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Description 1 Title of Invention
Electro-acoustic transducer, vibration apparatus and pattern director thereof
6. Detailed Description of the Invention The present invention relates to an electrical sound #
converter and relates to a converter used in a WJζ intrusion alarm device. -The caustic soda
converter is generally known as the generation of energy in response to electrical excitation or
the generation of a nausea output signal in response to an acoustic verge. Many transducers have
been previously disclosed to provide special operating characteristics and / or desired functions.
This blade is used to provide a four-tonal noise # converter that is used as a replacement for
turtle gas juice, and is used as a device for 7 years of age, for low cost manufacturing and high
reliability, accurate and reliable. It is a monyula forgery that can be used to make highly sexual
devices. The novel transducer provides optical radiation or capping of acoustic energy at a wide
range of ambient conditions, and can be both C in air and solid materials. This transducer is
configured to operate in the frequency range of the eyelids and in the ultrasound range. This
novel transducer contacts or contacts a metal diaphragm with a piezoelectric ceramic plate with
thickness log / pole bonded to its center or brazed). Provide the electrode surface. A sufficiently
large mass or ramp 11 is acoustically attached to the periphery of the metal diaphragm to define
a vibrating area. The tab extending outwardly from the diaphragm is one electrical terminal,
while the other terminal is comprised of a recurrent electrical ribbon connected to the other
electrode of the ceramic plate. The imaging device is mounted within a plastic housing having a
chamber shaped and dimensioned to improve the electroacoustic operation of the entire
transducer structure. The imaging device may operate in one or more imaging modes, and the
pattern shape is defined by the leakage path between the front and back surfaces of the vibrating
diaphragm and the director attached to the transducer housing. An embodiment of the present
invention will be described below with reference to the attached drawings. FIG. 1 illustrates one
embodiment of the present invention, which includes a metal diaphragm 10 having clamp-links
12 located and bonded to the periphery of the diaphragm. Piezoelectric ceramic cable 14 having
a disk shape in the thickness direction 1 has a diaphragm 1. The electrode surface is bonded to
the center of the and in air contact with one side of the diaphragm. Thus, the diaphragm itself
makes one electrical connection to the ceramic plate. The diaphragm has an outwardly extending
tab 16 which provides one of the transducer terminals. The second transducer terminal 18 is
connected to the second electrode surface of the ceramic plate over a connecting terminal such
as the illustrated conductive microphone 2 o.
The flexible ribbon connector provides maximum damping of the vibrating diaphragm and does
not compromise the imaging dynamics of the transducer. ダイアフラム10. The vibration
mounting constituted by the pressure-element plate 14i3 and the clamp ring 12 is disposed in
the plastic housing 22. The unitary body 22 has a cylindrical wall 24 having an inner diameter
larger than the outer diameter of the clamp link, and a lower wall having a hole 26 for rotating
and communicating with the diaphragm 1o. The circular cover member 28 is disposed on the
four walls 24 and is positioned on an upright boss 30 provided on a housing 10-EndPage: 3. The
electrical terminals in the illustrated embodiment extend outwardly from the carrier and enter
openings 32 provided in the cover member. The electrical terminals may be received by any
suitable means I and by means of a transducer for delivering an acoustic energy to the aerobic
excitation source, or when the transducer is to receive an acoustic energy. Each is connected to
the circuit. The dynamic pregnancy characteristics of this transducer are essentially determined
by the dimensions of the metal diaphragm 10 and the associated clamp ring 12. The effective
area of the diaphragm performing the resonant vibration is determined by the inner diameter of
the clamp ring, which has a sufficiently large mass M acoustically at the frequency of interest
and has almost no effect on the diaphragm 0) vibration characteristics. I will not give. A
piezoelectric plate with a relatively small thickness in the direction of thickness acts as an exciter
or detector of diaphragm operation and does not compromise the transducer's vibrational
characteristics. Metals are inherently more stable than piezoelectric materials, and the use of a
metal diaphragm as the source frequency determining element has the effect of forming a
transducer which is not affected by the flexibility or the axial summer conditions. Since the
vibration frequency of the diaphragm is linked by vI4 according to the inner diameter of the
clamp link, the clamp link performs the manufacture of the transducer accurately adjusted by all
parts having commonity other than the different dimension θ) clamp link. You can also. This
adjustment can be made at the time of manufacture by adjusting the thickness of the diaphragm,
such as removing material from the diaphragm 1 to accurately adjust its operating wave number.
