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Ming 'name of the invention of invention 2,% forgiven! In the method of separating a polymer
molded body provided with a St contact on the n1 seeking range 11ifi side using a strong electric
field, the polarization voltage Up (t) is at least the initial field strength of 4000 kV 5 m + " And,
preferably at a temperature above 2A-, the polymer molded body of C8 with a variable capacitor
for high voltage resistance polarization having a limitation of charging of 1A-C, and as a starting
condition C> > C1 gets cold, and C snow has an initial maximum polarization voltage Up (to)
applied to the polymer molded body for a short time so that it drops to a value Up (t) that is
almost half of Up (to) after polarization How to choose the% symbol. Two-polymer moldings or
films with a polar molecular group, in particular a film based on a polymer based on a polymer
based on a polymer with a% /% vinylated bivinylpolyester, polyamide, polyurethane, polyurea,
polyacrylonitrile and polycarbonate The method described in section 1 of the scope of dialectic *
In order to disperse tripolarizing, it is assumed that the voltage measured in parallel with the
polarizing capacitor is the range of the Wf load requirement-the method described in the first
and second terms. 4 DC 14 L? 11A, F, 14 Temperature division and division of the polymer
molded body using the measuring device-The polymer molded body with the polarizable contact
force and provision 1 on both sides of the odor 1, the variable capacitor for high voltage
resistance polarization (2) 11 1) with switch 12 (12) and series resistor (13) by means of
cascaded support shaft "t = alternatively connect with DC power supply (3) or with polymer
molding (1) A device characterized by (5) Measurement-and as a control device, use a high
resistance voltmeter (6) at the polymer molding t4 to be polarized (in the same way as in 1-at 1
or ground voltage). The device of claim 4.
Polarization method and device for polymer moldings
Detailed Description of the Invention EndPage: The present invention relates to a method and
apparatus that allow for optimal fractionation of polymer moldings. In the following structure,
t & molecular groups such as polyvinylidene fluoride, polyvinyl fluoride, polyvinyl chloride,
Boria babo 11. Polymer moldings containing -7, -55 or polyesters, polyurethanes, polyureas,
polyacrylonitriles, polycarbonates, etc. after polarization in an electric field with piezo- and / or
pyro-electrical and non-linear optical properties According to the invention, it is increasingly
used as an electroacoustic transducer and as a heating element. It is used, for example, in
microphones, loudspeakers, ultrasound transducers and in the detection of laser radiation.
Conventionally, numerous inventions and publications have been dedicated to the fractionation
of polymer moldings (U.S. Pat. No. 2,657,536, No. 2738220, No. 2742977, No. 2744016, R, G,
Keplar, Ro A Jnderson, "Ferroelectricity in polyvinylidene fluoride, J, ppl. Phys, 49 (1978) W,
page 1232 M, li, Litt. G, Hsu, P, Ba 5 u ′ ′ Pyro ′ electric and piezoelectric J in nai C ′ 711,
pp.1. Phys, 48 (1977) 6, 2208). At the time of polarization of a polymer molding, it is a second
problem to achieve optimum polarization with an enduring technical burden. In this connection,
it is important to apply a strong electric field (close to the strength of the breakthrough electric
field) at both temperatures during the polarization process to the polymer molded body without
the appearance of electrical breakdown. West German published t # patent applications
2719880 and 2719881 direct current w with electric field applied in a pulsed manner!
Equipment and methods are described based on combined use of fields. This method or
corresponding device is firstly of technical construction ・ / complex (eg expensive power supply
for voltage pulse generation, complex polarization management), and secondly provides only
comparable pyroelectric coefficient. There is a drawback of not being. In the case of polymer
molding polarization in g1 electric field, as described in West German Published Application No.
2719881, an expensive equipment technique is necessary. Three device systems 3-3 are used to
generate the polarization voltage, for example, the third system consists of two extra-pressure
power supplies and one complex high voltage-resistant switching device. In another method
(West German published patent application No. 2611047, West German publication% liver
application No. 2611047) as a rule 1 g!
