4 PLANTS AND ANIMALS

1. Read and translate the text:
PLANTS AND ANIMALS OF UKRAINE
The area of natural vegetation occupies about 30% of Ukraine's territory, of which
14% is forested, 3% is haylands, 8% swampland. Most forests and timber reserves are in
the Carpathians and Polissia.
Ukraine has mostly coniferous and deciduous trees (pine, oak, fir, beech and birch).
Plantations of valuable species (oak and beech) are increasing, while plantations of littleused trees such as hornbeam and aspen are diminishing. The wealth of the forest includes
not only timber, but also berries, mushrooms and medicinal herbs.
The animal world of Ukraine is diverse, with hundreds of species of mammals and
birds. Predators include wolf, fox, badger, marten; hoofed animals include roe, deer, wild
pig, elk; there is beaver, jerboa, marmot, hamster and fieldmouse. Characteristic of the
birds are the sparrow, titmouse, grouse, owl and partridge. Certain fur animals (nutria,
mink, silver-black fox, musk-rat) introduced into Ukraine have acclimatized well.
In the rivers, lakes and reservoirs there are perch, bream, pike perch, pike and carp.
Characteristic of Polissia are the pine, oak, birch, aspen, maple and linden with alder
and willow predominating. Animals here include the wolf, wild pig, elk, lynx, marten,
beaver, polecat, raccoon and bear with such birds as black, hazel and wood grouse.
The Forest-Steppe zone contains the oak, elm, hornbeam, black poplar, willow, ash
and pine. The animals include squirrels, forest martens, foxes, hares and roes. The rivers
are home to ducks and storks, geese and cranes.
The Steppe zone is the largest natural geographic zone in Ukraine. In the past the
steppes were covered in natural grasses. Now they are under cultivation. Virgin steppe
remains only in nature reserves.
In the Carpathians the vegetation is located in zones according to altitude. Up 1200 m
we find mixed forests with beech, hornbeam, platan, fir and oak. Higher fir trees are
widespread. Above 1500 m spread the alpine plateaux, on which grow grasses and low
scrub, especially the creeping pine. In spring the plateaux are abloom with saffron,
primrose, mercury, snowdrop and edelweiss.
The animal life of the Carpathians is unique. Here one finds deer, brown bears, wild
cats and pigs, ermines and black squirrels. Bird life includes stone thrushes, golden
eagles and black woodpeckers.
The parks of the Southern Coast contain cypresses, palms, magnolias, platans,
laurels.
The animal world of this region is distinct from the other zones. Birds and animals
have survived here which are rare or extinct in other places. Such birds include the
carrion eagle, black griffons, owls, reptiles include the gecko and others. We can also find
noble deer, roe, wild pigeon, small weasel, white-tailed eagle, mountain linnets, blue
stone thrushes, etc. The animal life includes many animals from southern countries: the
stone marten, badger, fox; there are many lizards and some snakes.
Vocabulary:
beech – бук
birch – береза
hornbeam – граб
aspen – осика
badger – борсук
marten – куниця
roe – козуля
elk – лось
beaver – бобер
jerboa – тушканчик
marmot – бабак
hamster – хом’як
titmouse – синиця
partridge – куріпка
mink – норка
silver-black fox – чорно-бура лисиця
musk-rat – ондатра
perch – окунь
bream – лящ
pike perch – судак
pike – щука
maple – клен
linden – липа
alder – вільха
lynx – рись
polecat – тхір
raccoon – єнот
elm – в’яз
ash – ясен
stork – лелека
crane – журавель
saffron – шафран
primrose – первоцвіт
mercury – пролісок
snowdrop – підсніжник
edelweiss – едельвейс
ermine – горностай
stone thrush – камінний дрізд
golden eagle – беркут
woodpecker – дятел
cypress – кипарис
laurel – лавр
weasel – ласка
linnet – коноплянка
lizard – ящірка
2. Read and try to remember the vocabulary.
3. Check yourself:
1. Characterize Ukraine’s territory.
2. Characterize each zone naming as many plants and animals as you can.
4.
Match the following Ukrainian words with their English equivalents:
1. осика
a) fir
2. нутрія
b) badger
3. ялина
c) stork
4. ясен
d) aspen
5. кипарис
e) titmouse
6. єнот
f) oak
7. борсук
g) nutria
8. дуб
h) cypress
9. синиця
i) ash
10. лелека
j) raccoon
5.
Match the following English words with their Ukrainian equivalents:
1. owl
a) бабак
2. bream
b) коноплянка
3. weasel
c) куниця
4. squirrel
d) ондатра
5. linden
e) лящ
6. marten
f) сова
7. marmot
g) липа
8. musk-rat
h) ласка
9. deer
i) білка
10. linnet
j) олень
6. Translate into English:
1. Багато видів тварин проживають в Україні.
2. Більшість птахів відлетіли на південь восени.
3. Вовк – це хижак.
4. Рослинність в лісі була дуже різноманітна.
5. Марія дуже любила їздити у заповідник. Там вона бачила диких тварин.
6. Дітям подобалось спостерігати за білками.
GRAMMAR PRACTICE
Exercise 1. Form the Past Indefinite of the following regular verbs:
to look, to cry, to jump, to enjoy, to hurry, to clear, to carry, to cook, to water.
Exercise 2. Form the Past Indefinite of the following irregular verbs:
to buy, to let, to grow, to spend, to tell, to say, to take, to write, to understand.
Exercise 3. Make the following interrogative and negative:
1. The teacher repeated the question.
2. The girl caught cold.
3. They slept in the open air.
4. The tourists reached the village before dark.
Exercise 4. Change the following into the Past Indefinite:
1. Do your students read English books?
2. Her mother teaches biology at school.
3. Does that girl speak English?
4. My friend doesn’t like hamsters.
5. In summer we pick berries and mushrooms.
Exercise 5. Change the verb to be into the Past Indefinite:
1. His father is a doctor.
2. Her parents are teachers.
3. Is the doctor at the hospital?
4. Are you ready to go there?
Exercise 6. Make the following interrogative and negative:
1. Nick was at home at that time.
2. You were angry with me.
3. The little girl was afraid of the dog.
4. You were glad to hear this news.
Exercise 7. Open the brackets using the verbs in the Past Indefinite Tense:
1. I (not to be) at home yesterday, I (to go) for a walk.
2. When you (to leave) the meeting yesterday?
3. She (to enjoy) the film, which we (to see) last week?
4. Why your parents (to be) so angry last night? – Because my brother (to be) late.
5. He (not to miss) the train.
Exercise 8. Translate into English:
1. Діти допомагали батькам.
2. Що ви робили в неділю?
3.
Коли ви почали вивчати англійську мову? – Ми почали вивчати англійську
мову три роки тому.
4.
Скільки сторінок ви прочитали минулого тижня? – Минулого тижня я
прочитав десять сторінок. Мені сподобалася ця книжка.
5.
Вчора ми не відправили їй листа, бо не знали її адреси.
6.
Де ви купили цей годинник? – Я купив його сім років тому в Лондоні.