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The present invention relates to an electroacoustic transducer, and more particularly to an
electroacoustic laminated lead hydrophone. Conventional technology 1 □ □ □ The □ □-iφ
Shin 1 □ □ □ □ A single rod hydrophone is known and is described in US Pat. No. 8,603,921.
The hydrophone of this U.S. patent is provided with an electroacoustic transducer in the form of
a flexible elastic lead constituted by a laminate of a piezoelectric material and an electrographic
material adhered to both surfaces thereof. The elastic lead has one end fixed in a cantilevered
manner with an inertia n amount, the other end is a free end, the elastic lead is bent by the
acoustic wave that strikes the side surface of the elastic lead, and the electric output signal
corresponding to the bending of the lead I'm trying to generate it. Another electroacoustic lead
assembly described in U.S. Pat. No. 3,803,546 is to connect two pairs of laminated leads to a
central inertial mass. One end of each lead is cantilevered to the inertial mass so that each pair of
leads extend from both ends of the inertial mass. A viscous paste is interposed between the other
end of each lead and the inner wall of the housing. Accordingly, the lead is compressed and
flexed by an acoustic wave having a directional component that strikes the housing and is
parallel to the lead so as to generate an electrical output signal corresponding to a degree of
deflection of the lead. Such conventional lead-type hydrophones work satisfactorily as
electroacoustic transducers for the purpose of accommodation but with sensitivity, applicability,
applications, weight, size and / or mechanical complexity and relatively expensive manufacturing
The cost will be limited. Disclosure of the Invention It is an object of the present invention to
provide an electroacoustic transducer having a relatively simple and inexpensive structure and
relatively high sensitivity and versatility. Another object of the present invention is to provide a
lead-shaped idrophone having leads each cantilevered at one end to the hermetic seal and having
a separate inertial weight at each opposite end. It is to be. Another object of the present invention
is to provide a relatively low profile lead type hydrophone. 'The object of the present invention is
to provide the hydrophone with a means for damping the vibration of the elastic reed and for
preventing the large deformation due to the shock at the time of manufacture, transport, storage
or deployment. is there. Yet another object of the present invention is to provide a wireless
idrophone that assists in a cable supporting a horizontal array of hydrophones. The hermetic
housing of the reed hydrophone is rigid, cylindrical and has the advantage of relatively light
Four upright, flat, flat, laminated electroacoustic transducer leads are mounted in four quadrants
on the inner surface of the hole of the hermetic seal. A separate inertial weight is affixed to the
upper end of each resilient lead. The electrode leads from each electrode are connected to a
conventional signal processing circuit to determine the direction of the acoustic wave from the
relative curvature of the leads and transmit the information to the receiver. The acoustic wave
that strikes the side wall of the hermetic seal placed in the water makes it possible to have an
inertia of more than 11% in proportion to the directional component of the acoustic wave
forming an angle with the surface of the lead supporting the weight. The side walls are
interlocked with each other with respect to the weight. In order to generate sinusoidal and cosine
patterns for determining the direction of the acoustic wave, it is necessary to have two elastic
leads disposed orthogonal to each other. However, two or more leads may be attached in each of
the orthogonal directions and electrically connected in series to add outputs and improve
sensitivity. Permeate the air tightness to the weight by the elastic lead and bend the amount
proportional to acceleration acceleration, and the related electric power and output to the 467
output circuit! 1 salary? ! トるよ″)にil る。 'If PI · lead mounting G: 比較 的 relatively
easy and P7. The price is A '> 0, and the name is 4! Special 51! )) Special weight 1 ′ ′ ′ ′ ′
′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ a ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ a) a ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′
′ ′ ′ ′ a ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ a) Stick to another ItC needle 111-11 °. By making the \ 71'i,
lre, and i of the reed (open the weight valve 'f' f <',),-, it is possible to make the N and It
components of the reed relatively small. The [11 mountain is a place t +: (7) amplitude sound!
