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Because the present invention does not have the inertia of the active medium, it attempts to
recover the transient without delay or distortion. Plasma shape in air, temperature distribution,
pressure. It relates to a method of controlling density and conductivity. According to the present
invention, one frequency characteristic is flat and does not resonate. Various sound generating
systems or loudspeakers are known and, according to the applicant's knowledge, there are two
types of diaphragm loudspeakers with zero static mass. In one type, the entire conduction path is
formed using an acetylene flame ignited with Na obtained by melting the glass. Electrodes
provided in the acetylene flame introduce a voice modulated direct current. This system requires
very high temperatures to bring about ionization, but there is no mechanism to control the heat
distribution. It is not a practical system. Another type of system consists of a sound modulated
microwave generator which generates a very small spherical plasma in a quartz cavity, which is
arranged in the full index form of this plasma. This system does not have sufficient 9 frequency
characteristics and output energy because the size of the plasma is very small. In addition, it is
necessary to load the horn in order to make the output strength proper. According to the
applicant's knowledge, the prior patents include the following, none of which appears to be
relevant to the present invention. U.S. Pat. No. 2,405,990 No. 2,483,768 No. 2,836,035 No.
5,250,506 No. 3,286,226 No. 3,371,309 U.S. Pat. Patent No. 2,485, 768 suggests a sound
generator which is an N-tone generator, which is an absorbent gas enclosed in a sealed body, and
which is irradiated with microwaves modulated at an audio frequency. U.S. Pat. No. 5,372,309
discloses an acoustic wave generator that generates compression waves in response to
temperature changes provided by a current source. U.S. Pat. No. 3,250,506 shows a transducer
for pulsing a conductive liquid. U.S. Pat. No. 2,403,990 discloses a spark gap converter that
generates sound waves. U.S. Pat. No. 2,856,055 shows a thermally controlled sonic system that
applies heat to a fluid entrapped column and removes heat therefrom to impart vibration to the
fluid. U.S. Pat. No. 5,286,226 discloses a spark discharge acoustic system for use in water. In
particular, the present invention relates to a method and apparatus for controlling the shape,
temperature distribution, pressure, density and conductivity of plasma in air, and to a method
and apparatus for modulating sound plasma by a signal and emitting sound energy. is there.
Accordingly, it is a primary object of the present invention to provide a sound energy emission
system. The second object of the present invention is plasma shape, temperature distribution,
pressure, density, and conductivity. It is an object of the present invention to provide a sound
energy emission system which controls and modulates the rate. A third object of the present
invention is to provide a sound energy emission system which makes the controlled and thinner
plasma thinner than the shortest wavelength to be emitted and which increases the area over
which the desired pressure level is to be emitted. The fourth object of the present invention is the
shape of plasma in air. It is an object of the present invention to provide a method of controlling
thermal distribution, pressure, density and conductivity to form a thermal gradient. A fifth object
of the present invention is to provide a method of controlling the shape, temperature
distribution, pressure, density and conductivity of plasma in air by applying thermal energy K to
the plasma. A sixth object of the present invention is to provide a sound energy radiation system
for forming a plasma between a plurality of spaced apart electrodes, applying a heated gas to the
plasma, and modulating the plasma with an audio signal. It is a seventh object of the present
invention to provide a sound energy emitting system which comprises a device i, wherein the
modulated and heated plasma system removes heat to balance the operating temperature of the
system. The following one shot F! 4 'will be described in detail based on the attached drawings. In
the figures, the same reference numerals indicate the same parts. The following detailed
description relates to the best method, structure and embodiments for practicing the present
invention. The description is not limiting and is intended to clarify one general principle of the
invention. The scope of the present invention is defined by the claims. See, U.S. Patent
Application No. 68,168, filed February 6, 1978, as related to the present invention. The
embodiments of the invention described below provide precise control of shape, temperature
distribution and conductivity, thus without loading the horn over a wide frequency range and
with less distortion than using known methods and structures. This is a book that uses a large
volume of plasma that can generate large sound energy. The definition of the term "plasma" as
used herein is as follows. Plasma: A collection of ions, electrons, neutral atoms and molecules, in
which the movement of nine particles is governed by electromagnetic interactions. The plasma is
neutral to be effective. Thus, all microscopic capacity plasmas have the same number of positive
and negative charges.
Plasma is a conductor that interacts with the electromagnetic field. The devices and methods
described below generate sound waves directly from electroacoustic or thermoacoustic energy
conversion in the atmosphere without the use of mechanical vibration devices. Since there is no
inertia in the plasma, it is possible to reproduce transients without causing distortion or delay,
which is a characteristic of a normal loudspeaker. The frequency response is flat, the resonance
is less than power, and intermodulation distortion and harmonic distortion are considerably less
than those of the conventional loudspeaker. Since there is no refraction wave associated with the
compression wave, the enclosing means is not necessary. Therefore, the tone by box resonance.
Harmonic distortion due to pressure load can be removed. As a near perfect semi-spherical full
wavefront is generated over the entire frequency range of the inventive system Vi 7, it is possible
to obtain excellent interference stereo imaging when used in combination in stereo reproduction.
