȌȍ ȕȈ ȜȖȕȍ
țȌȍȠȍȊȓȍȕȐȧ ȉȍȕȏȐȕȈ (-3,9%) Ȑ ȔȍȌȐȒȈȔȍȕȚȖȊ (-0,2%), ȖȉȡȐȑ ȐȕȌȍȒș Ȟȍȕ ȏȈȜȐȒșȐȘȖȊȈȕ ȕȈ
ȖȚȔȍȚȒȍ 99,6%. ǻȌȖȘȖȎȈȕȐȍȔ ȝȈȘȈȒȚȍȘȐȏȖȊȈȓȐșȤ ȚȖȓȤȒȖ ȗȈȘȜȦȔȍȘȕȖ-ȒȖșȔȍȚȐȟȍșȒȐȍ ȚȖȊȈȘȣ
(+0,4%) Ȑ ȚȖȊȈȘȣ ȉȣȚȖȊȖȑ ȝȐȔȐȐ (+0,3%). ǷȖ ȖșȚȈȓȤȕȣȔ ȕȈȐȔȍȕȖȊȈȕȐȧȔ Ȟȍȕȣ ȗȘȈȒȚȐȟȍșȒȐ ȕȍ
ȐȏȔȍȕȐȓȐșȤ.
ǷȖșȓȍ ȘȖșȚȈ ȚȈȘȐȜȖȊ Ȋ ȧȕȊȈȘȍ, Ȋ ȖȚȟȨȚȕȖȔ ȗȍȘȐȖȌȍ Ȋ șȜȍȘȍ țșȓțȋ ȕȈȉȓȦȌȈȓȈșȤ ȖȚȕȖșȐȚȍȓȤȕȈȧ
șȚȈȉȐȓȤȕȖșȚȤ (-0,03%). ǷȘȖȌȖȓȎȐȊȠȍȍșȧ ȗȖȊȣȠȍȕȐȍ șȚȖȐȔȖșȚȐ țșȓțȋ ȎȐȓȐȡȕȖȋȖ ȝȖȏȧȑșȚȊȈ
(+4,5%) Ȑ ȌȖȠȒȖȓȤȕȖȋȖ ȊȖșȗȐȚȈȕȐȧ (+1,1%) ȉȣȓȖ ȕȐȊȍȓȐȘȖȊȈȕȖ țȌȍȠȍȊȓȍȕȐȍȔ țșȓțȋ
ȚȘȈȕșȗȖȘȚȕȣȝ ȖȘȋȈȕȐȏȈȞȐȑ (-1,4%) Ȑ ȉȈȕȒȖȊșȒȐȝ țȟȘȍȎȌȍȕȐȑ (-2,7%).
ǸȈșȟȨȚȕȣȑ ȗȖȒȈȏȈȚȍȓȤ «ȕȍȉȈȏȖȊȖȑ» ȐȕȜȓȧȞȐȐ șȖșȚȈȊȐȓ 0,6%, Ȉ ȏȕȈȟȍȕȐȍ ȉȈȏȖȊȖȑ ȐȕȜȓȧȞȐȐ
șȓȖȎȐȓȖșȤ ȕȈ țȘȖȊȕȍ -0,2% (ȘȐș. 19).
46
ǪȍșȚȕȐȒ ǷȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊșȒȖȋȖ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȈȕșȒȖȋȖ ȉȈȕȒȈ ȹ3’2014
ǭȎȍȔȍșȧȟȕȣȑ ȖȉȏȖȘ
ȧȕȊ.14
ȜȍȊ.14
ȌȍȒ.13
ȕȖȧ.13
ȖȒȚ.13
șȍȕ.13
ȈȊȋ.13
ȐȦȓ.13
ȐȦȕ.13
ȈȗȘ.13
ȔȈȑ.13
ȜȍȊ.13
125,0
120,0
115,0
110,0
105,0
100,0
95,0
ȔȈȘ.13
ǰȕȌȍȒș Ȟȍȕ ȗȘȖȐȏȊȖȌȐȚȍȓȍȑ ȗȘȖȔȣȠȓȍȕȕȖȑ
ȗȘȖȌțȒȞȐȐ ȏȈȜȐȒșȐȘȖȊȈȕ ȕȈ ȖȚȔȍȚȒȍ 99,6%. ǷȘȐ
ȥȚȖȔ Ȋ ȟȨȘȕȖȑ Ȑ ȗȐȡȍȊȖȑ ȗȘȖȔȣȠȓȍȕȕȖșȚȧȝ
ȗȘȖȌȖȓȎȐȓȖșȤ ȗȖȕȐȎȍȕȐȍ ȖȚȗțșȒȕȣȝ Ȟȍȕ – ȕȈ
0,9% Ȑ 0,7% șȖȖȚȊȍȚșȚȊȍȕȕȖ. ǷȖșȓȍ ȘȍȏȒȖȋȖ șȒȈȟȒȈ
ȚȈȘȐȜȖȊ ȕȈ ȥȓȍȒȚȘȖȥȕȍȘȋȐȦ Ȋ ȕȈȟȈȓȍ ȋȖȌȈ, Ȋ
ȜȍȊȘȈȓȍ ȒȖȘȘȍȒȚȐȘȖȊȖȒ Ȟȍȕ Ȋ ȖȚȘȈșȓȐ ȕȍ
ȗȘȖȐȏȊȖȌȐȓȖșȤ (ȘȐș. 20). ǰșȒȓȦȟȍȕȐȍ, ȒȈȒ Ȑ Ȋ
ȗȘȍȌȣȌțȡȐȍ
ȔȍșȧȞȣ,
șȖșȚȈȊȐȓȐ
ȚȖȓȤȒȖ
Ȑ
ȗȖȓȐȋȘȈȜȐȟȍșȒȈȧ
ȗȘȖȔȣȠȓȍȕȕȖșȚȤ
ȗȘȍȌȗȘȐȧȚȐȧ, șȗȍȞȐȈȓȐȏȐȘțȦȡȐȍșȧ ȕȈ ȊȣȗțșȒȍ
șȚȘȖȐȚȍȓȤȕȣȝ ȔȈȚȍȘȐȈȓȖȊ, ȋȌȍ Ȟȍȕȣ ȉȣȓȐ
ȗȖȊȣȠȍȕȣ ȕȈ 0,6% Ȑ 0,2% șȖȖȚȊȍȚșȚȊȍȕȕȖ.