Such adjustment provides a near non-linear magnetoacoustic match for a pair or multiple
transducers. The housing 22 has a spacer 34 for positioning the front surface of the diaphragm 1
o at a predetermined small distance from the facing wall of the housing and disposing the outer
surface of the clamp link 12 at a predetermined distance from the outer peripheral housing wall
The space thus formed is commercialized as an acoustic leak path between the front and back
surfaces of the diaphragm. The distance between the diaphragm and its opposite surface is small
compared to the wavelength, for example, IQ, 00'0,000 of an inch. A controlled portion of the aft
radiation from the rear face of the diaphragm modifies the directional characteristics of the leak
transducer at the periphery of the clamp ring. This leakage energy is used to change beam width,
beam directionality and shape, resulting in a wide variety of radiation patterns beyond those
normally provided by a given imaging diaphragm itself. FIG. 2 is for explaining that the leak path
is constituted by the distance from the rear surface 40 of the diaphragm to the reflection surface
40 of the housing and the clamp ring 1g to the reference surface of the diaphragm. . The
reference plane is defined as the central plane of the diaphragm. The distance from the
diaphragm (k-plane to the reflecting surface of the heavy body should be a half wavelength or its
odd multiple to maintain the standing wave flexibility in the cavity at the time of collision). The
leakage path lengths from the reflecting surface of the housing to the diaphragm reference
surface are approximately the same distance. The front of the vibrating diaphragm is 1800 out of
phase with the back of the diaphragm. Thus, at the front end of the leak path, the energy is out of
phase with the front radiation from the imaging diaphragm and this controlled out-of-phase
radiation is used to selectively alter the beam characteristics . It is prudent to keep the
converter's gain at -14 as long as σ is in the range of operating degrees. The propagation of ff1tt
wave energy in the air is basically determined by the relative humidity and the relative humidity,
and the change in width changes the settling and affects the propagation S and the converter
operation. Changes in the sidetones also lead to dimensional changes in the transducer leading to
changes in operation. The converter according to the invention exhibits a substantially constant
gain in compensating for changes due to temperature variations in the wave form of the
propagating energy or in the converter's common frequency system. When there is no
compensation, the converter reduces its yield. In order to perform warm-up supplementation,
the: b] constant frequency of the delivery converter, for example 26.3 KHz, is lower than the
resonance frequency at room temperature or other setting temperature change. When the
temperature rises, the resonant frequency decreases and the output increases because it matches
the fixed frequency. Since the received energy of the alarm device in the operating state ic is a
reflected one of the transmitted fixed frequency, the receiving converter also operates 14EndPage: 4. The compensation is also done by determining the leakage path at room temperature
or some other predetermined temperature, which is kept smaller than the optimal enhancement
of the forward energy from the diaphragm.
As the temperature rises, the wavelength of the propagating energy increases, the state of
enhancement of forward energy by the leak path becomes large, and the forward energy
becomes substantially in phase. The converter of the present invention has only a gain change of
about ld, B over a #A degree range of 20 ["F" to 110 C'F), but a 4-normal converter for the same
temperature range is about 4 dB. There is a gain change. Integral 10 has a rim 44 extending one
wavelength forward of bore 26 to thereby form a cylindrical cylindrical cavity 27. The diameters
of the holes 26 and cavities 27 should differ by approximately one wavelength in order to form
the most effective beam. The difference is that the shape of the pattern formed in the through
hole 26 is maintained by forming the adjacent sky 11ii 127 in a large area of one fresnel area.
Beamforming is determined by the hole 26 and the diameter change of this hole is performed to
adjust the beam width. The cavity 27 serves as an impedance match for the effective coupling of
energy from the diaphragm to air. The cavity 27 also has the role of spreading the radiation
pattern by reflecting the dephasing energy from the leakage path back to the energy of the direct
energy from the diaphragm and canceling some of the peripheral forward radiation. Excuse me.
The gold crucible diaphragm 10 is preferably made of brass because brass can be brazed to the
clasp ring to provide an integral mechanical joint. Similarly, aluminum, nickel, stainless steel,
invar, etc. may also be used as the metal diaphragm. The body 22 is formed of a plastic material
1a such as ABS or polysulfone. These materials have sufficient density and uniformity to provide
adequate reflection of acoustic energy, and have adequate dimensional stability to create a
single-sized chamber of stable size and shape. There is. The elastic properties of the body are not
particularly critical since they do not form part of the i body 5 dii dynamic device. The
transducer of the invention uses the first three diametrical vibration modes with respect to the
fixed circular plate. Other imaging modes are unique to such vibrating structures, but they are
small and do not significantly affect the operation of the transducer of the present invention. In
the fundamental mode (fol) in FIG. 4A, it operates in phase so that all vibration planes are at
maximum operation at the center. The diametrical overtone mode (fo2) of 42 in FIG. 4B forms an
imaging motion in which the central circular area 52 of the imaging plate operates in opposite
phase to the annular area 53 around the plate.