The following analysis is believed to be helpful in understanding the background and basis of the
physical structure of the statements used in practicing the present invention. The object is to
form a plasma sheath which is thin as compared with the shortest wavelength (corresponding to
20 MHz K) to be reproduced and which has a sufficiently large area capable of generating a
desired sound pressure level without loading the horn ft1 tc. The sheath can also be curved to
extend the angular distribution of the radiation pattern if the region is larger than the
wavelength used. That is, only nine diffractions do not give the desired hemispherical pattern.
The ionization level of the plasma can be controlled by an external radiation source, such as an
electron beam, or by an electric field, but in any event the applied electric field must provide
thermal energy to the plasma sheath. The inside of the plasma is high temperature, and as shown
in FIG. 1, the thermal gradient is sharp at the boundary interface with the surrounding
atmosphere. Since thermal energy flows across the visual interface formed by the thermal
gradient by forced convection, the heat input and heat output are in equilibrium, and the
temperature does not change with time. Because there is also a density gradient inversely
proportional to the temperature gradient, the density of the hot plasma is slightly higher than the
surrounding air, but at the same pressure, the ideal airspace law is followed. Pressure, density,
and temperature, and subscript 1.2 indicate the initial value and the final value, respectively.
Well, the amount of energy that flows into the plasma changes. For example, suppose that it
increases. If this change is slowing down, the plasma simply changes in temperature. With only a
slight change in volume and a decrease in density, the internal pressure is still the same as the
external pressure.
However, since this change is too rapid, if the amount of heat transfer to be output can not follow
this change, an instantaneous pressure change occurs. This pressure change can be expressed by
equation (2) within the adiabatic limit. Cv = constant specific heat capacity Accordingly, the
temperature is adiabatically transferred from T1 to T, = T + δT, and accordingly, when the
pressure is changed from Pl to p, = p + δP, equations (1) and (2) from equation 1 to equation (3)
It can lead you. Formula (3) is clear when it uses all. The error regarding the temperature change
amount is only 1.2%, as it can not be distinguished. The amount of pressure change is the
strength of energy. (Wherein, δδP> is the root mean square value of pressure variation). 音波 o,
Pof'l generate an acoustic wave indicated by the surrounding density and pressure, respectively.
Therefore, as long as the adiabatic condition, the output of the emitted sound. It can be related to
the amount of temperature change according to However, linearization approximation is applied.
It becomes clear immediately that the efficiency of the sound generation improves secondarily as
the plasma temperature T decreases. (However, constant temperature perturbation α T must be
determined using energy human power and boundary conditions. This is a general formula.
(Where α is thermal conductivity + Q ′ is heat / unit volume x unit time, T is temperature, and t
is time, and t is time). The shape of the temperature distribution will be described in a somewhat
simplified manner. In this case, a closed solution exhibiting remarkable physical properties can
be taken as an example. In particular, it is assumed that heat leaves the thin slab at the plasma
center and is transferred to the surrounding air according to a linear temperature gradient at
each surface, as shown in FIG. It is further assumed that heat can be delivered at a velocity by
convection of moving gases in the plasma. Contrary to the heat dissipation assumption, we
believe that energy dissipation occurs uniformly over the plasma region. Due to this
contradiction, the temperature is underestimated by about 2 times at the maximum, but the heat
equation f can be directly integrated instead. In this case, most of the physical properties can be
preserved. When the heat equation (8) is rewritten by the temperature perturbation T, the energy
human power, and the heat loss (including both heat conduction and convection). になる。
Differentiation 17. And, using the transformation T (t) T p + T (T), this has the form ただし。 And
in the above formula. ω = 2π [, (= excitation frequency μ = modulation factor pa = atmospheric
pressure = 105 neutrons / m Po = atmospheric density = 1.24 ng / m′To = external
temperature = 300 ° Kr = 1.a = Cp / CvV = gas flow rate through the plasma ΔX = thickness of
plasma from the center to the outer boundary す = temperature (0 K) τ = time 9 seconds =
thermal conductivity of plasma j = plasma current density i = plasma electric field formula Since
the procedure is absolutely long to determine Q) and Q6 and (6), we will present the solution.
