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The YaLu River
Introduction of Yalu River
①Yalu river lies between China and North Korea as a boundary river;
②Yalu river runs about 795 kilometers, and the river surface covers about 400
square kilometers;
③It runs through a wet temperate
zone; receives average annual
precipitation of 900 mm; The
temperature range is from -22℃
~to 22℃. From Dec to Apr the river
surface is usually frozen;
④Yalu river is primarily important
as a source of hydroelectricity
The Source of Yalu River
BaiTou Mountain
2744m
Heaven
Lake
Yalu river comes from the Heaven Lake which is at the peak of BaiTou Mountain
on the border of China and North Korea and is the highest lake in the world.
You might wonder: How could the lake be formed on the mountain peak?
Here is a history documentary with animation: Really cool!!
http://english.cntv.cn/program/documentary/20111014/118246.shtml
Heaven Lake
The lake covers 9.8 square kilometers; the average depth is 204 meters, and it
holds 2.4 billion cubic meters of water.
DAMS Along the Yalu River
There were four
dams built by China
and North Korea
along the river, which
are mainly concrete
gravity dams(in
green).
There are two more
dams under
construction(in
yellow).
WangJiangLou
YunFeng
WenYue
WeiYuan
ShuiFeng
TaiPingWan
Out let of Yalu River
1. There is a 2400m
drop in altitude
between upstream
and downstream
along the river
2. The average river flow
is about 1005 m^3/s
3. Every year when ice
starts thawing, there
is spring flooding
4. Dams are mainly
for hydroelectricity
and flood control.
Cascade Hydropower Stations
Four In Use Hydropower stations
Direction of River flow
Hydropower
station Name
YunFeng
(云峰)
WeiYuan
(渭源)
ShuiFeng
(水丰)
TaiPingWan
(太平湾)
Location
JiAn city (集安)
JiAn city (集安)
KuanDian
city(宽甸)
KuanDian
city(宽甸)
Built In
Average
Installed Annual
Capacity ElectricityOutp
(KW)
ut (KW.hr)
Built By
1958~1965
400,000 1,350,000,000
1980~1988
390,000 1,200,000,000
1937~1943
630,000 3,680,000,000
1978~1986
1,900
720,000,000
Cascade
Oder
China /DPRK
First
China /DPRK
Second
Japan---DPRK
Third
China /DPRK
Fourth
Managed
and
Operated by
CHINA
DPRK
DPRK/CHINA
CHINA
Based on the direction of the river flow, there are four cascade hydropower stations built
along with those dams before 1990 .
WeiYuan
Station
ShuiFeng
Station
Under construction Hydropower stations
Hydropower
station Name
Location
Built In
WangJIangLou
(望江楼) JiAn city (集安) 2010~2013
WenYue
(文岳)
JiAn city (集安) 2010~2014
Average
Installed Annual
Capacity ElectricityOutp
(KW)
ut (KW.hr)
Built By
40,000
40,000
150,000,000 CHINA
North
154,000,000 Korea
Managed
and
investment Operated
($)
by
88,000,000 CHINA
73,000,000 DPRK
In January 2010, the two sides signed an agreement known as the “Minutes of the
Ninth Meeting on China-North Korean Construction of Yalu River Dams at
Wangjianglou and WenYue” in which it was agreed to start the construction of the
two power stations.
A ceremony marking the beginning of construction was held on March 31, 2010,
attended by North Korean vice-minister of electricity industry Kim Man-su and JiLin
vice-governor Chen Weigen.
Wangjianglou power station plans require $88 million invested by the Chinese
government; Wen Yue power station plans require $73 million invested by the DPRK.
In order to solve the shortage of construction funds, the DPRK asked China to take
charge of the construction investment. After the completion of the power station, the
DPRK will pay back the investment to China by supplying them hydropower from the
station.
Benefit and Resources sharing
Since these hydropower stations are on both
sides of the YaLu River, they are managed
separately by each country. However, based
on the agreement between China and DPRK,
the two countries share the annual energy
output equally.
According to the agreement between China and North Korea, the width of the
river determines the width of the boundary at any given time.
The two counties manage and use the river together, including the navigation
rights.
In this regard, the border is not set by the main channel of the river. Therefore,
boats from the two countries can use the entire width of the river. In Dandong city
of China, no border permissions are required to enjoy the scenery of another
country along the river.
Fish in the Yalu River
Because of the rich water resources, there were 62 different kinds of fish in the
river, but the number of species declined to 42 due to overfishing.
Dolly Varden
High nutritional value
Silverfish
Responsibilities sharing
----fish protection
After the founding of the People's Republic of China, in1949, China and North Korea
took action to strengthen the protection and development of fish in the Yalu river.
In June 1959, China’s LiaoNing Province and DPRK’s south P’yong Province signed an
agreement on releasing fish into the river: each side would release 1 million baby
bighead carp and 3 million eggs in the Yalu river each year to enable the sustainable
reproduction and growth of the fish species.
On Dec 19, 1972, in Beijing, the Chinese and DPRK’s government signed an
agreement on fish resources protection for the ShuiFeng reservoir: Both sides
would create better conditions for carp fish to lay eggs. Every year from May 15
to June 30 each side would deploy 30 thousand artificial fish nests at appropriate
locations in the ShuiFeng reservior.
History documentary:
http://english.cntv.cn/program/documentary/20111015/107483.shtml
(7:42~9:14)
ShuiFeng Reservior
Responsibilities Sharing
---protecting people living along the river
As mentioned, the Yalu River runs through the wet region of a temperate
zone. It receives precipitation of 870mm annually in the upstream area,
and the distribution increases as it flows downstream. Every year when
ice starts melting, there is a spring flood.
In April 2011, authorities of
China and North Korea signed a
cooperative agreement on the
management of the Yalu River.
In the agreement, the two sides
vowed to conduct joint patrols
and rescue on the river.
QUESTIONS
1. Compared to other transboundary rivers or waters
that we discussed previously, the YaLu River as a
boundary of China and DPRK appears to be a
peaceful and friendly. What do you think about it?
What are the reasons bring two countries together to
make agreements on benefit and responsibilities
equally, will this last long?
2. We talked about sustainable and unsustainable
development of water resources. Do you think YaLu
River development is on the sustainable side or the
unsustainable side? Why or why not?
1/--страниц
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