ȗȘȖȔȣȠȓȍȕȕȈȧ ȗȘȖȌțȒȞȐȧ - ȊșȍȋȖ
ȟȨȘȕȈȧ ȔȍȚȈȓȓțȘȋȐȧ
ȥȓȍȒȚȘȖȥȕȍȘȋȍȚȐȒȈ
ǸȐș. 20. ǬȐȕȈȔȐȒȈ ȚȍȔȗȖȊ ȘȖșȚȈ ȖȚȗțșȒȕȣȝ Ȟȍȕ,
% Ȓ ȗȘȍȌȣȌțȡȍȔț ȔȍșȧȞț
ǩȈȕȒȖȊșȒȈȧ șȐșȚȍȔȈ
Ǫ ȖȚȟȨȚȕȖȔ ȗȍȘȐȖȌȍ șȖȝȘȈȕȐȓșȧ ȘȖșȚ șȖȊȖȒțȗȕȖȋȖ ȖȉȢȨȔȈ ȖȉȧȏȈȚȍȓȤșȚȊ ȌȍȑșȚȊțȦȡȐȝ ȉȈȕȒȖȊ:
ȗȖ ȐȚȖȋȈȔ ȔȍșȧȞȈ ȖȕȐ țȊȍȓȐȟȐȓȐșȤ ȕȈ 62,0 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ. (+1,2%), șȓȖȎȐȊȠȐșȤ ȕȈ 1 ȔȈȘȚȈ ȕȈ țȘȖȊȕȍ
5 447,4 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ. (ȘȐș. 21). ǷȖȊȣȠȈȚȍȓȤȕȈȧ ȌȐȕȈȔȐȒȈ ȊȣșȚțȗȐȓȈ ȖȚȘȈȎȍȕȐȍȔ ȘȈșȠȐȘȍȕȐȧ
șȖȊȖȒțȗȕȖȋȖ ȖȉȢȨȔ șȘȖȟȕȖȑ ȌȍȗȖȏȐȚȕȖȑ ȉȈȏȣ ȕȈ 170,3 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ. ȌȖ 2 678,8 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ. (+6,8%) Ȋ
ȖșȕȖȊȕȖȔ ȏȈ șȟȨȚ ȔȍȎȉȈȕȒȖȊșȒȐȝ ȖȗȍȘȈȞȐȑ (+160,0 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ., ȌȖ 445,3 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ.). ǬȍȗȖȏȐȚȣ
ȒȖȘȗȖȘȈȚȐȊȕȣȝ ȒȓȐȍȕȚȖȊ ȝȈȘȈȒȚȍȘȐȏȖȊȈȓȐșȤ ȉȖȓȍȍ țȔȍȘȍȕȕȣȔ ȕȈȘȈȡȐȊȈȕȐȍȔ (+11,2 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ., ȌȖ
772,9 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ.), ȚȖȋȌȈ ȒȈȒ ȖșȚȈȚȒȐ ȘȖȏȕȐȟȕȣȝ șȘȖȟȕȣȝ ȊȒȓȈȌȖȊ ȗȘȈȒȚȐȟȍșȒȐ ȕȍ ȐȏȔȍȕȐȓȐșȤ,
șȖșȚȈȊȐȊ 1 460,6 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ. (ȘȐș. 22).
6 500,0
5 200,0
3 900,0
2 600,0
1 300,0
0,0
2 800,0
2 100,0
1 400,0
700,0
șȘȍȌșȚȊȈ ȜȐȏȐȟȍșȒȐȝ ȓȐȞ
șȘȍȌșȚȊȈ ȦȘȐȌȐȟȍșȒȐȝ ȓȐȞ
șȘȍȌșȚȊȈ ȒȘȍȌȐȚȕȣȝ ȖȘȋȈȕȐȏȈȞȐȑ
ȈȒȞȐȖȕȍȘȕȣȑ (țșȚȈȊȕȣȑ) ȒȈȗȐȚȈȓ
ǸȐș. 21. ǬȐȕȈȔȐȒȈ ȖșȕȖȊȕȣȝ ȊȐȌȖȊ ȗȈșșȐȊȖȊ, Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ.
01.03.14
01.02.14
01.01.14
01.12.13
01.11.13
01.10.13
01.09.13
01.08.13
01.07.13
01.06.13
01.05.13
01.04.13
01.03.13
01.02.13
01.03.14
01.02.14
01.01.14
01.12.13
01.11.13
01.10.13
01.09.13
01.08.13
01.07.13
01.06.13
01.05.13
01.04.13
01.03.13
01.02.13
0,0
ȌȍȗȖȏȐȚȣ ȜȐȏȐȟȍșȒȐȝ ȓȐȞ
ȌȍȗȖȏȐȚȣ ȦȘȐȌȐȟȍșȒȐȝ ȓȐȞ
ȌȍȗȖȏȐȚȣ ȒȘȍȌȐȚȕȣȝ ȖȘȋȈȕȐȏȈȞȐȑ
ǸȐș. 22. ǬȐȕȈȔȐȒȈ șȘȖȟȕȣȝ ȌȍȗȖȏȐȚȖȊ, Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ.
Ǫ ȚȖ Ȏȍ ȊȘȍȔȧ ȕȈȉȓȦȌȈȓȖșȤ șȖȒȘȈȡȍȕȐȍ ȖșȚȈȚȒȖȊ șȘȍȌșȚȊ ȕȈ ȚȍȒțȡȐȝ șȟȍȚȈȝ ȒȓȐȍȕȚȖȊ Ȑ
ȌȍȗȖȏȐȚȈȝ ȌȖ ȊȖșȚȘȍȉȖȊȈȕȐȧ (-73,4 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ., ȌȖ 2 221,6 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ.), Ȉ ȚȈȒȎȍ ȏȈȌȖȓȎȍȕȕȖșȚȐ ȗȖ
ȒȘȍȌȐȚȈȔ, ȗȖȓțȟȍȕȕȣȔ ȖȚ ǷȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊșȒȖȋȖ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȈȕșȒȖȋȖ ȉȈȕȒȈ (-99,7 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ., ȌȖ
88,3 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ.).
ǸȈȏȔȍȘ ȈȒȞȐȖȕȍȘȕȖȋȖ ȒȈȗȐȚȈȓȈ ȉȈȕȒȖȊșȒȖȑ șȐșȚȍȔȣ ȗȖ ȐȚȖȋȈȔ ȜȍȊȘȈȓȧ ȖșȚȈȓșȧ ȕȈ ȗȘȍȎȕȍȔ
țȘȖȊȕȍ – 1 043,2 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ.
ǺȍȕȌȍȕȞȐȧ ȘȖșȚȈ ȉȈȕȒȖȊșȒȐȝ ȈȒȚȐȊȖȊ șȚȈȓȈ ȖȚȘȈȎȍȕȐȍȔ ȘȈșȠȐȘȍȕȐȧ ȒȘȍȌȐȚȖȊȈȕȐȧ
ȕȍȜȐȕȈȕșȖȊȖȋȖ șȍȒȚȖȘȈ (ȕȈ 1,0%, ȐȓȐ ȕȈ 34,2 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ., ȌȖ 3 636,7 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ.). ǺȈȒ, ȕȈ 26,1 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ.
(+1,0%) ȊȖȏȘȖșȓȈ ȏȈȌȖȓȎȍȕȕȖșȚȤ ȒȖȘȗȖȘȈȚȐȊȕȣȝ ȒȓȐȍȕȚȖȊ (ȌȖ 2 683,2 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ.), ȕȈ 8,1 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ.
(+0,9%) – ȕȈșȍȓȍȕȐȧ (ȌȖ 953,5 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ.). ǪȔȍșȚȍ ș ȚȍȔ ȕȈȉȓȦȌȈȓȖșȤ șȖȒȘȈȡȍȕȐȍ ȖȉȢȨȔȈ
ȔȍȎȉȈȕȒȖȊșȒȐȝ ȘȈȏȔȍȡȍȕȐȑ: Ȑȝ ȖșȚȈȚȒȐ ȏȈ ȜȍȊȘȈȓȤ țȔȍȕȤȠȐȓȐșȤ ȕȈ 37,8 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ. (-4,5%) ȌȖ
808,0 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ. (ȘȐș. 23-24).
ǪȍșȚȕȐȒ ǷȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊșȒȖȋȖ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȈȕșȒȖȋȖ ȉȈȕȒȈ ȹ3’2014
47
ǭȎȍȔȍșȧȟȕȣȑ ȖȉȏȖȘ
ǶȌȕȖȊȘȍȔȍȕȕȖ ș ȥȚȐȔ, ȖȚȔȍȟȈȓȖșȤ șȎȈȚȐȍ ȕȈȐȉȖȓȍȍ ȓȐȒȊȐȌȕȖȑ ȟȈșȚȐ ȈȒȚȐȊȖȊ,
ȗȘȍȌșȚȈȊȓȍȕȕȖȑ ȕȈȓȐȟȕȣȔȐ ȌȍȕȍȎȕȣȔȐ șȘȍȌșȚȊȈȔȐ Ȑ ȌȘȈȋȖȞȍȕȕȣȔȐ ȔȍȚȈȓȓȈȔȐ (-8,4% ȌȖ
369,1 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ.) ȗȘȐ ȕȈȘȈȡȐȊȈȕȐȐ ȖșȚȈȚȒȖȊ ȕȈ ȒȖȘșȟȍȚȈȝ (+5,4% ȌȖ 1 580,4 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ.). ǷȘȐ ȥȚȖȔ ȕȈ
țȘȖȊȕȍ ȊȣȠȍ ȕȖȘȔȈȚȐȊȕȖȋȖ șȓȖȎȐȓșȧ ȒȈȒ ȗȖȒȈȏȈȚȍȓȤ ȔȋȕȖȊȍȕȕȖȑ ȓȐȒȊȐȌȕȖșȚȐ – 75,9% (+3,0 ȗ.ȗ. Ȓ
ȏȕȈȟȍȕȐȦ ȕȈȟȈȓȈ ȔȍșȧȞȈ), ȚȈȒ Ȑ ȚȍȒțȡȍȑ – 73,0% (-7,2 ȗ.ȗ.).