It is not possible to polarize using an electric field without a fracture mass, and the polarization
time is too short in addition to the polarization too low. In order to overcome the drawbacks of
the known devices and methods, it is necessary to find a solution which can achieve optimum
polarization in a short time using simple technical means. It is an object of the present invention
to develop a method and apparatus capable of effectively polarizing a polymer molded body
provided with conductive contacts on both sides in a DC electric field. In that case, high optimal
polarization of trust and settlement should be guaranteed. The device according to the invention
or the method according to the invention should be realizable by simple technical means.
According to the present invention, a relatively large field strength is applied4-a method and
apparatus are developed which achieve the ultimate failure of the polymer molding with sexual
contact on both sides with 4 "and no electrical breakdown. Task force to be The method
according to the invention is a measure of polarization during the process of differentiation,
which should be distinguished by the fact that it is possible to check and control its course.
Polymer moldings which are polarized according to the method according to the invention or
according to the invention according to the invention should exhibit a polarization above the
average and also a piezo- and / or pyroelectric coefficient above the average. According to the
present invention, this problem is solved by using a capacitor C-rich high voltage resistant
polarization capacitor during the polarization. The capacity * C of the capacitor for polarization is
chosen such that at the beginning of the polarization Cm >> Ct, that is to say that C 寓 is
significantly (at least 10 times) greater than C1. Where C1 represents the volume of the polymer
molding provided with conductive contacts (for example with aluminum) in the plug. The
capacitor for polarization and the polymer molded body are placed in a fine electric circuit, and
EndPage: 21 at the start of polarization, C> As a result of voltage CI supplied from the blood flow
power source under conditions of CI? It is preferably applied to the polymer molding as a
polarization voltage Up (to) of a value which should be at least 4 L 100 kV cm −1 field strength
and in particular if the polarization temperature T p 〃s is above% I'm ('I' In the case where m is
the melting point of the polymer molding in question, the polar molecular groups of the polymer
molding are arranged in the direction of the applied electric field. In this case the valley tCz of
the polymer molding rises to the field strength and temperature m- if the temperature is high
enough, C1 or optimally to the expected capacity increase of CI in the relevant electrical circuit
When tuned Up (to) is rapidly reduced to the value Up (t) which is below the destruction limit,
and the value of Up (to) or even the extreme case is multiplied by the extreme initial high
polarization voltage Llp. Because it takes only the time needed to (to) or polarize, it is designed
not to destroy the '@L temperament weather.
The first modification of the electric circuit to be used is connected in series with the polymer
molded body 1 which is plated on both sides, for example, or the high voltage resistant capacitor
for polarization 2 as shown in FIG. One supply is provided by the power supply 3. The plating 4
is connected to the via hole d with one strength, and the plating 5 is connected to the
polarization capacitor 2. An island resistance voltmeter 6 is used to measure the voltage Ue
stored in the polarization capacitor 2, which is at ground voltage at m- along with the
polarization capacitor 2 and @flow% source 3. The polymer compact 1 is electrically isolated
from the heating system 7 and the cooling section 8 by a quartz or mica plate 9. There are
thermocouples IO or mounting 1 on quartz plate 9 for temperature ItM determination. After the
polymer molded body heating system 7 (radiation heating S radio frequency heating or
resistance heating, heating with heating liquid) is brought to temperature for division, the DC
voltage U () is polarized by the DC power supply 3 2-polymer molding l-Apply to the system. The
series connection of the first polymer molded body 1 and the polarization capacitor 2
immediately switches on the current source 3 to set the voltage UG as the entire voltage or 7polarization voltage Up (to). 1 Apply to polymer molding l. Departure state Cz >> C, because it
depends on (· 1 ′ ′. As Up (to) is sufficiently high (a field strength of at least 4000kV, a dipole
mobility t large enough in a polymer compact 1) 1 as evidenced (Tp is preferably greater than%
Tm If it is selected, the corresponding die ball group force / distribute in the direction of the
applied electric field. The capacity of the dipole arrangement in this polymer molding l increases
with almost one jump in response to the increase in polarization of the 'tliCt', and C8 is expected
to be 1 optimum depending on the change in the expected polymer molding 41. If it is, it will
reach a point near C2. However, this means that the initial maximum polarization voltage Up (to)
is partially transferred to the other capacitor within the paper sheet due to increased polarization
in the polymer molding 1 and thus appears at the start of polarization The extreme electrical load
of the polymer molding 1 is strongly reduced. For example, when the volume WCt of the polymer
molding 1 or the capacitance C2 of the capacitor 2 for polarization is reached, there is an even
distribution of 8-voltage Up (to), and the polymer molding IKd is divided into Up (t) and 1 are no
longer half of Up (to). In order to ensure effective tuning between the capacity tC of the capacitor
2 for polarization and the capacity C1 of the polymer molding 1, it is advantageous to use a
variable capacitor 2 for polarization.