According to the boundary conditions in FIG. 1, the answer is: ただし。 Therefore, the radiated
acoustic power (W / m ′ ′) is calculated by using the thermal relaxation time constant A ′ and
the energy human power B. do it. For example, j-z of the 1 denominator indicates that the
efficiency of acoustic reproduction is degraded as the applied DC power is increased or as the
average plasma temperature is increased, but the linearity is improved accordingly. The above
equation is valid only if relatively small thermal energy is transferred from the plasma based on
the time scale of the acoustic perturbation. Thus, there is an audio frequency fL corresponding to
a given physical geometry. Below this frequency, the sound reproduction intensity decreases. At
this point, the adiabatic assumption Pzρr is no longer correct. Instead, ρ is a constant
(atmospheric pressure) within a range in which one frequency approaches zero, and thus no
sound wave is generated. The thermal relaxation time constant A 'of equation (B) can be said to
be the time constant of the thermal change that actually occurs if it suddenly changes to the
excitation cuff-1 (included in B). That is, if the energy pulse raises the temperature by δT over
room temperature Tp (if the ambient air is ToK), this is given by the time required. ただし。 The
present invention relates to a method and apparatus for incrementally distributing different
values of a sex parameter to obtain different frequency characteristics as shown in FIG. 4 in
accordance with each space incremental change (increment). Since it is desirable to equalize the
frequency response between the two limit values fl and fh, the curve distribution of FIG. 4 is
identical at any frequency when integrated (ie, summed or averaged) over the entire discharge
region. You have to give an amplitude. In general, ω in equation 9 μs can be expressed by the
following equation as a domain integral with respect to an appropriate distribution function (A (x,
y, z)). − = Fff ω (x, y, z) dxdydzm where ω = ω (A), to (Δx, Tt (ax)) and ΔX = Δx (x + y + z) so
that the nine distribution functions are simply all spatial changes It is a chain derivatized formula
of the formula with a quantity. Therefore, a quarter frequency time heat transfer invention can be
expected to make these things in the entire space of the discharge area. It is apparent from the
equation (1) of A (1) that the generation efficiency also decreases 4π when f −-. The reason is
that the vibration of the sound wave tends to offset the positive and negative cycles of the
thermal perturbation.
As a result, from the viewpoint of physical geometry (ie, intrinsic constants x, v, Tp, K). The
frequency characteristic takes a general form as shown in FIG. If we consider the amount of
space change so in only one direction (ie electric field direction 2) and assume that it is
symmetrical about the other two orthogonal axes. The criterion is expressed by the following
equation K. Then, if the above criteria are satisfied, each incremental change capacity element
can be specified along 9 to reproduce the corresponding incremental change portion of the 9
frequency spectrum. In other words, A 'z == 4 f z for optimal performance at two frequencies f 2
whatever the distance 2. Therefore. In order to hold for 2, ΔX + V or Tp, these combinations
must be changed. Next, z = O ˜! If all the area elements in the range of the total sum. f! And fh
can determine the total output independent of the frequency. There are two discharge systems
that can be used to form the plasma, the working medium for sound generation, which will be
described in detail. 1. Self-Excited Discharge In this case, the electric field must be high enough to
cause ionization. This type of discharge is shown in FIGS. 26.7, 8, 9.10 and 11. Since the
electrons and ions are accelerated by the same electric field as the electric field that produced
them, a current flows in the discharge area by the electrode configuration consisting of the
cathode / anode. If not controlled by the method and apparatus of the present invention, the
discharge will shrink into small, dense columns due to thermal ionization instability and
electrode boundary effects. In this case, the plasma generates an electric current in the plasma to
induce its ionization from an external ionization source, such as an electron beam, instead of
being independent of the potential which induces its ionization. This format is shown in Figures
12-20. In this case, the magnitude of the electric field is from zero to the self-excitation
magnitude, but is not fixed to the self-excitation magnitude. Therefore, plasma boundary,
capacity. And electron density (current potential) can be completely controlled by an external
ionization source, but its energy can be induced by an electric field that does not disturb the
plasma density or distribution. As listed for the purpose of the present invention. In order to
make the frequency characteristics uniform, it is necessary to shape the plasma and its interface.
This is also clear from the theoretical analysis in the previous section. Furthermore, the plasma
must be diluted in the direction of sound propagation for the wavelength used, and must also
have a large surface area to achieve the required sound intensity.
1. Self-excited discharge In self-excited discharge that generates plasma, a gas such as preheated
air or helium is forcibly introduced into the discharge space. In FIG. 2, reference numeral 20 is a
hollow tubular electrode connected to a voltage source 31. Further, one electrode 22 is provided
away from the electrode 20 to form a discharge space, and the circuit is closed by the ballast
resistor 30 and the modulation signal source 32. The preheated gas is forced into the discharge
space through the hollow electrode 2 °. As the high temperature gas flow forms a high
temperature sheath around the plasma (FIG. 1), the density of its outer area is reduced K, thereby
spreading and stabilizing the plasma over a large area. In FIG. 3, the temperature is plotted by
area and B. That is, the diffusion and stabilization of the plasma is provided by the medium (gas)
which is not directly related to the discharge itself. The electric field / pressure (E / P 2) ratio and
hence the ionization rate increase in the outer region. The reason is that the thermally induced
density is reduced. However, this action does not make the discharge unstable. というのは。 This
is because the added good heat that produces this effect is external to the discharge and is
therefore independent of the discharge parameters. Since the externally derived thermal sheath
is shown in FIG. 1 and alters the boundary layer Δx k which appears in equation (6), the thermal
relaxation time constant is adjusted accordingly. As the high temperature gas diffuses from the
electrode 20 to the conductor of the discharge, the thermal relaxation time constant (A ') of each
region becomes different as a result. Since the value of () spread to space is different, one
frequency characteristic is broadened, and as shown by equation (9) αη, it becomes very close
to the ideal state of uniform frequency characteristic. The source may be a source such as a fi tf
fan, a compressor, or a storage tank and heat may be applied by any suitable means. The heat
generated in the cathode fall region can be sent to a gas delivery duct that forms a high
temperature boundary sheath. In FIG. 6, the gas is heated by I "R losses in the metal supply duct
26 connected to the step-down transformer 27 which supplies a low voltage and high amperage
current. In this embodiment, the end of the duct 26 is formed so as to stretch outward, so the
distribution of the heated gas flow to the discharge is excellent. The cathode 28 encloses this
stretched end and together with the anode 29 spaced therefrom form a discharge space. Ballast
resistor 30.