The 5q tune of Li -1 is extremely thick for the wave and given lead σ voice characteristics and
dimensions. iるからである。 j (the weight of each 1R is reduced by attaching a pad of 4E Mγ 1
between the name 11 + 1 end of the FF weight and the individual hard and solid it 1 moon λ 1
by 71 t 1 Also, it is possible to prevent large deformation of the lead due to shock load generated
in production IRi, transportation, storage or tjt) ljF month 1 + i. Alternatively, the pad can be
adhered to the second, ie, unsynchronized; Σ) A fluid as a medium in the hermetic seal is air, and
the positive buoyancy is rQ from this G). This is advantageous in placing the array of
hydrophones installed in water / along the horizontal cable between the rails IIIA. The reason is
that each hydrophone of the array supports the weight of the cable.
An embodiment of the invention will be described by way of example with reference to the
drawings. In the figure, the same symbol 61 is attached to the same part, and it is assumed that
the constitution and the function are the same. The 1111 examples of the present invention
describe hydropones that convert acoustic waves into related electrical signals, but the present
invention is not limited to this and it relates to Sumi 復 transformational sound-to-wave
transducers or car-air signals It can apply to the projector etc. which convert into the acoustic
wave to be carried out. Accordingly, the present invention broadly refers to an electroacoustic
transducer U. As shown in FIGS. 1-8, the hydrophone 20 according to the present invention is
provided with a formed baseplate bulkhead or substrate 22 which is formed with a radially
outwardly extending shoulder 23 thereon. An ItOI + ring 26 is fitted in a peripheral groove 24
provided on the substrate 22. The lid 28 in the form of a cylinder has a top 80 and an annular
side wall 32 closely fixed to the 0 ring 26. The lower end of the side wall 82 is assembled and
attached to the shoulder 23 to form an airtight seal. As a result, the hydropon 20 can be placed
in water without leaking air and l 'inside the inside. The bulkhead Vf plate 22 and lid 28 are
made of a rigid, thin, comparable 091 lightweight material such as aluminum or rib-reinforced
plastic. The axes of the faces of the bulkhead 22 +1 XI + and l l y l ′ ′ are negative (negative
angles). Substrate z2 is a flexible, thin, flat upright lightning. Attach the pneumoacoustic
transducer leads 84h, 36, 88 and 40, respectively, and attach the lower end 34a, 36a, 88a and 4
· Oa to the plate 22 by epoxy bonding. Stick to 46 and 48. The leads 34, 86, 38 and 40 are
arranged in four quadrants, the first pair of leads 34. 38 being arranged parallel on either side of
the y 'axis, and the second pair of leads Arrange in parallel on both sides of the axis.
Each upper end 34b of leads 84.36.38 and 4IO. 36b, asb and 4Ub with the respective groove 52.
. The mold bars can be fixed to 54, 56 and 5B, respectively, and these mold bars can be made of
high density heavy weights such as lead and other materials. Particularly in this example, the nail
Dlao, a2. a4 · and 66, each being 4 × @ 60 to 6 (all in all in order to be j oz (0, 4, 54 IC 9); Set to
ounces, @ amount of (o, 114 kg). Let the reels 34-40 each extend 5/8 inches (between 15 and 9)
on the surface 50.