In the second modification of the wiring, as shown in FIG. 2, the polymer molded body 1 plated
on both sides as shown in FIG. The other plating 4 is connected to the polarization capacitor 2 via
the resistor l and the CiJ moving piece (switch 1it B) of the switch 12. Further, the dividing
capacitor 2 is linked by a switch 12 (position) via a resistor 13 ft to L1liltAt, − * (jA3). 6)
Measure the resistance of the polymer molding 1 and parallel 1) 6). The blood flow power supply
3, the capacitor for polarization 2 and the voltage needle 6 are at the ground voltage or fourteen.
The IJw compact 1 is in close thermal contact with the temperature control system 14. After the
polymer molding 1 is heated to the polarization temperature Tp by the temperature control
system 14, the polarization capacitor 2 is charged to the charge EndPage: 3 pressure U ()
through the resistor 13 by the lh flow power supply 3 (The switch 12 is in the order of mA). For
polarization, the switch 12 is moved to position B, and the polarization capacitor t2 is separated
from the DC power supply 3 and connected in parallel with the polymer molding 1 according to
FIG. 2 via a series resistor. By the parallel connection of the polymer molding 1 and the
polarization capacitor 2, at the moment of the switching, the voltage UG is almost entirely or Up
(to) applied to the 1 polymer molding. This is because 1Ct >> C, applies in the departure state.
The Up (to) is sufficiently high (field strength is at least 4000 kV crf ′ ′), and it is guaranteed
that the dipole mobility of Tp or polymer molded body 1 is sufficiently large 1 (Tp is desirably
above% Tm) The corresponding dipole group is oriented in the direction of the applied electric
field. Due to this dipole orientation, as in the case of following the wire connection deformation
of 'Cm1, C & increases almost one jump, and as a result, the initial maximum polarization voltage
Up (to) or the fracture limit low value of the polymer molded body l rapidly Go down to Up (t).
According to the method according to the invention, in the first ligation variant (FIG. 1) and also
in the second one (FIG. 2), the polarization at high temperatures is at least twice as large as in the
previously known methods. It can be done by strength. In the case of optimum tuning of C8 and
C2, in the wiring system shown in the figure, charge limitation is applied to the polymer molded
body 1 by the polarization capacitor 2, and the extremely low polarization voltage Up (to)
required for effective polarization is optimum. It appears that the polymer compact 1 is applied
for a short period of time, or falls quickly enough below the breakdown voltage. The particularity
of this method allows even near Tm to be polarized with greater than average field strength.