[The circuit is closed by the floodplain 31 and the sound modulation source 32. Fig. 7 is released
by the current control electrodes separately. The embodiment which spreads soot is shown. A
plurality of anodes 33 to 37 each having a ballast resistor 38 to 42 is a cathode 4! Keep away
from 1. This configuration diffuses the discharge. In the illustrated embodiment, the adjustment
is performed by means of a ballast resistor, but the adjustment can be done using an electronic
vacuum tube as having exactly the same function. The cathode can also be formed into multiple
segments. The remaining circuit components are the same as those shown in FIG. This
configuration is effective to generate odd −5 trapped di charges which produces a space change
amount at discharge current density 1 @. This configuration also does not affect the thermal
relaxation time constant (A '). The shaping can be carried out by positioning of the individual
electrodes or by using unequal ballast resistors or other current regulation means or by using
unequal numbers of cathodes and anodes, or a combination thereof. The thermal energy
introduced to create thermal and density gradients in the plasma boundary region in contact with
the surrounding atmosphere must be removed from the system at such a rate that the system's
operating temperature equilibrates. In this case, the preferred method of removing heat is K
without shorting the discharge. The wire distributed over the entire surface area is provided with
a metal plate which is swaged to contact the plasma. In the embodiment of FIGS. 8-11 a
laminated structure 50 is used. Voltage source 31. The ballast resistor 30 and the modulation
voltage source 52 are substantially the same as those shown in FIG. 2.6.7 and have the same
function. A plurality of metal tubes 51-55 are for directing the heated gas from the vessel 56 and
act as a row of laterally spaced cathodes. An anode is provided to form a discharge space, and
one ballast resistor 57 to 60 'is connected to each tubular cathode as shown in FIG. While
electrically insulating the independent plates 61 forming the laminated structure from each other
to the insulator 62. It is provided at right angles to the plane extending between the electrodes.
As can be seen from FIGS. 9 and 11, this surface is a plasma 630 surface. As shown in the
perspective view of FIG. 8, these plates are wedged to form a plasma cavity. It is cut at 64. Since
the plates 61 are separated from each other, the product of the electric field and the gap between
the plates does not exceed the falling voltage of the cathode in view of the material used. A
typical example is 300 volts / plate.
Between each plate 1! l! May be uniform as shown in the drawing, or may be K so as to make
the amount of space erosion into the heat transfer rate ΔX (FIG. 1) according to the position in
the discharge direction. Due to this action, the above-mentioned east condition of the equations
(a) and (d) is satisfied, and the one-frequency characteristic becomes uniform. A fan unit 65 with
vanes 66t-driven by a motor (not shown) sends cooling air in the direction of the arrows in FIG.
8, ie between the plates, and out of it. As a result, heat is carried out and the temperature of the
system is stabilized. The insulating spacer 62 has two functions. That is, it acts as a backboard
that reflects the sound in front of the system, ie to the listener, as well as buffering the cooling air
from entering the plasma cavity. A plate 67 formed of an insulating material can be provided in
front of the system, i.e. on the listener side. An opening 68 for releasing sound energy is provided
in this plate. The boundary plates 69 and 70 hold the plate stacks' (+ and-) in between and
support the insulating bushing 71.72. These plates are provided to accurately maintain the
electrodes both mechanically and electrically. Electrode 22 was also connected to tank 56. It may
be a pipe that leads the heating gas to the discharge space. A method is needed to start the
discharge. The reason is that the electric field required to initiate the discharge is several times
larger than the electric field required to maintain ionization in the autodischarge. One way to
achieve this is to use electronic control. In particular, the metal heat sinks 50 may be arranged or
the discharge start bins may be arranged in a row and connected to all the potentials across the
discharge through a large resistance so that all the potentials can be obtained when the
discharge current is not flowing. It can be applied between the bottom cathode and the metal
plate or pin adjacent to it (there is no drop in any resistor). As a result, the discharge starts at the
closest point, and the current flows to the connection resistor by doing so. Thus, the potential
drops in the start of the discharge. It rises between the next two points to start next. It is also
possible to select a resistor of such a size that almost no power is transferred from the discharge
to the discharge initiation circuit when the full discharge starts. The discharge can also be
physically initiated by mechanical means. -Give an example. In this case. When power is not
applied, the discharge initiation bin supported by the thermal bimetal strip lever arm will almost
short across the discharge.
