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MME 1008
TECHNICAL ENGLISH-II
yücel birol
Purpose, reason and result clauses
You will often need to use purpose, reason and
result clauses in your written and spoken work at
university.
You use a purpose clause when you want to state the
purpose of the action in the independent clause.
The most common type of purpose clause is a toinfinitive clause.
Sarah went to the computer lab to print out her
research report.
Purpose, reason and result clauses
In formal writing, in order to and so as to are used.
The company conducted a detailed survey in order
to gauge its clients’ views.
In formal writing, you can also introduce a purpose
clause with so that or in order that.
These finite purpose clauses usually contain a modal.
Dr. Chan adjusted the overhead projector so that the
students would be able to see the chart more
clearly.
The lecturer finished his lecture five minutes early
so that the students could come and ask him
questions.
Purpose, reason and result clauses
difference between so and so that :
so that implies that the cause was deliberately done
by someone in order to get a specific result.
other ways of expressing purpose in English:
with a view to,
with the intention of,
with the object/aim of,
for the purpose of
If you use these phrases, make sure that the verb is
in the _ing form.
Purpose, reason and result clauses
other ways of expressing purpose in English:
with a view to
with the intention of
with the object/aim of
for the purpose of
If you use these phrases,
make sure that the verb is in the _ing form.
Purpose, reason and result clauses
The university introduced two new English courses
with a view to enhancing students’ proficiency in
the language.
In your written and spoken assignments you will
often need to answer the question ‘Why?’. When you
want to explain why something happens, you can use
a reason clause introduced by the conjunctions
because, as or since.
As she wanted to practise her spoken English, Carrie
regularly took part in the ELC’s Big Mouth Corner.
Mark joined the English Drama Club because he
wanted to improve his intonation.
Purpose, reason and result clauses
Common mistake
Don’t use so in sentences beginning with since, as or
because. Here is a common mistake:
Since he was interested in movies, so David joined
the PolyU International Film Society.
Purpose, reason and result clauses
Prepositional Phrases
You can also use the prepositional phrases
because of
on account of
to express reason.
We were unable to carry out the experiment on
account of a malfunction in the computer.
We were unable to carry out the experiment because
the computer malfunctioned.
there are many other ways of indicating reason and
cause in English.
result clauses
When you want to indicate the result of an
action or situation, you can use a result
clause.
Result clauses are introduced by conjunctions
such as
so,
so... that, or
such … that.
result clauses
The lecture was boring and irrelevant, so some of
the students began to fall asleep.
Peter was having problems with mathematics, so he
went to see his tutor to ask for advice.
There were so many books on the subject that
Cindy didn’t know where to begin.
There was such a lot of material to cover that Ivan
found it difficult to keep up with his studies.
result clauses
Result
There are many other ways of talking about the
result of an action or situation. In some situations
you may prefer to use and as a result or with the
result that.
The lecture was boring and irrelevant, and as a
result some of the students began to fall asleep.
The lecture was boring and irrelevant, with the
result that some of the students began to fall asleep.
result clauses
As a result
As a result can also be used at the beginning of a
new sentence.
The lecture was boring and irrelevant.
As a result, some of the students began to fall
asleep.
result clauses
Therefore etc.
The following words and phrases are used in the
same way.
Therefore,
Thus,
In consequence,
Consequently,
For this/that reason
result clauses
-ing clauses
Causal relations can be expressed by ing-clauses of
result.
The government increased the duty on wine. As a
result, there was a fall in demand.
The government increased the duty on wine,
resulting in a fall in demand.
exercise
Choose the correct word from the list.
Kevin changed his major from Geography to Business
Studies ……………… improving his job prospects.
As
So that
With the result that
With a view to
On account of
so
because
in order that
such
so as to
exercise
Choose the correct word from the list.
Kelvin changed his major from Geography to Business
Studies with a view to improving his job prospects.
Explanation:
Kelvin purposely changed his major, so this sentence
has a purpose clause. The word following the gap is
improving, an _ing word. There is a list of words
above that you could use in this gap, but the only
phrase in the drop-down box from the list is with a
view to.
exercise
Dr Leung arranged some extra tutorials ………………
give her students more opportunities to ask questions
before the examination.