An interaction occurs between the polarization pin 2 and the polymer molding 1 which causes an
optimum reduction in time f t of the maximum polarization voltage Up (to) of the polymer
molding 1. If Tp is advantageously selected, Up (to) or higher leads to polarization or rapid
progress of the polymer molding 1 and also reduces the time it takes Up (to) to polymer molding
1. Therefore, it is normally possible to polarize at the temperature and voltage Up (to) at which
electrical breakdown occurs reliably. In the process according to the invention, it is advantageous
to cool the polymer molding rapidly while maintaining the voltage Up (t) when polarization is
carried out significantly above the Tm. The voltmeter 6 shown in FIGS. 1 and 2 has the task of
showing the time course of the polarization voltage Up (t) during the polarization or the final
value of eUp (t), the capacity tcs of the polarization capacitor If the initial value Up (to) is known,
the achieved polarization of the polymer molding 1 can be determined. That is, the polarization
process can be controlled by controlling the polarization process such that predetermined
polarization is aggregated in the poly i compact 1. On the other hand, it is indicated by a short
circuit which may appear in the polymer molding 1 from negative defects or a sudden discharge
of the polymer molding 1. At this time, the polarization process can be immediately interrupted
and the test piece can be taken out. In addition, it is possible to immediately infer piezo- and bikeelectricity from the displayed final value of Up (t), so that it is not necessary to inspect the
polarized polymer molded body in the latter part. Up (t) measurement is 1 poly! Molding 1 /
Condensing capacitor 2-Implement with high resistance to avoid discharging. The series
resistance 11 shown in the m2 factor is the rise time of Up (to) C for optimization of the
polarization process. Make it possible to change. The method according to the invention and the
device according to the invention have the advantage that they can be polarized without
destruction using extreme field strengths. Polarized polymer moldings have a polarization and
also a piezo-electrical and / or OO electrical coefficient which is an average of 1 over the average.
The polarization time is in the range of a few seconds. The method according to the invention or
the device according to the invention is advantageously applicable in the case of polarization of
polymer moldings in the form of films or foils, preferably having polar molecular groups in the
primary structure. Examples 1 to 7 mention vinyl, vinyl, polymers, polyesters and borias, Boliw,
retans, polyureas and polyacrylics EndPage: 4 nitriles and polycarbonates.
Example 1 (Circuit Modification 1) A uniaxially polarized thickness O, Ulllli! Existing in the form
of the t-th as the polarization king of the fluor polymer. Aluminium-plated by distilling both sides
of the polyfluorinated vincillin-film. 0 r-d round plate) Bring to a fractionation temperature of
140 ° C. The capacitor for polarization used at the time of polarization is a volume of -1 tOnF,
which is one digit or more larger than the capacity of the untreated polymer film. 1 h 〆 H (, 1
min source voltage UG = BkV is applied to the series connection of the conventional capacitor /
polymer film for 1 min. Immediately after switching on UG, almost the entire value of LJ () is
applied to the polarization voltage Up (to) polymer film and causes the dipole to be oriented. As a
result, the surge of the polymer film capacitance caused by f causes the voltage Up (to) to be
redistributed to the capacitor for polarization, and after the completion of polarization, the
polymer film still has 2.5 kV or less. Don't go too far. After the polymer and film are completely
polarized, the film is cooled to room temperature while maintaining the voltage. Piezoelectric
coefficient 60 pC / N and pyro% 'i gas coefficient Flne / 1! On the polyfluorinated vincillin film
after the above polarization process. にとなつ1いる。 Biaxially oriented polyfluorinated Bini 17
den having a thickness of 0.006 um, film (plated side 0. The same fraction substitute capacitor is
used to remove Rcri) polarization and apply a tear voltage UC) = 2.5 kV at a temperature of 1130
° C. Here too, polarization can be carried out without electrical breakdown (piezoelectric
coefficient 30 pc / N, pyroelectric coefficient 4 nC / cniK). Nさ0.015711・! The
polarization of polyvinyl fluoride (Hyvinyl film (plated surface 1ad)) of 1 reduces the capacity of
the QlnF polarization capacitor. The steeping temperature is 110 ° C. 1.1:6 に、
+4. Pressure UG = 6 and ■ operation 'J = f. Axing shaft trees in this run The pyroelectric
coefficient 2 nC / cr / lK is obtained. Conducting ν · S 2 (Time h% 6 Variant 1) Polarization of
Polyacrylonitrile 15-Polyacrylonitrile in the Case of Polarization T Thickness 0.2 μm Starting
from the O1 Dragon's still anti-oriented film (-輔) (plated lc + 4). In this case, the capacity of the
dividing capacitor is 5 n and the voltage UG is 5 kV. Polarization is carried out at 120 ° C.
according to the method described above. The obtained pie 0 navy yarn number is 4 nc, /, dK.