Turning on the device causes an arc between the small gaps. A current flows through the heating
element of this bimetal IJ tube. Then bend the heated strip. Slowly lifting the discharge start bin
from the discharge area causes a discharge. Leave the discharge start bin out of the discharge
area until the system turns off and the bimetal strip cools. Although many other mechanical
discharge initiation methods can be applied to the present invention. It should be understood by
the commercial person. The audio input circuit to the system can consist of a DC power supply
connected to an audio signal input (step-up) transformer. Conventional ballast resistors are used
in this circuit. Another audio input circuit utilizes a vacuum tube class A amplifier capable of
simultaneously performing high voltage audio control and high voltage current control. This
doubles the electrical efficiency (both voice and DC voltage). The reason is that no ballast resistor
is required, and the sound amplifier tube functions as a current controller. If a Class A amplifier
is used as before, it is less efficient, but here it can deliver discharge power with normal energy
consumption, and in fact only 5 to 1 ON (in tube plate dissipation) energy consumption .
Moreover, no voice transformer is required. (Transformers usually lose quality. Because it can
not be fed back to the power amplifier to make up for its drawbacks. 2.) Once the plasma
characteristics have reached maximum and the 9 frequency characteristics are as flat as possible,
any correction can be carried out as desired by the electronic filter following the amplifier circuit.
If one output tube is provided for each electrode. There is no need for a separate ballast resistor.
DC regulation is achieved by IR drop of the cathode resistors of each output tube which excites
the grid in order to increase the current. The output from each output tube can be divided into
two or more electrode channels by adding a small auxiliary DC ballast resistor. In the commercial
application of the invention where reliability is important. System startup is critical, even critical.
The gas used in this case is helium, argon or nitrogen. The logic circuit was found to be excellent
as a result of start-up and start-up reliability. This circuit operates to detect the magnitude of the
voltage between the electrodes and the magnitude of the current flowing. The voltage is in a
predetermined range, but when no current is flowing, the 9 circuit opens the solenoid valve to
allow gas to flow into the plasma cavity.
When system operation is normal, detection of voltage and current is a continuous monitoring
operation, which cancels out the disturbance of the plasma caused by the intense ventilation
around or the strong wind when used outdoors. . 2 External ionization plasma As described
above fc, the external ionization plasma does not depend on the potential that generates an
internal current to induce ionization, but it is a plasma that induces ionization instead from an
external ionization source such as an electron beam. is there. The plasma thus formed can
basically take any value from zero to a self-excitation value, and is not fixed to a self-excitation
value. It is different. Thus, the plasma boundary, plasma volume and electron density (or
potential of the current) can be completely controlled by the external ionization source and its
energy can be induced by the electric field which does not disturb the plasma density or
distribution. The operation of the electron accelerator is the same as a large grid-controlled true
wall tube, but the child must also have an energy 30-120 KEW 'i which can penetrate the thin
plate separating the vacuum chamber from the surrounding air. Once outside, each electron
forms a secondary electron ion pair / ctn (8 = 50 to 100 to give a representative example) at 1
atm, and then loses energy. (Each ionization process requires about 50 EW of energy. An electric
current flows to the external ionization gas by the electrode provided between the conductive
plasmas and the voltage source, but the magnitude of this electric field is not sufficient to
maintain ionization without the external ionization source. When this current conducts the
plasma, the required heat input is generated depending on the ionization source, the plasma
parameters are controlled, and the sound is generated according to the principle outlined in the
theoretical section described above. The electron number density r16 generated by the electron
beam jb can be determined by the velocity equation in the following steady state: jb engineering
Vd energy P = ατ′αa = αr = Sα engineering electron beam current density electron drift
velocity pressure Townsend coefficient, Adhesion coefficient recombination coefficient secondary
ionization cross section ("5O-100) In plasma where both αr and αa act, mixed gas and jbf, if not
properly selected, either adhesion or recombination Almost completely dominant, this results in
nQ being quadratically or negatively dependent on the beam flow jb. ある。 If the gas is air, it is
easy to satisfy this condition. Because P exists because 02 exists.
The coefficient of adhesion of α dominates according to the order of magnitude. In this case, if
an external electric field E't-applied, the secondary current to heat the discharge is given by: As
mentioned above, the modulation of the generated plasma can take several forms. Referring to
FIG. 12, the reference numeral 73 denotes an electron beam generator having a grid 76 and an
anode 75. A high voltage bushing 74 is provided and connected to the anode power supply 75
'and the voltage source 76'. Plate 77 closes the enclosure and is electron permeable. An anode
78 and a cathode are provided in the generated plasma, the electric field is energized, and the
generated current is connected to a power supply 100 for heating the plasma. Audio inputs
connect to terminals 98 and 99 of transformer 97. To operate the system, the external ionization
plasma is heated with a bias voltage having superimposed AC components with audio signals. A
ballast resistor or an external current regulator is not necessary as the electric field, as well as
the current, is free to vary within a predetermined range. However, the dynamic range is limited.
And not completely linear. For example, α7. α3. α. Are all functions of the applied electric field.