01.03.14
01.02.14
01.01.14
01.12.13
01.11.13
01.10.13
01.09.13
01.08.13
01.07.13
01.06.13
01.05.13
01.04.13
01.03.13
01.03.14
01.02.14
01.01.14
01.12.13
01.11.13
01.10.13
01.09.13
01.08.13
01.07.13
01.06.13
01.05.13
01.04.13
01.03.13
01.02.13
2 800,0
1 400,0
0,0
01.02.13
4 500,0
3 600,0
2 700,0
1 800,0
900,0
0,0
7 000,0
5 600,0
4 200,0
ȏȈȌȖȓȎȍȕȕȖșȚȤ ȒȘȍȌȐȚȕȣȝ ȖȘȋȈȕȐȏȈȞȐȑ
ȏȈȌȖȓȎȍȕȕȖșȚȤ ȜȐȏȐȟȍșȒȐȝ ȓȐȞ
ȏȈȌȖȓȎȍȕȕȖșȚȤ ȦȘȐȌȐȟȍșȒȐȝ ȓȐȞ
șȘȍȌșȚȊȈ Ȋ ȒȘȍȌȐȚȕȣȝ ȖȘȋȈȕȐȏȈȞȐȧȝ
ȌȍȕȍȎȕȣȍ șȘȍȌșȚȊȈ
ȊȓȖȎȍȕȐȧ Ȋ Ȟȍȕȕȣȍ ȉțȔȈȋȐ
10
șȖȊȖȒțȗȕȈȧ ȏȈȌȖȓȎȍȕȕȖșȚȤ ȗȖ ȒȘȍȌȐȚȈȔ
ǸȐș. 23. ǬȐȕȈȔȐȒȈ ȖșȕȖȊȕȣȝ ȊȐȌȖȊ ȈȒȚȐȊȖȊ,
Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ.
ǸȐș. 24. ǬȐȕȈȔȐȒȈ șȖȊȖȒțȗȕȖȑ ȏȈȌȖȓȎȍȕȕȖșȚȐ
ȗȖ ȒȘȍȌȐȚȈȔ10 , Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ.
ǬȍȕȍȎȕȣȑ ȘȣȕȖȒ
ǷȖ ȌȈȕȕȣȔ ȌȍȕȍȎȕȖȑ șȚȈȚȐșȚȐȒȐ, ȖȉȢȨȔ ȗȖȓȕȖȑ ȌȍȕȍȎȕȖȑ ȔȈșșȣ11 ȏȈ ȜȍȊȘȈȓȤ șȖȒȘȈȚȐȓșȧ ȕȈ
2,2%, ȐȓȐ ȕȈ 141,1 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ., Ȑ ȕȈ 1 ȔȈȘȚȈ 2014 ȋȖȌȈ șȖșȚȈȊȐȓ 6 129,9 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ. (ȘȐș. 25). ǵȈ ȍȋȖ
ȌȐȕȈȔȐȒț ȖȗȘȍȌȍȓȧȦȡȍȍ ȊȓȐȧȕȐȍ ȖȒȈȏȈȓȖ șȎȈȚȐȍ ȊȈȓȦȚȕȖȑ ȒȖȔȗȖȕȍȕȚȣ (ȕȈ 149,4 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ. ȌȖ
3 977,1 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ.), ȖȉțșȓȖȊȓȍȕȕȖȍ țȔȍȕȤȠȍȕȐȍȔ ȖșȚȈȚȒȖȊ ȕȈ șȟȍȚȈȝ ȌȖ ȊȖșȚȘȍȉȖȊȈȕȐȧ
(ȕȈ 115,7 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ. ȌȖ 1 713,9 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ.) Ȑ șțȔȔȣ ȕȈȓȐȟȕȖȑ ȐȕȖșȚȘȈȕȕȖȑ ȊȈȓȦȚȣ Ȋ ȒȈșșȈȝ ȉȈȕȒȖȊ (ȕȈ
50,3 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ. ȌȖ 186,8 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ.). Ǫ ȘȍȏțȓȤȚȈȚȍ, ȗȖȒȈȏȈȚȍȓȤ ȊȈȓȦȚȐȏȈȞȐȐ șȕȐȏȐȓșȧ ȕȈ 0,9 ȗ.ȗ. Ȑ
șȓȖȎȐȓșȧ ȕȈ țȘȖȊȕȍ 64,9%,
50,0
4 800,0
65,0 1 800,0
45,0
3 200,0
60,0 1 200,0
40,0
1 600,0
55,0
600,0
35,0
0,0
50,0
0,0
30,0
ȌȍȕȍȎȕȈȧ ȔȈșșȈ Ȋ Ȑȕ. ȊȈȓȦȚȍ (ȓȍȊȈȧ ȖșȤ)
ȕȈȞȐȖȕȈȓȤȕȈȧ ȌȍȕȍȎȕȈȧ ȔȈșșȈ (ȓȍȊȈȧ ȖșȤ)
șȚȍȗȍȕȤ ȊȈȓȦȚȐȏȈȞȐȐ (ȗȘȈȊȈȧ ȖșȤ), %
01.02.13
01.03.13
01.04.13
01.05.13
01.06.13
01.07.13
01.08.13
01.09.13
01.10.13
01.11.13
01.12.13
01.01.14
01.02.14
01.03.14
70,0 2 400,0
01.02.13
01.03.13
01.04.13
01.05.13
01.06.13
01.07.13
01.08.13
01.09.13
01.10.13
01.11.13
01.12.13
01.01.14
01.02.14
01.03.14
6 400,0
ȉȍȏȕȈȓȐȟȕȣȍ ȌȍȕȍȎȕȣȍ șȘȍȌșȚȊȈ (ȓȍȊȈȧ ȖșȤ)
ȕȈȓȐȟȕȣȍ ȌȍȕȤȋȐ Ȋ ȖȉȘȈȡȍȕȐȐ (ȓȍȊȈȧ ȖșȤ)
ȒȖȥȜȜȐȞȐȍȕȚ ȕȈȓȐȟȕȖșȚȐ (ȗȘȈȊȈȧ ȖșȤ), %
ǸȐș. 25. ǬȐȕȈȔȐȒȈ Ȑ șȚȍȗȍȕȤ ȊȈȓȦȚȐȏȈȞȐȐ ȗȖȓȕȖȑ
ȌȍȕȍȎȕȖȑ ȔȈșșȣ, Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ.
ǸȐș. 26. ǬȐȕȈȔȐȒȈ ȕȈȞȐȖȕȈȓȤȕȖȑ
ȌȍȕȍȎȕȖȑ ȔȈșșȣ, Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ.