Example 3 (Circuit Liquid Type 1) Polarization of Boria Bubble Aluminum is plated on an example
side of a uniaxially laminated film made of polyamide 11 base having a thickness of 0.010
(plating box: lct / l).
The polarization temperature is 120 ° C. and a voltage LIG = 5 kV is applied. The capacity of the
polarization and other capacitors is 5 nF. The film is fractionated for 5 minutes and then pulled
down to cool to room 1 kA in an electric field. Use Boria door and Boria ball group as a substrate
in the same manner. A film (0.010 mm thick) made from a 2% solution in formic acid was also
polarized. The film was stretched 16-14 times prior to polarization and then similarly aluminum
plated (area 0,8 cd). The pyroelectric coefficient is 2ne / CIItK for polyamide-11, 3nC / ctlK for
polyamide-55 and -7. Example 4 (Circuit Modification 2) Polarization of Polyvinylidene Fluoride
Aluminum having a thickness of 0.0121 μm Uniaxially-oriented Polyvinylidene Fluoride Film
Both Presenting in the First Modification with Aluminum by the Front Layer To a polarization
temperature of C.). The capacitor for polarization, which is made rigid for
sensitization, is electrically rearranged with a polymer Q film according to FIG. 2 and has a
volume of 110 nF, which is larger than the initial capacity of the test piece by one digit or more.
After the polarization capacitor is charged to a voltage Ue = 5 kV by a direct charge battery, a
switch is searched for, and the separation capacitor is delayed with the polymer film and
simultaneously disconnected from the DC power supply. The series resistance between the
polymer film and the polarization capacitor is chosen to be IMΩ. EndPage: 5 electrical
connection between the capacitor for polarization and the polymer film or as soon as @, LIL)
slightly lower than the voltage of the LIL) The other voltage (Jp (to) ・ · polymer film applied to
the dipole Make up for yourself. This causes the companies in the polymer to rise and fall to
values lower than Up (to) or 3 kV. After completion of the fractionation, the polymer film is
cooled in parallel to room temperature since it is kept in parallel connection with the capacitor
for polarization. The resistance in series with the DC power supply is advanced to 10 kΩ in order
to transmit an excessive voltage shock in the case of the color separation condenser light 1 u.
According to the above-mentioned polarization process, the polyvinylidene fluoride film has a
piezo u'A4% M 60 pC / N, a PI 0 electric coefficient of 8 nC. Example 5 (Circuit modification 2) JP
= degree of polarization of polyvinyl chloride is 0. Starting from a uniaxially oriented film of O1
snowflake (plated surface 1 m). The companies for polarization capacitors that are late-connected
in parallel to polymer films are 4nF. The direct current voltage to be derived is (JG = 4 kV.
Polarization is applied at 770 ° C. according to the method described above.
The values obtained are ω pc / N for the piezoelectric coefficient and 1 nC / dK for the Bylaw
coefficient. 4 、 Concave 1 ム j 単 1 説明 1 凶 r よ 結 変 形 変 形 42 42 凶 凶 凶 凶 凶 凶 凶 凶 凶
凶 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42
42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 は は は 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42. ■ [phase] ■
[phase] 1 ... polymer molded body 2 ... capacitor for co-operation 3 ... blood flow corridor 4 ...
temple-contact 5 ... isoelectric contact 6 · · · Voltmeter 7 · · · Heating system 8 ··· Cooling unit 9 · · ·
Quartz-or mica plate 【0 · · · Thermocouple 11 · · · resistance 19-13 · · · · · 12? A Unit 14 ···
Temperature control system-Add-End Page: 6 Continued priority claim on page 1 (3) 1979 4
"24th ■ East Germany (DD) ■ WPCO 8 J / 212341 @ Inventor Vorfgang Schwald Itch
Democratic Republic 1532 Stansdorf Bachstrasse-45EndPage: 7