Referring to FIG. 13 which shows an improved system, reference numeral 80 is an electron beam
generator. The internal structure of the illustrated type of system is the cathode 81. Plasma
cathode 82. グリッド83. And the enclosure 84 consists of a plate 84 which is totally closed
and transmits electrons. 85 is an accelerator power supply, 86 is a plasma cathode power supply,
87 is a terminal connected to negative grid bias, 88 and 89 voice inputs, 91 is a current power
supply for heating the plasma, and 92 and 93 are respectively provided in the wheel 1 Anode
and cathode. The illustrated system has a constant external electric field and an electron beam
current (je). Accordingly, the external current (ie) is modulated. The linear characteristic of this
modulation system is superior to that of the aforementioned electric field modulation system.
There is no external audio amplifier in this system. The reason is that the electron multiplication
process in the plasma between the electron beam accelerator itself and the secondary ionization
and secondary ionization becomes an audio amplifier. A small audio signal applied to the
accelerator grid controls the entire discharge process which dissipates hundreds of waratras.
Referring to FIG. 14, reference numeral 113 denotes an electron beam generator, which is
generally called an electron beam gun. Adjacent to anode array 114 and cathode array 115
window 116 are provided in the plasma.
Although the fixed DC power supply 117 generates an electric current to heat the plasma. As
shown, different voltages are applied to the individual anode elements by separate voltage
sources 118 so that thermal energy can be removed to keep the system including the windows at
a uniform operating temperature. By the way, speaking of. Cooling air or a cooling gas is
introduced from the source by means of an intervention tube 119, which passes through the gap
between the electrode rows and out in the sound propagation direction indicated by the arrow.
Since this electron beam to be used is a grid-modulated plasma cathode type continuously, it is
necessary to superimpose an audio signal (about 30 volts audio) on the peak of DC accelerating
voltage (20,000 to 100, 000 volts) There is. This can be accomplished by attaching the FiRF
transformer to the base (not shown) of the electron beam gun. A high frequency tuned oscillating
circuit increases the voltage across the dielectric core inductor as required. When using a coaxial
cable for secondary ionization, the signal applied to the ground end of this cable is superimposed
on the peak of all RF potentials at the high voltage end. More windings at the high voltage end
bias the grid inside the electron beam gun and create the floating potential needed to form the
plasma. This results in an RF modulated electron beam with a voice carrier. f (, F signals can be
rectified by known circuits. In the above embodiment, it has been described that the anode /
cathode structure provided in the plasma generated by the electron beam gun has two functions,
that is, the function of the heat / sink and the function of the electric field electrode. Reference is
now made to FIGS. 15-17, which illustrate several embodiments of the dual function electrode
assembly. In FIG. 15, reference numeral 113 is an electron beam generator, 119 is a cooling gas
input pipe, and 120 is a cooling gas input pipe. The electron beam passes through the gap
between the anode 124 and the cathode 125. A voltage source 117 is provided to connect
different voltage values to the anode element by separate voltage sources 118. As shown, each
element consisting of an anode and a cathode is a concentric ring, and the ring-shaped elements
of the anode are provided at different distances from the matching cathode element in the
vertical plane. The thermal relaxation time can be distributed over predetermined values during
discharge. Figure 16 can be used with the beam generator described above. , 126 / cathode 127
structure is shown. In this case, since each anode annular element is interdigitated with each
cathode annular element (interdigital relation-5 hip), the electric field applied thereto can be
changed to the element.
Thus, the thermal relaxation times can be distributed over predetermined values. FIG. 17 shows
an acoustic lens that can be used with the beam generator described above. This lens has the
function of concentrating the acoustic energy in the desired path and directing the sound
intensity in the desired direction. As shown, the plates 129 constitute an anode arranged in a
predetermined sequence and connected to the voltage source 117 via one individual voltage
source 118'tl-so that different voltage values are applied to each plate Can. Each acoustic lens
128 has a seven-segment t-shaped lens removed along the annular passage 130. Each cathode
element 111 is connected to the other terminal of the voltage source 117. The illustrated lens is
provided in the plasma generated by the electron beam gun, which has three functions. That is.
First, the function of introducing an electric field into the plasma, secondly, the function of acting
as a heat sink when cooling gas or air is passed over the element, and fifth, focusing the sound
energy in the desired path, It has the function of a lens that directs this in the desired direction.
When using a high energy electron beam. Large amounts of ozone are generated and X-rays may
be generated if the electron beam voltage is greater than 18 KW or if radioactive materials are
used for preionization. Therefore, in these cases! %, Different safety considerations are required.
Of course, it goes without saying that shields and shielding means can be used. Alternatively, the
gas emerging from the discharge area may be passed into or on a special chemical catalyst filter
to neutralize or trap ozone. Also, it is possible that the entire gas can be confined to the device
using a very thin membrane that can transmit sound, but in this case it is considered that air
should not be used. To control x-rays, a corrugated metal heat sink / baffle structure can be
provided between the plasma and the listener, which will be the main part of the electrode
structure. This irregular part transmits sound but does not transmit x-rays. Furthermore, it is
possible to form this portion into an acoustic lens (FIG. 17) to disperse the sound. Any material
that has a significant amount of overlap, such as lead, can be used where it is necessary to
reinforce the support structure for the X-ray blocking window. If a window with a thickness of
less than α oosm 11 (α 0001 inch) is deposited thereon, the strength for separating the
vacuum, air, and pressure inside the electron gun will be more sufficient. This is to transmit an
electron beam having an energy of 10 or less to 20 KV to the discharge region.