Ǫ ȖȚȓȐȟȐȍ ȖȚ ȊȈȓȦȚȕȖȑ șȖșȚȈȊȓȧȦȡȍȑ ȖȉȢȨȔ ȕȈȞȐȖȕȈȓȤȕȖȑ ȌȍȕȍȎȕȖȑ ȔȈșșȣ ȏȈ ȖȚȟȨȚȕȣȑ
ȔȍșȧȞ ȕȍșȒȖȓȤȒȖ ȘȈșȠȐȘȐȓșȧ (+0,4%, ȐȓȐ +8,3 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ., ȌȖ 2 152,8 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ.). ǬȈȕȕȈȧ ȌȐȕȈȔȐȒȈ
ȖȉțșȓȖȊȓȍȕȈ ȗȘȐȘȖșȚȖȔ ȒȈȒ șțȔȔ ȕȈȓȐȟȕȣȝ Ȍȍȕȍȋ Ȋ ȖȉȘȈȡȍȕȐȐ (+0,5%, ȐȓȐ +4,7 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ., ȌȖ
870,0 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ.), ȚȈȒ Ȑ ȖȉȢȨȔȈ șȘȍȌșȚȊ, ȏȈȌȍȑșȚȊȖȊȈȕȕȣȝ Ȋ ȉȍȏȕȈȓȐȟȕȖȔ ȖȉȖȘȖȚȍ (+0,3%, ȐȓȐ
ȊȒȓȦȟȈȧ ȗȘȐȘȈȊȕȍȕȕȣȍ Ȓ ȕȐȔ șȘȍȌșȚȊȈ
ȊȒȓȦȟȈȍȚ ȖșȚȈȚȒȐ șȖȖȚȊȍȚșȚȊțȦȡȐȝ șȟȍȚȖȊ ȒȖȔȔȍȘȟȍșȒȐȝ ȉȈȕȒȖȊ, ȞȍȕȚȘȈȓȤȕȖȋȖ ȉȈȕȒȈ Ȑ ȒȘȍȌȐȚȕȣȝ
ȖȘȋȈȕȐȏȈȞȐȑ I Ȑ II ȒȈȚȍȋȖȘȐȐ
10
11
48
ǪȍșȚȕȐȒ ǷȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊșȒȖȋȖ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȈȕșȒȖȋȖ ȉȈȕȒȈ ȹ3’2014
ǭȎȍȔȍșȧȟȕȣȑ ȖȉȏȖȘ
01.02.13
01.03.13
01.04.13
01.05.13
01.06.13
01.07.13
01.08.13
01.09.13
01.10.13
01.11.13
01.12.13
01.01.14
01.02.14
01.03.14
3,6 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ., ȌȖ 1 282,8 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ.). ǷȘȐȟȨȔ ȘȖșȚ ȗȖșȓȍȌȕȐȝ ȉȣȓ Ȗȉȍșȗȍȟȍȕ Ȋ ȖșȕȖȊȕȖȔ
ȗȖȗȖȓȕȍȕȐȍȔ șȟȍȚȖȊ Ȑ ȊȒȓȈȌȖȊ ȜȐȏȐȟȍșȒȐȔȐ ȓȐȞȈȔȐ (+2,4 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ., ȐȓȐ +0,9%, ȌȖ 276,5 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ.).
DzȖȥȜȜȐȞȐȍȕȚ ȕȈȓȐȟȕȖșȚȐ ȘțȉȓȨȊȖȋȖ ȗȘȍȌȓȖȎȍȕȐȧ ȕȈ 01.03.2014 ȋ. ȖșȚȈȓșȧ ȕȈ țȘȖȊȕȍ ȕȈȟȈȓȈ
ȔȍșȧȞȈ – 40,4% (ȘȐș. 26).
ǩȖȓȍȍ ȏȈȔȍȚȕȣȔȐ ȚȍȔȗȈȔȐ ȗȘȖȐșȝȖȌȐȓȖ țȊȍȓȐȟȍȕȐȍ ȘțȉȓȨȊȖȑ ȌȍȕȍȎȕȖȑ ȉȈȏȣ (+9,6%, ȐȓȐ
139,1 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ.). ǷȖ șȖșȚȖȧȕȐȦ ȕȈ 1 ȔȈȘȚȈ 2014 ȋȖȌȈ ȖȕȈ ȏȈȜȐȒșȐȘȖȊȈȕȈ ȕȈ ȖȚȔȍȚȒȍ 1 594,4 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ.
ǶșȕȖȊȕȖȍ ȊȓȐȧȕȐȍ ȕȈ ȍȨ ȗȘȐȘȖșȚ ȖȒȈȏȈȓȖ
1 000,0
2,000
ȗȖȊȣȠȍȕȐȍ ȖșȚȈȚȒȖȊ ȕȈ ȒȖȘȘȍșȗȖȕȌȍȕȚșȒȐȝ
750,0
1,750
șȟȍȚȈȝ
ȒȖȔȔȍȘȟȍșȒȐȝ
ȉȈȕȒȖȊ
Ȋ
500,0
1,500
ǷȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊșȒȖȔ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȈȕșȒȖȔ ȉȈȕȒȍ
250,0
1,250 (+24,2%, ȐȓȐ 123,2 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ., ȌȖ 631,6 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ.).
0,0
1,000 Ǫ ȘȍȏțȓȤȚȈȚȍ ȌȖȓȧ ȌȈȕȕȖȑ șȚȈȚȤȐ Ȋ șȚȘțȒȚțȘȍ
ȌȍȕȍȎȕȖȑ ȉȈȏȣ ȊȖȏȘȖșȓȈ ȕȈ 4,7 ȗ.ȗ. ȌȖ 39,6%.
ǶȉȢȨȔ ȕȈȓȐȟȕȣȝ ȌȍȕȍȎȕȣȝ șȘȍȌșȚȊ Ȋ ȒȈșșȈȝ
ȉȈȕȒȖȊ ȚȈȒȎȍ ȝȈȘȈȒȚȍȘȐȏȖȊȈȓșȧ ȗȖȊȣȠȈȚȍȓȤȕȖȑ
ȕȈȓȐȟȕȣȍ ȌȍȕȤȋȐ Ȋ ȖȉȘȈȡȍȕȐȐ
șȘȍȌșȚȊȈ Ȋ ȒȈșșȈȝ ȉȈȕȒȖȊ
ȌȐȕȈȔȐȒȖȑ (+13,7%, ȐȓȐ 11,2 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ., ȌȖ
ȒȖȘȘȍșȗȖȕȌȍȕȚșȒȐȍ șȟȍȚȈ
ȌȍȕȍȎȕȣȑ ȔțȓȤȚȐȗȓȐȒȈȚȖȘ Ǵ2ȝ (ȗȘȈȊȈȧ ȖșȤ), ȗțȕȒȚȣ 92,8 Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ.).
ǯȕȈȟȍȕȐȍ ȌȍȕȍȎȕȖȋȖ ȔțȓȤȚȐȗȓȐȒȈȚȖȘȈ
ǸȐș. 27. ǬȐȕȈȔȐȒȈ ȘțȉȓȨȊȖȑ ȌȍȕȍȎȕȖȑ ȉȈȏȣ Ȑ
șȓȖȎȐȓȖșȤ
ȕȈ țȘȖȊȕȍ 1,35 ȗȘȖȚȐȊ 1,47 ȕȈ
ȔțȓȤȚȐȗȓȐȒȈȚȖȘȈ Ǵ2ȝ, Ȕȓȕ Șțȉ.
1 ȜȍȊȘȈȓȧ 2014 ȋȖȌȈ (ȘȐș. 27), ȟȚȖ ȖȉțșȓȖȊȓȍȕȖ
ȏȈȔȍȚȕȣȔ ȘȈșȠȐȘȍȕȐȍȔ ȌȍȕȍȎȕȖȑ ȉȈȏȣ ȕȈ ȜȖȕȍ ȌȖșȚȈȚȖȟȕȖ țȔȍȘȍȕȕȖȋȖ ȘȖșȚȈ ȈȋȘȍȋȈȚȈ Ǵ2ȝ.