The stiffness of the reed is selected to obtain a heavy chain result, and in general, the harder the
reed, the heavier the weight required to obtain a constant It 8 degree. In this case, the 11 factors
are equalized. The width of the lead affects the electrical impedance, and the wider the lead, the
smaller the impedance. Straight 17.0 rigid bracket arm 68 integrally formed in a cantilever shape
integrally formed with each weight 111 of each weight 60 + 62 + 64 and 66 and the base 69
extending laterally from the lower end Between them, one piece of viscoelastic damping material
67 is attached, and each base 69 is fixed to the substrate 22 by attaching it to the surface 50 by
1d. (A charge 67 is a low viscose or resistant elastic material such as rubber, polyether based
polyurethane, silicon or butyl. The trade name of the low Q or low resistance material is Dow
Chemical Company Silgard 188 or Ha 189. Because the hydrophone 20 operates without any
interlocking damping of the weights 60-66, the required movement response by the material 67
(mechanical Q, thermal stability and occurs during manufacturing, transport, storage and
deployment The prevention of shock loads on the IJ-de can be obtained. As shown in FIG. 3 (not
shown) (the material 67 is inclined outwardly from each end of the sleeves 60-66 towards the
individual bracket arms 68), and is mounted on the individual rail ply with the weight attached. It
is preferable to obtain a gradually increasing effect as the movement of the weight in the lateral
direction increases. It is of course possible to use damping forms and positions and other such
things as L7. If desired, the leads + can be placed on the bulkhead 22 as in the
configuration shown in FIG. 4, in which case the leads 34 and 88 are coplanar and the leads are
86 and 40 can be coplanar in a plane perpendicular to the plane of the leads 34 and 38. As
shown in the drawing, the hydrophone 20 is operated for detecting the direction of an acoustic
wave using only two leads, one for each of two orthogonal bloods, in this case a sinusoidal
pattern by the leads on one side. To generate a cosine wave pattern by the leads on the other
side. A single .sigma.) Lead element can also produce a flat directional pattern in the form of six
figures 8 '', but it is possible to combine two lead needles mounted on a ridge or parallel to it.
Connect to generate patterns of the same type to improve symmetry and increase sensitivity.
FIG. 5 shows in cross section the lead 341 and the weight 60 removed from the substrate 22, the
electro-acoustic transducer portion is known and the description will be made briefly. This
example! Although only layer 34 is described, the other leads 36. 88 and 40 have the same
configuration. Layer 34 is a laminate of a rigid and flexible elastic insulating plate 70 which is
flat at the center or inside and is made of a material used for a printed circuit board such as a
General Electric G-10 board. can do. Each insulating plate 70 is provided with 1 mil (0, 0025)
thick laminate layers 70a and 70b of conductive material such as silver or copper deposited
respectively on both sides thereof. The laminate layers 70 a and 70 b are electrically connected
to each other by the conducting wire 71. These laminate layers 70a and 70b are made of L +
having 11 laminated electrodes 11 and 12 of laminated electric materials such as silver or
copper, respectively, on both sides, and the electric layers 72 and 74 are made of a conductive
bonding material. Bond each one. Insulating leads 82 and 84 are connected 71 (airly connected
to 1 M, 柿 <76 and 7 B respectively). The piezoelectric layers 72 and 74 are made of a material
such as polarized barium barium ditanoate or lead zirconate titanate. As is known in the prior art,
a pressure corresponding to the degree of bending is generated along the curved line by means
of wedges and surface pressure 7 @, WI 72 and 74. The leads 82 of the resilient leads 34 and 38
are interconnected and the leads 82 of the resilient leads 36 and 40 are interconnected. The
piezoelectric layers 72 and 74 can further extend them upward along the insulating plate 70
because the above-mentioned alignment becomes larger near the substrate 22, but the
illustration of the distance to the upper end of the insulating plate 10 is Satisfactory results when
extending up to 0 ° 4 times? jすることかできる。 Conductors 84 of all the leads are
connected to a directional signal processor 88 described later and lead out through openings 86
formed in the substrate 22 and then the openings 86 are hermetically sealed with an epoxy
adhesive. H-: The layers 72 and 74 are polarized and electrically coupled to the associated
pressure .gamma.IL layer of the transducer located in the same or parallel plane so as to generate
a summed output. Alternatively, voltage is applied to the electrodes 76 and 78 to cause the
bending associated with the clamping 12 and 741 to generate acoustic waves associated with the
surrounding medium. The frequency and the amplitude of the acoustic wave depend on the
frequency and the amplitude of the supplied voltage. By providing weights 60 ° 62, +34 and 66,
the heights of leads 34.86, 88 and 40 can be relatively low.