The third diametrical overtone mode (fos) in FIG. 4C forms a central circular area 54 and an
outer annular area 55 in phase with each other, these two areas being in antiphase with the
intermediate annular area 56 of the retarding plate. Operate. In the fundamental mode of
vibration, the nodes are at the periphery of the imaging area of the diaphragm (inner diameter of
the clamp ring), and the largest changes occur at the diaphragm center. The second mode forms
a frequency 3.91 times the fundamental frequency and has nodes at the periphery. The third
mode frequency is 8.75 times the fundamental frequency and has nodes at the periphery. The
fundamental frequency for the 17-fixed plate is calculated by the equation of the arrow orbit, n.
Here, t is the thickness of the diaphragm, R is the radius of the diaphragm, P is the density of the
diaphragm material, I is the Poisson's ratio, and E is the Yanok's ratio of the diaphragm. The
piezoelectric ceramic plate bonded to the center of the diaphragm has a pole in the thickness
direction, and is used, for example, in the second overtone mode (f02) in the range of the
circumferential fatigue number of z for detection of ultrasonic wave penetration. Be A small
ceramic plate is placed in the area of maximum displacement of the metal diaphragm and high
efficiency is obtained as the ceramic body is pressed by the diaphragm's vibration to create a
crush induced zone pressure. Conversely, excitation of the ceramic by the application of the
electrical signal produces corresponding vibrations in the diaphragm. かなpIiJ! The
ceramic plate at t corrects the crimp on the diaphragm 18EndPage: 5 as only slightly predictable.
A fundamental frequency also exists and is used for simultaneous alerting. And the combination
of the two frequency modes offers great advantages. 20〜40KH! A fundamental frequency
of 6 to 7 KHz is formed with a second overtone frequency in the range of e.g. 26.3 KHz. Thus, the
transducer provides a second overtone in the ultrasound range and a basic tone in the audio
frequency range. The third overtone frequency is also provided by using small diameter ceramic
plates contained within the equal phase region of FIG. 4C. Typical 2It ultrasound frequencies are
26 KHz and 59 KHz. Transducers can also be used with solid materials and can also be used as
an exciter or sensor for imaging within the material rather than using air as described above. The
clamp ring can be glued directly onto the solid surface with minimal impact on the vibration
converter node or the low operating point of the vibratory structure. As shown in FIG. 3, the
annular surface of clamp ring 12a opposite to that attached to diaphragm lOa is adhered to the
surface of the solid material.
A ceramic plate 14a is laminated to the outer surface of the diaphragm in these four
embodiments to simplify the electrical connection to the device. The cover or housing 28a is
preferably placed on the peristaltic device as a protective enclosure, which can reduce acoustic
emission or reception. One or more pattern directors may be used in combination with the basic
converter shown in FIG. 5 for the formation of a specific relief S-matching transmission energy
pattern or the formation of a reception sensitivity change pattern. One pattern director is shown
in FIG. 6, which moons a circular flange portion which is inserted into the rim of the transducer.
A small air gap is provided between the diaphragm and the director so as not to impede the
movement of the diaphragm. The director terminates at the emitting hole of the device,
consolidating the larger cylindrical cavity and the cylindrical cavity communicating IJ. The
director of FIG. 6 extends the heme pattern provided by the transducer only, while maintaining a
high on-axis response. For example, the amplitude of the diaphragm and the four cabinets is as
small as about 0.250 for the 26.3 KHz frequency, and all the radiation is in the Fresnel region.
The radiation from the diaphragm reaches the hole in the @j director where a true beamforming
occurs, and the diameter of this circular hole is the first dog constant boron of the + T effective
beam width of the final pattern. The diameter of the cavities 62 and 64 should differ by about
one wavelength for most effective beamforming. This is because this difference makes it possible
to maintain the favorable beam pattern formed in the cavity 62 by making the cavity 64 a large
head mount. The cavity 6z has a length of one wavelength, the length of the cavity 64 has a half
wavelength, and the rim 66 has a length of "/ 4". When a total phase change of 36 o 0 occurs,
the energy reaches the radiation hole in the correct phase relationship with the transmitted wave,
which results in an effective delivery of all incident energy that is delayed to the radiation hole.
The director is made of a material having a low acoustic impedance compared to air, such as AI
or plastic, and the reflection in the director takes place without any reflection. A reflection
blocking rim 66 may be provided around the emission hole to enhance the serro direction
radiation with some attenuation of angular variation radiation by kneading. Referring to FIG. 217,
the pattern of the embodiment of FIG. 6 with or without the reflective rim 66 is shown. Without
the reflective rim, the on-axis pattern decreases J and increases by about 45 degrees on each side
of the zero direction with respect to the pattern provided by the rim.