ǪȈȓȦȚȕȣȑ ȘȣȕȖȒ
01.02.13
01.03.13
01.04.13
01.05.13
01.06.13
01.07.13
01.08.13
01.09.13
01.10.13
01.11.13
01.12.13
01.01.14
01.02.14
01.03.14
ǶȜȐȞȐȈȓȤȕȣȑ ȒțȘș ȌȖȓȓȈȘȈ ǹȀǨ Ȋ ȚȍȟȍȕȐȍ ȖȚȟȨȚȕȖȋȖ ȗȍȘȐȖȌȈ șȖȝȘȈȕȧȓșȧ ȕȈ țȘȖȊȕȍ
11,1000 Șțȉ. ǷǴǸ (ȘȐș. 28). ǰȕȜȓȧȞȐȧ ȕȈ ȜȖȕȍ 15,2200
0,3750
șȚȈȉȐȓȤȕȖșȚȐ
Ȋ
șȜȍȘȍ
ȒțȘșȖȖȉȘȈȏȖȊȈȕȐȧ
13,6800
0,3500
ȊȣȘȈȏȐȓȈșȤ
Ȋ
șȕȐȎȍȕȐȐ
ȗȖȒțȗȈȚȍȓȤȕȖȑ
0,3250
șȗȖșȖȉȕȖșȚȐ ȒȈȒ ȌȖȓȓȈȘȈ (ȕȈ 0,1%), ȚȈȒ Ȑ 12,1400
«ȒȖȘȏȐȕȣ ȊȈȓȦȚ» (ȕȈ 0,2%). ǰȕȌȍȒș ȘȍȈȓȤȕȖȋȖ 10,6000
0,3000
ȒțȘșȈ Șțȉȓȧ ǷǴǸ Ȓ ȌȖȓȓȈȘț șȖȝȘȈȕȐȓșȧ ȕȈ
ȖȚȔȍȚȒȍ ȧȕȊȈȘȧ ȚȍȒțȡȍȋȖ ȋȖȌȈ, Ȉ Ȓ «ȒȖȘȏȐȕȍ
ȊȈȓȦȚ» ȗȖȊȣșȐȓșȧ ȕȈ 0,6%.
ȖȜȐȞȐȈȓȤȕȣȑ ȒțȘș ȌȖȓȓȈȘȈ ǹȀǨ (ȓȍȊȈȧ ȖșȤ)
ǹȖȊȖȒțȗȕȈȧ ȨȔȒȖșȚȤ ȘȣȕȒȈ ȕȈȓȐȟȕȖȑ
ȖȜȐȞȐȈȓȤȕȣȑ ȒțȘș ȍȊȘȖ (ȓȍȊȈȧ ȖșȤ)
ȖȜȐȞȐȈȓȤȕȣȑ ȒțȘș Șțȉ. ǸǼ (ȗȘȈȊȈȧ ȖșȤ)
ȐȕȖșȚȘȈȕȕȖȑ ȊȈȓȦȚȣ șȖșȚȈȊȐȓȈ Ȋ ȥȒȊȐȊȈȓȍȕȚȍ
ǸȐș. 28. ǬȐȕȈȔȐȒȈ ȖȜȐȞȐȈȓȤȕȖȋȖ ȒțȘșȈ ȌȖȓȓȈȘȈ
56,9 Ȕȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ., șȖȒȘȈȚȐȊȠȐșȤ ȖȚȕȖșȐȚȍȓȤȕȖ
ǹȀǨ, ȍȊȘȖ Ȑ ȘȖșșȐȑșȒȖȋȖ Șțȉȓȧ, Șțȉ. ǷǴǸ
ȏȕȈȟȍȕȐȧ ȧȕȊȈȘȧ ȚȍȒțȡȍȋȖ ȋȖȌȈ ȕȈ 5,5%.
36,0
11,1300 48,0
11,0350
24,0
11,1240 32,0
11,0200
12,0
11,1180 16,0
11,0050
11,1120
10,9900
ȗȖȒțȗȒȈ ȌȖȓȓȈȘȈ ǹȀǨ (ȓȍȊȈȧ ȖșȤ)
ȗȖȒțȗȒȈ ȌȘțȋȐȝ ȊȈȓȦȚ (ȓȍȊȈȧ ȖșȤ)
ȘȣȕȖȟȕȣȑ ȒțȘș ȌȖȓȓ. Ȋ DzǶ (ȗȘȈȊȈȧ ȖșȤ), Șțȉ. ǷǴǸ
ǸȐș. 29. ǬȐȕȈȔȐȒȈ șȖȊȖȒțȗȕȖȋȖ ȖȉȢȨȔȈ ȗȖȒțȗȒȐ
ȕȈȓȐȟȕȖȑ ȐȕȖșȚȘȈȕȕȖȑ ȊȈȓȦȚȣ, Ȕȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ.
ȜȍȊ.14
ȧȕȊ.14
ȌȍȒ.13
ȕȖȧ.13
ȖȒȚ.13
șȍȕ.13
ȈȊȋ.13
ȐȦȓ.13
ȐȦȕ.13
ȔȈȑ.13
ȈȗȘ.13
ȔȈȘ.13
0,0
ȜȍȊ.13
ȜȍȊ.14
ȧȕȊ.14
ȌȍȒ.13
ȕȖȧ.13
ȖȒȚ.13
ȈȊȋ.13
șȍȕ.13
ȐȦȓ.13
ȐȦȕ.13
ȔȈȑ.13
ȈȗȘ.13
ȔȈȘ.13
ȜȍȊ.13
0,0
ȗȘȖȌȈȎȈ ȌȖȓȓȈȘȈ ǹȀǨ (ȓȍȊȈȧ ȖșȤ)
ȗȘȖȌȈȎȈ ȌȘțȋȐȝ ȊȈȓȦȚ (ȓȍȊȈȧ ȖșȤ)
ȘȣȕȖȟȕȣȑ ȒțȘș ȌȖȓȓ. Ȋ DzǶ (ȗȘȈȊȈȧ ȖșȤ), Șțȉ. ǷǴǸ
ǸȐș. 30. ǬȐȕȈȔȐȒȈ șȖȊȖȒțȗȕȖȋȖ ȖȉȢȨȔȈ ȗȘȖȌȈȎȐ
ȕȈȓȐȟȕȖȑ ȐȕȖșȚȘȈȕȕȖȑ ȊȈȓȦȚȣ, Ȕȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ.
ǪȍșȚȕȐȒ ǷȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊșȒȖȋȖ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȈȕșȒȖȋȖ ȉȈȕȒȈ ȹ3’2014
49
ǭȎȍȔȍșȧȟȕȣȑ ȖȉȏȖȘ
ǸȐș. 31. ǬȐȕȈȔȐȒȈ ȗȖȒțȗȒȐ/ȗȘȖȌȈȎȐ ȐȕȖșȚȘȈȕȕȖȑ
ȊȈȓȦȚȣ ȕȈ ȊȕțȚȘȍȕȕȍȔ ȊȈȓȦȚȕȖȔ ȈțȒȞȐȖȕȍ Dzǩ,
Ȕȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ.