As
So that
With the result that
With a view to
On account of
so
because
in order that
such
so as to
exercise
Dr Leung arranged some extra tutorials so as to
give her students more opportunities to ask
questions before the examination.
Answer:
to is also correct!
Explanation:
This is a sentence with a purpose clause.
The answer cannot be so that or in order that
because the following word, give, is a verb.
It cannot be with a view to, with the intention of,
with the object/aim of, or for the purpose of
because give is not an _ing verb.
exercise
A key piece of equipment broke down ……………… the
laboratory session had to be cancelled.
As
So that
With the result that
With a view to
On account of
so
because
in order that
such
so as to
exercise
A key piece of equipment broke down so/with the
result that the laboratory session had to be
cancelled.
Explanation:
This is a sentence with a result clause. The answer
cannot be so that because a piece of equipment
cannot purposely decide to break down.
exercise
…………………. Tony has a very good foundation in
English, he had little difficulty in passing the
examination.
As
So that
With the result that
With a view to
On account of
so
because
in order that
such
so as to
exercise
As / Because Tony has a very good foundation in
English, he had little difficulty in passing the
examination.
Explanation:
This is a sentence with a reason clause. The answer
cannot be on account of, as this should be followed by
a noun phrase, not a clause. It would be correct to
write, 'On account of Tony's very good foundation in
English, he had little difficulty in passing the
examination.' as Tony's very good foundation in
English is a noun phrase. Another possible answer
is 'on account of Tony having a very good...'
exercise
Professor Li repeated the point in
Cantonese ………………………. the students would
fully understand.
As
So that
With the result that
With a view to
On account of
so
because
in order that
such
so as to
exercise
Professor Li repeated the point in Cantonese so / so
that / in order that the students would fully
understand.
Explanation:
This is a sentence with a purpose clause. So is correct
because it means therefore in this example. Both so that
and in order that show that Professor Li's purpose was to
help the students understand. The answer cannot be to,
because the word after the gap is not a verb. It would be
correct to write 'Professor Li repeated the point in
Cantonese to make sure / ensure that the students
would fully understand.
exercise
David was ……….. busy with his final-year project
that he was unable to take part in extra-curricular
activities.
As
So that
With the result that
With a view to
On account of
so
because
in order that
such
so as to
exercise
David was so busy with his final-year project that
he was unable to take part in extra-curricular
activities.
Explanation:
This is a sentence with a result clause. So matches
with the that after project and can define busy. Such
is wrong because such busy cannot go together. Such
can be followed by a noun phrase; e.g. David was
such a busy person that he was unable to take part
in extra-curricular activities.
exercise
It was ………….. a successful lecture series that the
English Language Centre decided to repeat it the
following semester.
As
So that
With the result that
With a view to
On account of
so
because
in order that
such
so as to
exercise
It was such a successful lecture series that the
English Language Centre decided to repeat it the
following semester.
Explanation:
This is a sentence with a result clause. Such can be
followed by a noun phrase; e.g. a successful lecture
series. It is part of the phrase such...that.
exercise
The examination had to be postponed ……………………
the typhoon.
As
So that
With the result that
With a view to
On account of
so
because
in order that
such
so as to
exercise
The examination had to be postponed on account
of the typhoon.
Explanation:
This is a sentence with a reason clause.
Because is wrong unless you write of after it; i.e.
because of the typhoon.
It would also be correct to write
'The examination had to be postponed due to the
typhoon.'
exercise
Amy joined the English Club ………………….. she wanted
to increase her circle of friends.
As
So that
With the result that
With a view to
On account of
so
because
in order that
such
so as to
exercise
Amy joined the English Club as / because she
wanted to increase her circle of friends.
Explanation:
This is a sentence with a reason clause. Because of
and on account of are wrong because they are not
followed by clauses, but by noun phrases; e.g. 'Amy
joined the English Club because of her desire to
increase her circle of friends.
Cause and Effect words and phrases
Cause and Effect words and phrases
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