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Выполнила Хомякова Анастасия
Ученица 10 класса «А»
Учитель Ковалева Ирина Геннадьевна
Speed skating,
or speedskating, is
a competitive form of ice
skating in which the
competitors race each other in
traveling a certain distance on
skates. Types of speed skating
are long track speed
skating, short track speed
skating, and marathon speed
skating. In the Olympic Games,
long-track speed skating is
usually referred to as just
"speed skating", while shorttrack speed skating is known
as "short track". The ISU, the
governing body of both ice
sports, refers to long track as
"speed skating" and short track
as "short track skating".
The standard rink for long track is 400 meters long, but tracks of
200, 250 and 333⅓ meters are used occasionally. It is one of two
Olympic forms of the sport and the one with the longer history.
An international federation was founded in 1892, the first for any
winter sport. The sport enjoys large popularity in
the Netherlands and Norway. There are top international rinks in
a number of other countries, including Canada, the United
States, Germany, Italy, Japan, South Korea and Russia. A World
Cup circuit is held with events in the those countries and with two
events in Thialf, the ice hall in Heerenveen, Netherlands.
The sport is described as "long track" in North American usage, to
distinguish it from a 111 m oval on an ice hockey rink in shorttrack skating or on a short-track oval.
International Skating Union rules allow some leeway in the size
and radius of curves.
Short track skating takes place on a smaller rink,
normally the size of an ice hockey rink. Distances
are shorter than in long track racing, with the
longest Olympic race being 3000 meters. Races are
usually held as knockouts, with the best two in
heats of four or five qualifying for the final race,
where medals are awarded. Disqualifications and
falls are not uncommon.
The sport originates from pack-style events held in
North America and was officially sanctioned in the
1970s, becoming an Olympic sport in 1992.
Although this form of speed skating is newer, it is
growing faster than long-track speed skating,
largely because short track can be done on a
regular ice rink rather than a long-track oval.
At the 1914 Olympic Congress, the delegates agreed to
include ice speed skating in the 1916 Olympics, after
figure skating had featured in the 1908 Olympics.
However, World War I put an end to the plans of
Olympic competition, and it was not until the winter
sports week in Chamonix in 1924—retroactively
awarded Olympic status—that ice speed skating
reached the Olympic programme. Charles Jewtraw from
Lake Placid, New York, won the first Olympic gold
medal, though several Norwegians in attendance
claimed Oskar Olsen had clocked a better time.
Timing issues on the 500 were a problem
within the sport until electronic clocks arrived
in the 1960s; during the 1936 Olympic 500–
metre race, it was suggested that Ivar
Ballangrud's 500-metre time was almost a
second too good. Finland won the remaining
four gold medals at the 1924 Games, with
Clas Thunberg winning 1,500 metres, 5,000
metres, and allround. It was the first and only
time an allround Olympic gold medal has
been awarded in speed skating
Norwegians, Swedes, Finns and Japanese
skating leaders protested to the USOC,
condemning the manner of competition and
expressing the wish that mass-start races
were never to be held again at the Olympics.
However, the ISU adopted the short track
speed skating branch, with mass-start races
on shorter tracks, in 1967, arranged
international competitions from 1976, and
brought them back to the Olympics in 1992.
Yevgeny Romanovich
Grishin (Russian: Евгений
Романович Гришин) (23
March 1931, Tula – 9 July
2005, Moscow) was
a Soviet/Russian speedskater.
Grishin trained for the largest
part of his speedskating
career at CSKA Moscow. He
became European Champion
in 1956, and won
Olympic gold in the 500
meter and 1,500 meter events
in both 1956 and 1960 Winter
Olympics (sharing the 1,500
meter victories with
respectively Yuri Mikhailov
and Roald Aas), competing for
the USSR team. Along with his
compatriot Lidiya Skoblikova,
he was the most successful
athlete at the 1960 Winter
Lidiya Pavlovna
Skoblikova (Russian: Лидия
Павловна Скобликова; born 8
March 1939 is a Russia
former speed skater.
Representing the USSR Olympic
team during the Olympic Winter
Games in 1960 and 1964, she
won a total of six gold medals,
still a record number for a speed
skater. She also won 25 gold
medals at the World
Championships and 15 gold
medals at the USSR National
Championships in several
distances. She was also the first
athlete to earn six gold medals
in the Olympic Winter Games,
and the first to earn four gold
medals at a single Olympic
Winter Games. She was the most
successful athlete at
the 1960 and 1964 Winter
Olympics, sharing the honour for
1960 Games with her
compatriot Yevgeny Grishin.
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