In order to be transmitted through a foil having a thickness of [1003 trtpa ((10001 inches), a
voltage high enough to cause x-ray problems must be used. To implement the embodiment and
to increase the sound pressure level, it is only necessary to apply aerodynamic means. That is,
the electron beam controlled discharge or acoustically modulated heating means may be used for
the gas flowing at a high speed in the channel. However, the conversion time of the gas through
the discharge area, ie the heating area, must also be faster than the period of the shortest
acoustic wave wavelength to be generated. The flow of gas can be varied by changing the crosssectional area of the channel so that the number μ =, l7 = (a system embodying the principle of
the formula can generate almost infinite sound energy). Next, use aerodynamic means. Reference
is made to FIGS. 18 to 20 which show an embodiment of the system with very high sound
intensity. In FIG. 18, reference numeral 15a is a well-known grid modulated electron beam
generator, which as shown is an audio signal source 152t-connected. Gas inlets 153 and 154 are
sent to manifold 155 at full gas pressure. The electrodes 156 and 157 connected to the power
source 15B form an electric field for heating the discharge. A venturi tube 159 with well-known
operating flow characteristics consists of two frusto-cones with small ends fully connected by
very short cylinders. FIG. 19 has the same configuration as the above, but is provided with an
electrically resistive heating element 160 for heating and modulating plasma in the venturi. The
power supply 158 and the audio signal source 152 are connected to the heating element 160.
The efficiency and frequency characteristics of this system are not very good but the
configuration is simple. As shown in FIG. 20, chemical reaction or combustion can also be
applied. The illustrated combustion chamber 170 has conduits 175 and 176 for introducing fuel
and oxidant. Audio signal source 152 and foreshock exciter 177 introduce sound energy into
electrodes 156 and 157. External ionization plasma! There are various ways to make Examples of
these methods are radioactive materials, ultraviolet radiation, and rapid control electron
avalanches. Heavy isotopes can be applied to solid surfaces. Since secondary ion / electron pairs
always originate from any of these forms of primary ionization illumination, they can be used
instead of electron accelerators fiK. In this case, only E field modulation is used. The radioactive
substance may be selected in consideration of factors such as half life, the secondary ionization
rate that can be achieved, cost and safety.
β emitters are generally safe unless they are directed to the human body. This technology can
be introduced in two ways: That is. (1) as a means to excite the discharge in the plasma
completely externally, or (2) at or near a self-excited point. Furthermore, it can be introduced as a
means to help control the spatial distribution of the discharge operating at the E / P value. In the
case of (1), nine areas are large when n6 is 106 to 109. A low temperature plasma with a low
degree of ionization is generated. In this case, an intermediate ionization process applies an audio
signal to the plasma. Ultraviolet (bought) energy with short wavelength can make ionization by
several mechanisms. Wavelengths short enough to be able to create substantial ionization
directly into the air do not penetrate the normal window. However, adding a trace amount of
chemical substance to this gas can result in substantial ionization by ultraviolet wavelength
irradiation (in accordance with Javan, irradiation of 1100A and 1600A results in many
hydrocarbon substances such as trilopropyrimene). Can be ionized). Usually, continuous or high
speed pulsed discharge in various low pressure gases separated by a CaF window results in such
illumination. Very short pulse ultrafast repetitive summer sequences () 50,000 PP8) can also be
used. These discharges operate in either of the two modes described above. In either case, an
externally applied bias field with a sound modulation component is applied to the ultraviolet
ionized gas. Still another method was continuous. Using a relatively long wavelength ultraviolet
light source (eg mercury discharge> 2 t with 2 537 AQ generated quartz enclosure) using
specially treated negative '&' radiation to emit photoelectrons from this surface is there. This
discharge operates with an E / P value which can hardly sustain ionization at the very least, with
the aid of a photocathode. The discharge can operate under high electric field conditions of
electron avalanche or more in a large volume of high pressure gas (i.e., in air) even for a very
short time period (-2 x 10 seconds). If the discharge is repeated at a rate of about 100, Goo
charged particles / second, electrons and ions hardly recombine between pulses. A second
continuous DC electric field can be applied to the plasma produced by this means, provided that
its E / P value is below the autoionization range. The DC field of this system contains the sound
modulation component. The above system is centralized for laser applications. 22. (Hill, Alan E.
Continuous Uni-form Excitation of Medium Pressure Cog La5 er Plasmas by Means of
Controlled Avanlanche Ionization Applied Physics Lelters, V, 22.