ȜȍȊ.14
ȧȕȊ.14
ȌȍȒ.13
ȕȖȧ.13
ȖȒȚ.13
șȍȕ.13
ȈȊȋ.13
ȐȦȓ.13
ȔȈȑ.13
ȈȗȘ.13
ȜȍȊ.13
ȜȍȊ.14
ȧȕȊ.14
ȌȍȒ.13
ȖȒȚ.13
ȗȖȒțȗȒȈ
Ȋ Ț. ȟ. ȌȖȓȓ. ǹȀǨ
ȐȦȕ.13
ȗȘȖȌȈȎȈ
Ȋ Ț.ȟ. ȌȖȓȓ. ǹȀǨ
ȕȖȧ.13
șȍȕ.13
0,0
ȈȊȋ.13
0,0
ȐȦȓ.13
15,0
ȐȦȕ.13
29,0
ȔȈȑ.13
30,0
ȈȗȘ.13
58,0
ȔȈȘ.13
45,0
ȜȍȊ.13
87,0
ȔȈȘ.13
ǬȐȕȈȔȐȒȈ ȗȖȒȈȏȈȚȍȓȧ ȖȗȘȍȌȍȓȧȓȈșȤ ȐșȒȓȦȟȐȚȍȓȤȕȖ țȔȍȕȤȠȍȕȐȍȔ ȖȉȢȨȔȈ ȊȈȓȦȚȣ, ȗȘȖȌȈȕȕȖȑ
ȒȓȐȍȕȚȈȔȐ ȖȉȔȍȕȕȣȝ ȗțȕȒȚȖȊ (-14,6% ȌȖ 29,8 Ȕȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ.). ǺȖȋȌȈ ȒȈȒ șȗȘȖș ȕȈ ȕȍȨ ȘȈșȠȐȘȐȓșȧ ȕȈ
7,5%, șȓȖȎȐȊȠȐșȤ ȕȈ țȘȖȊȕȍ 27,1 Ȕȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ. ǷȖȌȈȊȓȧȦȡȈȧ ȟȈșȚȤ șȌȍȓȖȒ ȏȈȒȓȦȟȈȓȈșȤ ș ȌȖȓȓȈȘȖȔ
ǹȀǨ: 60,7% – ȘȍȈȓȐȏȖȊȈȕȕȖȑ Ȑ 83,0% – ȗȘȐȖȉȘȍȚȨȕȕȖȑ ȊȈȓȦȚȣ (ȘȐș. 29-30). Ǫ ȘȍȏțȓȤȚȈȚȍ, ȟȐșȚȈȧ
ȗȘȖȌȈȎȈ ȕȈȓȐȟȕȖȑ ȊȈȓȦȚȣ șȕȐȏȐȓȈșȤ Ȋ 3,1 ȘȈȏȈ ȌȖ 2,6 Ȕȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ.
ǸȣȕȖȟȕȣȑ ȒțȘș ȗȘȖȌȈȎȐ ȕȈȓȐȟȕȣȝ ȌȖȓȓȈȘȖȊ ǹȀǨ ȒȘȍȌȐȚȕȣȔȐ ȖȘȋȈȕȐȏȈȞȐȧȔȐ (ȊȒȓȦȟȈȧ
ȒȖȔȔȍȘȟȍșȒȐȍ ȉȈȕȒȐ Ȑ ȒȘȍȌȐȚȕȣȍ ȖȘȋȈȕȐȏȈȞȐȐ, ȖșțȡȍșȚȊȓȧȦȡȐȍ ȖȚȌȍȓȤȕȣȍ ȊȐȌȣ ȉȈȕȒȖȊșȒȐȝ
ȖȗȍȘȈȞȐȑ) șȖșȚȈȊȐȓ 11,1258 Șțȉ. ǷǴǸ, ȗȖȒțȗȒȐ – 11,0097 Șțȉ. ǷǴǸ.
ǪȍȓȐȟȐȕȈ ȒȖȕȊȍȘșȐȖȕȕȣȝ șȌȍȓȖȒ ȕȈ ȉȍȏȕȈȓȐȟȕȖȔ șȍȋȔȍȕȚȍ ȊȈȓȦȚȕȖȋȖ ȘȣȕȒȈ ȗȖ ȐȚȖȋȈȔ
ȖȚȟȨȚȕȖȋȖ ȔȍșȧȞȈ ȏȕȈȟȐȚȍȓȤȕȖ ȊȖȏȘȖșȓȈ, Ȋ ȗȖȌȈȊȓȧȦȡȍȑ ȟȈșȚȐ ȊșȓȍȌșȚȊȐȍ ȔȈșȠȚȈȉȕȖȋȖ
ȘȈșȠȐȘȍȕȐȧ ȖȗȍȘȈȞȐȑ ȕȈ ȊȕțȚȘȍȕȕȍȔ ȊȈȓȦȚȕȖȔ ȈțȒȞȐȖȕȍ ȒȖȔȔȍȘȟȍșȒȐȝ ȉȈȕȒȖȊ (ȘȖșȚ Ȋ 1,6 ȘȈȏȈ ȌȖ
141,7 Ȕȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ.). ǹȓȍȌțȍȚ ȖȚȔȍȚȐȚȤ, ȟȚȖ Ȋ ȜȍȊȘȈȓȍ ȚȍȒțȡȍȋȖ ȋȖȌȈ ȉȣȓȖ ȖȚȔȍȟȍȕȖ ȏȕȈȟȐȚȍȓȤȕȖȍ
țȊȍȓȐȟȍȕȐȍ șțȔȔȣ ȗȘȖȌȈȕȕȖȑ ȒȓȐȍȕȚȈȔȐ ȊȈȓȦȚȣ (Ȋ 1,9 ȘȈȏȈ ȌȖ 71,9 Ȕȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ.) ȕȈ ȜȖȕȍ ȉȖȓȍȍ
țȔȍȘȍȕȕȖȋȖ ȕȈȘȈȡȐȊȈȕȐȧ Ȓțȗȓȍȕȕȣȝ șȘȍȌșȚȊ (Ȋ 1,4 ȘȈȏȈ ȌȖ 69,8 Ȕȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ.). Ǫ ȐȚȖȋȍ, ȊȗȍȘȊȣȍ ș
ȔȈȘȚȈ ȗȘȖȠȓȖȋȖ ȋȖȌȈ ȏȈȜȐȒșȐȘȖȊȈȕȖ ȗȘȍȊȣȠȍȕȐȍ ȗȘȍȌȓȖȎȍȕȐȧ ȕȈȌ șȗȘȖșȖȔ ȕȈ țȘȖȊȕȍ
2,0 Ȕȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ. (-4,6 Ȕȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ. Ȋ ȧȕȊȈȘȍ 2014 ȋȖȌȈ). ǷȘȍȖȉȓȈȌȈȦȡȍȑ ȊȈȓȦȚȖȑ șȌȍȓȖȒ ȗȖ-ȗȘȍȎȕȍȔț
ȧȊȓȧȍȚșȧ ȌȖȓȓȈȘ ǹȀǨ, șȜȖȘȔȐȘȖȊȈȊȠȐȑ 71,7% șțȔȔȣ ȘȍȈȓȐȏȖȊȈȕȕȖȑ ȊȈȓȦȚȣ Ȑ 82,7% –
ȗȘȐȖȉȘȍȚȨȕȕȖȑ (ȘȐș. 31).
ȌȖȓȓȈȘ ǹȀǨ
ȌȘțȋȐȍ ȊȈȓȦȚȣ
ǸȐș. 32. ǬȐȕȈȔȐȒȈ ȖȗȍȘȈȞȐȑ ȗȖ ȗȖȒțȗȒȍ/ȗȘȖȌȈȎȍ
ȐȕȖșȚȘȈȕȕȖȑ ȊȈȓȦȚȣ ȕȈ ȔȍȎȉȈȕȒȖȊșȒȖȔ ȘȣȕȒȍ,
Ȕȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ.
30,0
ǸȈșȠȐȘȍȕȐȍȔ ȚȈȒȎȍ ȝȈȘȈȒȚȍȘȐȏȖȊȈȓșȧ
ȖȉȢȨȔ
ȊȈȓȦȚȖȖȉȔȍȕȕȣȝ
ȖȗȍȘȈȞȐȑ
ȕȈ
ȔȍȎȉȈȕȒȖȊșȒȖȔ
ȘȣȕȒȍ
(+24,7%
ȌȖ
10,0
22,7 Ȕȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ.). Ǫ șȚȘțȒȚțȘȍ ȊȈȓȦȚ ȕȈ ȌȖȓȦ
0,0
ȌȖȓȓȈȘȈ ǹȀǨ ȗȘȐȠȓȖșȤ ȗȖȘȧȌȒȈ 80%
șȖȊȖȒțȗȕȖȋȖ ȗȖȒȈȏȈȚȍȓȧ (ȘȐș. 32).
