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 Figure skating is an Olympic sport in which
individuals, pairs, or groups
perform spins, jumps, footwork and other
intricate and challenging moves on ice skates.
Figure skaters compete at various levels from
beginner up to the Olympic level (senior), and at
local, national, and international competitions..
Figure skating is an official event in the Winter
Olympic Games. In languages other than
English and Russian, figure skating translated as
"artistic skating".
 Major international competitions are sanctioned
by the ISU. These include the Winter Olympic
Games, the World Championships, the World
Junior Championships, the European
Championships, the Four Continents
Championships, and the Grand Prix series
(senior and junior).
 Pair skating is a figure
skating discipline. International Skating
Union (ISU) regulations describe pair teams as
consisting of "one lady and one man." The sport
is distinguished from ice dancing and single
skating by elements unique to pair skating,
including overhead lifts, twist lifts, death
spirals, and throw jumps. The teams also
perform the elements of single skating in
unison. Pair skating is difficult because
achieving this degree of unison requires similar
technique and timing on all elements of the
performance, as well as practice and trust
between the partners. The aim is to create an
impression of "two skating as one".
 In February 1908, pair skating first appeared at
the World Championships, with three teams
from Germany, the United Kingdom, and
Russia competing in Saint Petersburg.
Its Olympic debut was in October 1908, with
three teams competing in London, one from
Germany and two from the U.K.
 Single skating is a
discipline of figure
skating, wherein a
single person skates
alone. Men's singles
and ladies' singles are
both Olympic discipli
nes .The other
Olympic figure
skating events are pair
skating and ice
dancing. Single
skaters
perform jumps, spins,
footwork, spirals, and
other moves in the
field as part of their
competition
programs.
 Ice dancing is a form of figure skating which draws from the
world of ballroom dancing. It was first competed at
the World Figure Skating Championships in 1952, but did not
become a Winter Olympic Games medal sport until 1976.
 As in pair skating, dancers compete as a couple consisting of
a man and a woman. Ice dance differs from pair skating by
having different requirements for lifts, requiring spins to be
performed as a team in a dance hold, and by disallowing
throws and jumps. Typically, partners are not supposed to
separate by more than two arm lengths; originally, partners
were supposed to be in a dance hold the entire program,
though this restriction has been lifted somewhat in modern
ice dancing.
 Another distinction between ice dance and other disciplines
of skating is the usage of music in the performances; in ice
dancing, dancers must always skate to music that has a
definite beat or rhythm. Singles and pair skaters more often
skate to the melody and phrasing of their music, rather than
its beat; this is severely penalized in ice dance.
 In some non-ISU competitions, solo dancers may also
compete.
 Synchronized skating , a large and fast-growing
discipline, consists of 8—20 (the number of skaters on a
team depends on the level) athletes skating on ice at one
time moving as one flowing unit at high speeds.
 Nikolay
Aleksandrovich PaninKolomenkin, (January
1872 [27 December
1871 O.S.] – 19 January
1956 in Leningrad) was
a Russian figure
skater and coach. He
won the gold medal
in special figures in
the 1908 Summer
Olympics. Panin was
Russia's first Olympic
champion. He was
inducted into the World
Figure Skating Hall of
Fame in 2009.
 Lyudmila Alekseyevna Pakhomova December 31, 1946
in Moscow – May 17, 1986 in Moscow) was an ice dancer who
competed for the Soviet Union. With partner Alexandr
Gorshkov, she was the 1976 Olympic champion.
Aleksandr Georgievich Gorshkov ( (born 8 October 1946
in Moscow) is an ice dancer who competed internationally
for the Soviet Union. With partner Lyudmila Pakhomova, he
is the 1976 Olympic champion.
Since 2010, Gorshkov is the president of the Figure Skating
Federation of Russia
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