# 12. See June 15, 1975). Several achievements have also been seen in the field of using multiple
types of discharge simultaneously. (See, Tulip, J and 5equin, H, J, J, "High Pressure Glow
Pischarge Using a Differentially Pmped Cathode", Applicable Physics Letters, V, 27, # 1, July 1,
1975). Corona discharge, radioactive substance induced plasma, highly stabilized Townsend
discharge, RF discharge, or microwave discharge, uniform ionized freon)? It is possible to form a
discharge from which a high degree of ionization can be initiated. That is, in one type of
discharge, the spatial distribution can be controlled because the gaseous cathodes or anodes for
the second stronger discharge are arranged. Each discharge can be confined to a different
operating pressure or gas composition. In particular, porous insulating barrier gold can be used
to separate low pressure, high volume, resonant discharges from sound producing main
discharges. The ionized gas which diffuses through the barrier aligns the electrode surface to the
main discharge. Distribute the cathode fall area over a wider area. Helium is added to the control
discharge to help reduce its current density. In this case, the helium diffuses through the porous
barrier to form a transition region which reconditions the discharge plasma characteristics
depending on the conditions of the air discharge. Helium can be used to pressurize multiple
discrete cathodes that are separately current controlled (eg, by ballast resistors) using porous
barrier tubes. It is advantageous to use radio frequency or microwave energy as an auxiliary
source to improve the stability or spatial distribution of the main discharge and to add energy to
the main discharge. The gas or mixed gas to be used is selected according to the use. For
example, a gas or gas mixture can be added to the discharge to alter the ion / electron
attachment / recombination balance. Since the deposition rate depends linearly on the electron
number density, it is preferable to control the recombination process throughout this process to
reduce ionization losses. Because, the distortion of the male voice of the sound is reduced.
However, the largest main adhering element is air, and as a result of moving to some extent
toward recombination control, the discharge stability is high, the current density is high, and the
electron generation efficiency is high. This balance can be optimized by using another gas
instead of 02.
Alternatively, a gas or gas mixture may be added to the discharge to change the Townsend
ionization rate. If photoionization is applied to enhance the discharge, select a gas that increases
the photoionization cross section. Examples are I-IJ-n-Probylene. When electron collisions
dominate the ionization process, such as an avalanche discharge or electron beam discharge, a
gas with a low ionization potential such as sodium is used. Gas or mixed gas can also be added to
the discharge to reduce the thermal conductivity K. At times, it may be advantageous to lower the
thermal conductivity of the plasma. There are three reasons for this. That is, (1) The frequency
characteristics of the device can be improved by reducing the maximum value of the thermal
delay time. (2) The lower the plasma temperature, the better the sound generation efficiency. And
(3) the lower the temperature is, the more advantageous the stabilization of the discharge
operation is over the region where the plasma movement is large. An example of this type of gas
is helium. Helium reduces the current density of the cathode, so the discharge can be spread over
a wide area. In addition, a gas or gas mixture can be added to the discharge to remove the energy
found in the vibrating molecules. N! Or other molecular gases have the function of absorbing
most of the discharge energy into the vibrational state. Since the time of this vibration state is
longer than the sound time, the sound generation efficiency is considerably deteriorated. Traces
of CO2 or water vapor resulting from trace amounts of H1 addition can also rapidly remove
energy found in vibrational N2 and other molecules due to its movement. Alternatively, argon or
other atomic components can be used in place of N3 or air in a closed system. The purpose of the
closed system is to avoid the problem of electrode oxidation and to prevent ozone generation by
not changing to O * '. Thus, another gas can be used instead of 02, and a gas instead of N can
prevent vibrational energy loss. If the working gas is altered, the 0 molecular weight changes, so
sound dispersion occurs at the internal gas / air interface, which makes it difficult to obtain 9 °,
but adding the gas such as argon changes the mixed gas to the molecular weight of air It can be
adjusted. It will be apparent to those skilled in the art that many modifications can be made to
the structure and configuration of one invention without departing from the scope of the
invention as set forth in the claims.
Brief description of the drawings
FIG. 1 is an elevation view showing the energy state of plasma.
FIG. 2 is a partial elevation view and a partial schematic view of the plasma of the present
invention. FIG. 3 is a graph showing the energy state of the plasma of FIG. FIG. 4 is a graph
showing the relationship between amplitude and frequency of the sound generation system of
the present invention. FIG. 5 is a graph showing the relationship between the amplitude and
frequency of one incremental change in the graph of FIG. FIG. 6 is a partial perspective view and
a partial schematic view showing another embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 7 is a partial
perspective view and a schematic view of a further embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 8 is
a perspective view showing the mechanical and electrical details of the present invention. FIG. 9
is an elevational view partially including a cross-sectional view taken along line 9-9 of FIG. FIG.
10 is a plan view taken along the line 10-10 in FIG. 11 is a cross-sectional view taken along line
11-11 of FIG. FIG. 12 is a schematic view of still another embodiment of the present invention.
FIG. 13 is yet another schematic view of the present invention. FIG. 14 is an elevation view
including a partial schematic view of yet another embodiment of the present invention, and FIG.
15 is a schematic view of the other embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 16 is a schematic
view of an electrode structure 69 ° FIG. 17 is a perspective view of an acoustic lens which can
be used in the present invention. FIG. 18 is a schematic view of a sound generation system which
is a specific embodiment of the present invention to which aerodynamic means are applied to
improve sound pressure level. FIG. 19 is a schematic view showing another embodiment of the
aerodynamic means, and FIG. 20 is a schematic view showing still another embodiment of the
aerodynamic means. Patent Applicant Alan Nijin Hill