Ǫ ȚȖ Ȏȍ ȊȘȍȔȧ Ȋ ȖȚȟȨȚȕȖȔ ȗȍȘȐȖȌȍ
ȌȖȓȓȈȘ ǹȀǨ
șȖȝȘȈȕȐȓȈșȤ ȚȍȕȌȍȕȞȐȧ șȕȐȎȍȕȐȧ șȗȘȖșȈ,
ȌȘțȋȐȍ ȊȈȓȦȚȣ
ȗȘȍȌȢȧȊȓȧȍȔȖȋȖ ȒȖȔȔȍȘȟȍșȒȐȔȐ ȉȈȕȒȈȔȐ ȕȈ
ǸȐș. 33. ǬȐȕȈȔȐȒȈ ȖȗȍȘȈȞȐȑ ȗȖ ȗȖȒțȗȒȍ
ȉȍȏȕȈȓȐȟȕțȦ
ȐȕȖșȚȘȈȕȕțȦ
ȊȈȓȦȚț
ȕȈ
ȐȕȖșȚȘȈȕȕȖȑ ȊȈȓȦȚȣ ȒȖȔȔȍȘȟȍșȒȐȔȐ ȉȈȕȒȈȔȐ
ȊȈȓȦȚȕȖȔ ȈțȒȞȐȖȕȍ ǷǸǩ, ȜȐȒșȐȘțȍȔȈȧ ș
ȕȈ ȊȈȓȦȚȕȖȔ ȈțȒȞȐȖȕȍ ǷǸǩ, Ȕȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ.
ȕȖȧȉȘȧ
ȗȘȖȠȓȖȋȖ
ȋȖȌȈ.
Ǫ
ȘȍȏțȓȤȚȈȚȍ,
ȖȚȕȖșȐȚȍȓȤȕȖ ȧȕȊȈȘșȒȖȋȖ țȘȖȊȕȧ Ȗȕ țȔȍȕȤȠȐȓșȧ ȗȖȟȚȐ ȕȈ ȚȘȍȚȤ ȌȖ 10,8 Ȕȓȕ ȌȖȓȓ. (ȘȐș. 33).
50
ȜȍȊ.14
ȧȕȊ.14
ȌȍȒ.13
ȕȖȧ.13
ȖȒȚ.13
șȍȕ.13
ȈȊȋ.13
ȐȦȓ.13
ȐȦȕ.13
ȔȈȑ.13
ȈȗȘ.13
ȔȈȘ.13
ȜȍȊ.13
20,0
ǪȍșȚȕȐȒ ǷȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊșȒȖȋȖ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȈȕșȒȖȋȖ ȉȈȕȒȈ ȹ3’2014
ǭȎȍȔȍșȧȟȕȣȑ ȖȉȏȖȘ
ǹȚȈȊȒȐ ȌȍȗȖȏȐȚȕȖ-ȒȘȍȌȐȚȕȖȋȖ ȘȣȕȒȈ
ǹȖȋȓȈșȕȖ ȌȈȕȕȣȔ ȉȈȕȒȖȊșȒȖȑ șȚȈȚȐșȚȐȒȐ, Ȋ ȜȍȊȘȈȓȍ 2014 ȋȖȌȈ șȘȍȌȕȍȊȏȊȍȠȍȕȕȣȍ12 șȚȈȊȒȐ ȗȖ
ȒȘȈȚȒȖșȘȖȟȕȣȔ ȘțȉȓȨȊȣȔ ȒȘȍȌȐȚȈȔ, ȗȘȍȌȖșȚȈȊȓȍȕȕȣȔ ȕȈșȍȓȍȕȐȦ, șȕȐȏȐȓȐșȤ ȕȈ 1,1 ȗ.ȗ. ȌȖ 14,9%
ȋȖȌȖȊȣȝ, ȗȖ ȊȈȓȦȚȕȣȔ – ȕȈ 0,3 ȗ.ȗ. ȌȖ 16,0% șȖȖȚȊȍșȚȊȍȕȕȖ. ǬȖȓȋȖșȘȖȟȕȣȍ ȒȘȍȌȐȚȣ Ȋ Șțȉȓȧȝ
ȗȖȌȍȠȍȊȍȓȐ Ȍȓȧ ȏȈȨȔȡȐȒȖȊ ȕȈ 1,5 ȗ.ȗ. ȌȖ 15,0% ȋȖȌȖȊȣȝ, ȚȖȋȌȈ ȒȈȒ Ȋ ȐȕȖșȚȘȈȕȕȖȑ ȊȈȓȦȚȍ,
ȕȈȗȘȖȚȐȊ, ȗȖȌȖȘȖȎȈȓȐ ȕȈ 1,5 ȗ.ȗ. ȌȖ 17,5% ȋȖȌȖȊȣȝ.
ǵȈ ȜȖȕȍ ȗȘȍȖȉȓȈȌȈȦȡȍȑ Ȋ ȘȖȏȕȐȟȕȖȔ ȒȘȍȌȐȚȖȊȈȕȐȐ ȚȍȕȌȍȕȞȐȐ șȕȐȎȍȕȐȧ ȗȘȖȞȍȕȚȕȣȝ șȚȈȊȖȒ
Ȋ ȒȖȘȗȖȘȈȚȐȊȕȖȔ șȍȒȚȖȘȍ ȖȚȔȍȟȍȕ ȘȖșȚ Ȟȍȕȣ ȕȈ șșțȌȕȣȑ ȒȈȗȐȚȈȓ. Ǭȓȧ ȦȘȐȌȐȟȍșȒȐȝ ȓȐȞ ȏȈȔȍȚȕȖ
ȗȖȊȣșȐȓȈșȤ șȚȖȐȔȖșȚȤ ȌȖȓȋȖșȘȖȟȕȣȝ ȏȈȐȔșȚȊȖȊȈȕȐȑ Ȋ ȕȈȞȐȖȕȈȓȤȕȖȑ ȊȈȓȦȚȍ (+3,3 ȗ.ȗ. ȌȖ 11,4%).
ǷȘȖȞȍȕȚȣ ȗȖ ȘțȉȓȨȊȣȔ ȒȘȍȌȐȚȈȔ, ȊȣȌȈȕȕȣȔ ȕȈ șȘȖȒ Ȋ ȗȘȍȌȍȓȈȝ ȖȌȕȖȋȖ ȋȖȌȈ, ȊȖȏȘȖșȓȐ ȕȈ 1,4 ȗ.ȗ.
ȌȖ 15,3%. ǹȚȈȊȒȐ ȕȈ ȌȖȓȋȖșȘȖȟȕȣȍ ȒȘȍȌȐȚȕȣȍ ȗȘȖȌțȒȚȣ, ȊȣȘȈȎȍȕȕȣȍ Ȋ ȐȕȖșȚȘȈȕȕȖȑ ȊȈȓȦȚȍ,
ȗȖȌȕȧȓȐșȤ ȕȈ 0,5 ȗ.ȗ. Ȑ șȓȖȎȐȓȐșȤ ȕȈ țȘȖȊȕȍ 11,2% ȋȖȌȖȊȣȝ. ǹȕȐȎȍȕȐȍ ȗȘȖȞȍȕȚȖȊ ȕȈ 3,3 ȗ.ȗ.
ȏȈȜȐȒșȐȘȖȊȈȕȖ ȓȐȠȤ Ȋ ȖȚȕȖȠȍȕȐȐ ȊȈȓȦȚȕȣȝ ȒȘȈȚȒȖșȘȖȟȕȣȝ ȏȈȑȔȖȊ – 12,1 ȗȘȖȚȐȊ 15,5%,
ȊȏȐȔȈȍȔȣȝ ȔȍșȧȞȍȔ ȘȈȕȍȍ.
ǹȘȍȌȕȍȊȏȊȍȠȍȕȕȣȍ ȗȘȖȞȍȕȚȕȣȍ șȚȈȊȒȐ ȗȖ ȒȘȍȌȐȚȈȔ ȜȐȏȐȟȍșȒȐȔ Ȑ ȦȘȐȌȐȟȍșȒȐȔ ȓȐȞȈȔ,
șȜȖȘȔȐȘȖȊȈȊȠȐȍșȧ Ȋ ȜȍȊȘȈȓȍ 2014 ȋȖȌȈ, ȗȘȍȌșȚȈȊȓȍȕȣ ȕȈ ȘȐșțȕȒȈȝ 34 Ȑ 35.