The director of FIG. 6 may also have an entrance hole which is angled from the axis of the
director, which may be up to about 20 '# 4 to the axis of the p main beam, according to another
configuration. It can be done. Tilting at a larger angle can be achieved by the orienter 1 of FIG. It
has an eaves-clad enclosure with an open lower 0 which can be mounted on the transducer j of
FIG. 45 and which is offset from the transducer axis. This aperture is one wavelength smaller and
semicircular or circular to give the corresponding shape and slope of the pattern. The small air
gap between the diaphragm and the director defines diaphragm radiation to the head near the
fresnel until the wave strikes the aperture. Radiation from the open lower o travels through the f
# waveguide 72. The energy on the wall 74 closest to the open lower o is reflected by the other
wall and re-emitted into the air, resulting in directional radiation. 22-EndPage: The angle of
maximum 6 IMiV- is determined by the waveguide cavity 74, the longer cavity sandwiches the
angle from the hole depth. The pattern formed by the director of FIG. 8 is shown in FIG. 9 as
holes in the semicircular and circular weir faces. The bent opener 0 should touch the inner wall
74 of the cavity 72 in order to obtain a large tilt angle. By making the open lower 0 close to the
thick axis, the inclination angle is small f (R). This allows for 360 rotation adjustments by rotating
the director about its axis. The beam width is made too large to be too large A by means of a
flexible aperture and the effective wedge center of the aperture adjusts the beam tilt. It is useful
and desirable to be able to mount the transducer on the ceiling of the table to be protected and
obtain an outwardly directed trolling-like pattern 1 in the vertical direction. This type of pattern
is given by the embodiment of FIG. 1 (). The director 58 is identical to that shown in FIG. 1d, and
is coupled to another director 9 having a cavity 78.80 and an intermediate region 82 which
increase in size. Endless, the director as a whole may be configured as a single unit rather than as
two parts. In the beam pattern of FIG. 11, the level of ll1i1 is small 3 (11! The peak 1 straight line
is now t. The cavity 78 is shorter than half a wavelength in length, while the empty @ 80 is
slightly longer than half a wavelength. Beam shaping is performed on the cavity 80j, and the
dimensions are chosen to be old to the tilt axis, along which the g phase is canceled along the ()
axis, and to be phase strong J7. Pattern enhancement is performed right along the tilt axis of the
hand wavelength.
FIG. 12 (j) shows another director which forms a conical beam pattern with less energy in the
vertical axis, so that ceiling mounting is suitable for mold transducers. Bundle flanges 84 are
attached to the transducer. The central plate 86 supported by the ribs 88 (also located half the
wavelength forward of the transducer diaphragm, serves to block the 0111 radiation. The plate
86 is given a fixed number # [-4] to the radiation pattern so as to form an ineffective point on the
pattern as shown in FIG. 1 '! The sixth and second cavities 90 and 92 are disposed in front of the
plate 86, the cavity 90 being shorter than the half wave length and the cavity 92 being slightly
longer than the half wavelength. The soft cavity produces another cancellation on O # I when the
tilt distance in each cavity is emitted or enhanced at an angle that is about half a wavelength. The
diameter of the cavity is determined Cc to form a critical beam radius. In the pattern shown in
FIG. 13, the mosquito carpenter wait for the center at an angle of about 45 ° with respect to the
zero axis. In Figures 14A, F and 14BIA, examples of 20,000 times or non-conical beam shapes
are shown. In the director, the body 94 surpasses the first air 4196 and the second nitrogen I
'15198 as well as the sixth attack. The cable 100 is disposed within the cavity 98 and has an
inclined surface 102 for reflecting energy into the air through the diaphragm or for reflecting
received energy back to the diaphragm. In the illustrated example of rice, the weir 102 is 45 C
and is a reflection of his one year old wave. Some of the reflected energy returns from the one
opposing wall 94 into the cavity. The cylindrical rim 104 is implanted as a cavity 98 by
implanting a cavity 98 to form a second beam at a point about 180 DEG from the original beam.
The energy reflected by surface 102 is reflected by the 25-rim 104. Some of the energy is
dissipated into the air, and some of the energy is re-reflected from the rim 104 to form a second
lobe in the pattern. Determine the relative vagueness of the rim + 04 + a s att 2 robes. The
pattern formed by the director of FIGS. 14A and 148 is shown in FIG. Without the rim 104, it
would form a fairly large inclined diagonal pattern. The addition of the rim 104 results in the
formation of a pattern with two lobes that are considerably angled from the zero axis. The abovedescribed directionr operates in the same manner for both transmission and reception (-7,
assuming that the same reception and transmission frequency are used, the dimensions of the
directionator are the same.
A wide range of ultrasonic frequencies that can be used in the penetration device can also use
special dimensions determined by the wavelength of the frequency and the operating
temperature to obtain the desired result.