The reason is that the degree of bending of the lead is increased for a given acoustic wave
amplitude and a given IJ-d characteristic which strikes the wall of the hydrophone 20. The
opposing leads are electrically connected to each other electrically, but connecting these leads in
parallel can achieve the desired result. Also, the piezoelectric layers 72 and 74 of each lead can
be electrically contacted in parallel and polarized to reverse polarity to η to obtain desired
impedance characteristics and other desired results. Commercially available air-to-air acoustic
conversion elements can be used instead of the leads 346 to 40, and such conversion elements
include Tarebite Corporation's "Hymolb" (trade name), which are Leos. The 6 acoustics "by
Edward L. Verneck," Med-Hill Book Company, Inc., "at the beginning of p. 170 of 1954. In the
present invention, (11, lead type m pneumatic acoustic torsion is used. For example, the plate 70
can be made of a conductive material such as aluminum, brass or beryllium copper. In this case,
the laminate layers 70a and 70b are unnecessary, and it is only necessary to adhere the electric
power of the piezoelectric layers 72 and 74 to both sides of the conductive plate 70 using a
conductive adhesive. Also, it is possible to use the result obtained by using only one pressure
layer of the lll-: 'nL layers 72 and 74). As known in the art, it is possible to use a combination of
god-shaped and push-button piezoelectric effect materials with each of the nJ flexable elastic
leads. The elastic lead itself may be of various types and sizes. The transducer leads 341 r 36 r: 3
B and 40-via the leads 82 and 84. Signal processing equipment [in i + 788? IT, Q-J, are processed
by known circuits so that the direction of the 9 (i-j sound 7C wave) can be measured. For
example, it is possible to use the circuit described in FIG. 1 of US Pat. No. 1-I-l'f'J'R'I''4 ', to
measure the direction of the received acoustic wave. This circuit is also used in this example. The
directional and omnidirectional signals obtained by the hydrophone of the present invention may
be used as an input signal to any "use" or "6 processing" circuit which detects the direction of the
acoustic wave source by rotating or stationary the hydrophone. Can. -Using the circuit of the
signal processing unit 88 as an example, the sine and cosine response of the hydrophone can be
used to stem the inverse tangent of the incoming acoustic wave j] 's IW.
The directional sine and / or cosine pattern output of the hydrophone can also be combined with
the omnidirectional output to form a synthetic heart-shaped pattern, this heart-shaped pattern
being advantageous for eliminating mounting errors . Since such a circuit is known, the
description thereof is omitted. The signal processor 88 uses the converter in receive mode "! lj
receive the electrical signal related to the amplitude and direction of the acoustic wave, and send
the transducer in transmission mode to 1 (all the electrical signals are supplied to the transducer
leads 84, 36, 88 and 4-0 and the surrounding medium To be able to transmit an interlock of
sound W waves. In FIG. 6, a dotted line) turns 90 indicate a sine wave pattern of a figure 8 shape,
and solid lines of a figure 8 shape turn indicate a cosine wave pattern. Wavefront moving from
180 ° with minimal power output from leads 34 and 88 at the lower or negative portion of turn
92 by the wave front of the acoustic wave interlocking from the 0 ° direction along X axis 94
Thus, the outputs of leads 84 and 88 are produced on the upper or positive portion of the C
pattern 92. Similarly, the wave front of the acoustic wave moving from the direction of 90 ° and
2700 along the y-axis 96 produces maximum power from the right (iE) side and the left
(negative) side of the turn 90 respectively. The amplitude A of the wavefront moving from the X
axis 94 in the direction of arrows 9 B, R 11 or β 0 produces an electrical output equal to A OO 8
β in the cosine θ U pattern 92 and As in β in the sine wave pattern 90. As described above, the
sinusoidal and cosine wave patterns for detecting the direction of the acoustic wave need to have
only one converter lead in each of two orthogonal planes. The sensitivity of the hydrophone 20
can be increased by increasing the number of leads in or parallel to the plane. In the reception
mode, 1-! The echo can cause the bulkhead 22 to vibrate with the incoming acoustic wave. Each
lead 34, 86. 38 and 40 vibrates according to the amplitude and direction of the acoustic wave to
produce an electrical output associated with the leads 82 and 84 of each vibrating lead. (The F4
processor 88 is directed to the incoming acoustic wave, part 1! Make it possible to generate an
electrical signal with the relevant information. For example, when applied to a sonar, the
omnidirectional electroacoustic transducer 100 is fixed in the cylindrical cavity 101 on the lower
side of the bulkhead 22 and is sealed with an epoxy material and a flint protection material. Or
fixed to the outer surface of the bulkhead 22 to the signal processor 88?
tC Temporarily combine. The transducer 100 is of any known design for receiving and emitting
omnidirectional acoustic waves, and is used with the hydrophone 20 to omnidirectionally
transmit the acoustic waves by the transducer 100 and the hydrophone 20. Thus, it is possible to
receive the reflected wave and detect the direction and distance of the acoustic passive object.