20,00
20,00
15,00
15,00
10,00
10,00
5,00
5,00
0,00
0,00
ȌȖ 30 31 - 90 91-180 181 Ȍȕ ȖȚ 1 ȌȖ șȊȣȠȍ
Ȍȕȍȑ
Ȍȕȍȑ
Ȍȕȍȑ ȌȖ ȋȖȌȈ 3 ȓȍȚ 3 ȓȍȚ
Ȋ Șțȉȓȧȝ
Ȋ Ȑȕ. ȊȈȓȦȚȍ
ǸȐș. 34. ǹȘȍȌȕȍȊȏȊȍȠȍȕȕȣȍ ȗȘȖȞȍȕȚȕȣȍ șȚȈȊȒȐ
ȗȖ ȒȘȍȌȐȚȈȔ ȜȐȏȐȟȍșȒȐȔ ȓȐȞȈȔ
Ȋ ȜȍȊȘȈȓȍ 2014 ȋȖȌȈ, % ȋȖȌȖȊȣȝ
ȌȖ 30
Ȍȕȍȑ
31 - 90 91-180 181 Ȍȕ ȖȚ 1 ȌȖ șȊȣȠȍ
Ȍȕȍȑ
Ȍȕȍȑ ȌȖ ȋȖȌȈ 3 ȓȍȚ 3 ȓȍȚ
Ȋ Șțȉȓȧȝ
Ȋ Ȑȕ. ȊȈȓȦȚȍ
ǸȐș. 35. ǹȘȍȌȕȍȊȏȊȍȠȍȕȕȣȍ ȗȘȖȞȍȕȚȕȣȍ șȚȈȊȒȐ
ȗȖ ȒȘȍȌȐȚȈȔ ȦȘȐȌȐȟȍșȒȐȔ ȓȐȞȈȔ
Ȋ ȜȍȊȘȈȓȍ 2014 ȋȖȌȈ, % ȋȖȌȖȊȣȝ
ǬȐȕȈȔȐȒȈ șȚȈȊȖȒ ȕȈ ȌȍȗȖȏȐȚȕȣȍ ȗȘȖȌțȒȚȣ 8,0
ȝȈȘȈȒȚȍȘȐȏȖȊȈȓȈșȤ șȕȐȎȍȕȐȍȔ ȌȖȝȖȌȕȖșȚȐ ȗȖ 6,0
ȊȒȓȈȌȈȔ ȜȐȏȐȟȍșȒȐȝ ȓȐȞ, ȕȖȔȐȕȐȘȖȊȈȕȕȣȔ Ȋ
4,0
ȗȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊșȒȐȝ Șțȉȓȧȝ: ȌȖ 5,4% (-1,0 ȗ.ȗ.) ȗȖ
2,0
șȘȍȌșȚȊȈȔ, ȘȈȏȔȍȡȨȕȕȣȔ ȕȈ șȘȖȒ șȊȣȠȍ ȖȌȕȖȋȖ
ȋȖȌȈ, Ȑ ȌȖ 4,9% (-0,1 ȗ.ȗ.) – ȕȈ ȒȘȈȚȒȖșȘȖȟȕȖȑ 0,0
ȌȖ 30 31 - 90 91-180 181 Ȍȕ ȖȚ 1 ȌȖ șȊȣȠȍ
ȖșȕȖȊȍ.
Ȍȕȍȑ
Ȍȕȍȑ
Ȍȕȍȑ ȌȖ ȋȖȌȈ 3 ȓȍȚ
3 ȓȍȚ
ǷȘȐ
ȌȍȗȖȕȐȘȖȊȈȕȐȐ
ȕȈșȍȓȍȕȐȍȔ
Ȋ Șțȉȓȧȝ
Ȋ Ȑȕ. ȊȈȓȦȚȍ
ȐȕȖșȚȘȈȕȕȖȑ ȊȈȓȦȚȣ ȕȈ ȗȍȘȐȖȌ Ȋ ȗȘȍȌȍȓȈȝ
ǸȐș. 36. ǹȘȍȌȕȍȊȏȊȍȠȍȕȕȣȍ ȗȘȖȞȍȕȚȕȣȍ șȚȈȊȒȐ
ȖȌȕȖȋȖ ȋȖȌȈ Ȋ șȘȍȌȕȍȔ ȉȈȕȒȐ ȗȘȍȌȓȈȋȈȓȐ 4,0%
ȗȖ ȌȍȗȖȏȐȚȈȔ ȜȐȏȐȟȍșȒȐȝ ȓȐȞ
ȋȖȌȖȊȣȝ, ȟȚȖ ȊȣȠȍ ȏȕȈȟȍȕȐȧ ȗȘȍȌȣȌțȡȍȋȖ
Ȋ ȜȍȊȘȈȓȍ 2014 ȋȖȌȈ, % ȋȖȌȖȊȣȝ
ȔȍșȧȞȈ
ȕȈ
0,5
ȗ. ȗ. ǷȖ ȌȖȓȋȖșȘȖȟȕȣȔ
ȌȍȗȖȏȐȚȈȔ ȗȘȖȞȍȕȚȕȈȧ șȚȈȊȒȈ ȉȣȓȈ ȉȓȐȏȒȈ Ȓ țȘȖȊȕȦ ȧȕȊȈȘȧ – 5,7% ȋȖȌȖȊȣȝ (+0,2 ȗ.ȗ.).
ǹȚȘțȒȚțȘȈ șȚȈȊȖȒ ȗȖ șȘȖȟȕȣȔ ȊȒȓȈȌȈȔ ȕȈșȍȓȍȕȐȧ, ȘȈȏȔȍȡȨȕȕȣȔ Ȋ ȉȈȕȒȈȝ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȐ ȏȈ
ȜȍȊȘȈȓȤ 2014 ȋȖȌȈ, ȗȘȍȌșȚȈȊȓȍȕȈ ȕȈ ȘȐșțȕȒȍ 36.
ȗȘȐ ȘȈșȟȨȚȍ șȘȍȌȕȍȊȏȊȍȠȍȕȕȖȑ ȗȘȖȞȍȕȚȕȖȑ șȚȈȊȒȐ Ȋ ȒȈȟȍșȚȊȍ ȊȍșȖȊ ȊȣșȚțȗȈȦȚ ȖȉȢȨȔȣ șȖȖȚȊȍȚșȚȊțȦȡȐȝ
ȖȗȍȘȈȞȐȑ (ȉȍȏ țȟȨȚȈ șȘȍȌșȚȊ ȌȖ ȊȖșȚȘȍȉȖȊȈȕȐȧ). ǬȈȕȕȣȑ ȗȖȒȈȏȈȚȍȓȤ ȧȊȓȧȍȚșȧ ȐȕȌȐȒȈȚȐȊȕȣȔ Ȑ ȕȍ ȔȖȎȍȚ
ȘȈșșȔȈȚȘȐȊȈȚȤșȧ ȒȈȒ ȍȌȐȕȈȧ șȚȈȊȒȈ ȗȘȍȌȓȖȎȍȕȐȧ ȌȍȗȖȏȐȚȕȣȝ/ȒȘȍȌȐȚȕȣȝ ȗȘȖȌțȒȚȖȊ ȒȖȔȔȍȘȟȍșȒȐȝ ȉȈȕȒȖȊ
12
ǪȍșȚȕȐȒ ǷȘȐȌȕȍșȚȘȖȊșȒȖȋȖ ȘȍșȗțȉȓȐȒȈȕșȒȖȋȖ ȉȈȕȒȈ ȹ3’2014
51
Статистическая информация
Учётные цены на аффинированные драгоценные металлы в феврале 2014 года
Официальные обменные курсы иностранных валют в феврале 2014 года
Основные показатели деятельности коммерческих банков ПМР
Основные экономические показатели развития ПМР