Also, when hydrophone 20 is in the receive mode, transducer 10'0 can be switched to the receive
mode and signal processor 88 can combine the individual patterns to form a known cardiac
shadow receive pattern. A radial force is applied to the wall 82 by an acoustic wave of
predetermined pressure striking the wall 82. The component of this force that is transverse or
perpendicular to leads 34 and 38 causes the bending associated with each of these leads to
produce electrical, electrical power, and a transverse or angular angle to leads 86 and 40 A
component of the writing force causes the bending associated with each of these leads to
produce an electrical output. In order to make the wall f 'f332 cylindrical, its cross section is
approximately transverse or perpendicular to the acoustic wave coming from all directions. The
larger the surface packing of the wall portion 82 which receives the pressure of the incoming
acoustic wave, the larger the force capable of moving the substrate 22 with respect to the weight
60 to 66, and the bending of the leads 3 to 40 becomes larger. Also, the sensitivity of the
hydrophone 20 is increased V as the weight of the substrate 22, the lid body 28 and the pond
hydrophone 2 (Lo) JRbt weights 60 to 66 become lighter and DJ. FIG. 7 shows a horizontal array
of hydrophones 20 according to the invention, each affixed to a pair of horizontal wobbles 108
and 110, each hydropon 20 having positive buoyancy to support the weight of the cable. At the
same time, the cable can be held approximately in a linear manner. Alternatively, the material
and the internal medium of the hydrophone 20 may be appropriately determined so that the
hydrophone 20 has negative buoyancy so that the total density thereof is higher than the density
of the water or medium in which the hydropon is suspended. You can do so. However, as the
density of the internal medium increases, the sensitivity of the hydropon can be reduced. Q (7) Gj
to dampen the sieved resonant structure, the crotch i1. A visco-elastic band is disposed and
adhered between the + l'f-type spindle and the weight inertial spindle. The second weight and the
band are selected appropriately, and they resonate at the resonance frequency of the first weight
provided on the lead, and the movement of the first weight is reduced by ihk?
IIるよ・)にする。 In general, the second base is nominally lighter than the first weight, and
can be, for example, its l, / 10. Also, the attenuation can be performed by breaking the sound
attenuating material or tape on the side of the lead. The invention is not limited to the examples
described above but can be modified in many ways.
Brief description of the drawings
FIG. 1 is an exploded perspective view of an example of the electro-acoustic transducer 1 ′ ′ ′
according to the present invention, and FIG. 2 is the same 2-24i′i!
3 is a partially cutaway enlarged plan view showing a part of the hydrophone shown in FIG. 1 (a
partially cut-out view showing a state of [and · FIG. 4 is a bulkhead shown in FIG. Fig. 5 is an
enlarged cross-sectional view showing a solid weight attached to one end or a single dlit, i1 body,
and Fig. 6 is Fig. 1 FIG. 7 is a perspective view showing a horizontal array of hydropones
according to the present invention. 20 ... hydrophone 22 ... Jii: Ah (bulk head 923 ... shoulder 24
... ty: +, cap 11 26 ... 0 ring 28 ... body 80 ... top 32 ··· Side wall 86.3 B, 40.34 ··· Converter lead
34a, 36 a, 88 a, 40 a ··· lower end 4L 44.'l L 4 [, i 2, 54.5 ft, 58 ··· Article 711160, 62, f3Φ, 66
·············································································································· 1 1? [I, layer 70. 78 ... 'I 11 nail L 86 ...
open (188 ... directionality (+ j processing unit F <. Patent Assignee Magna Baux Sox Government
& Industrial Electronics Compa