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Internationalization -
a leading trend of the post industrial
information society development due
to its globalization
a strong need for a personality with
a new mentality - an open mind
striving to learn and communicate,
a tolerant attitude to diversity and
Internationalization of University
a consequence and a reason of international
economic, social and cultural integration
a key factor of a radical transformation of the
education in the world
a demand for international education - 400% for the
recent 20 years (UNESCO)
Internationalization of University
a process of implementation of international
dimension into research, academic and
administrative functions of higher education
internationalization at home
education abroad /cross-border education
Internationalization of University
International Collaboration of Universities
• Development of new international standards of
• Implementation of international dimension into
learning and teaching standards;
• Institutional partnership – with a preference to a
network university collaboration
• Mobility of curriculum and institutional mobility
• Individual mobility of students, teaching body and
administrative staff
of University Education
multi-level character:
• Multinational
• National
(frame agreements, directions and mechanisms of internationalization – i.e. ECTS)
• Institutional/University (local strategies based on special
priorities and interests)
• Individual
Internationalization of University
Educationacademic students mobility
increase in 300% for the recent 25 years
2010 – 2 800 000 students studying abroad
2025 – 4 900 000 students studying abroad
Student Mobility Programs
At academic level –
an implementation of international dimension in
the curriculum
At social and cultural level –
dealing with cultural diversity
coping with ethnic attitudes
At students’ personal level –
providing a mobility opportunity
preparing for mobility tasks
providing support
Student Mobility Programs
The Enhancement of Student Mobility flow
in and out of the country
(from 5% to 20%)
The Quality criteria of Internationalization:
an acquisition of intercultural skills
sound teaching of other languages and cultures
an internationally oriented teaching body
What do the majority of students who stay
at home really miss compared with those
who go abroad?
Student Mobility is intended
to enrich learning and research experience
to improve knowledge transfer
to facilitate personal growth
Learning Effects of Mobility
academic effects
increase of knowledge and cognitive skills
language skills effects
verbal/nonverbal communication, fluency
social effects
more social initiative,
more positive attitude to people from other countries
cultural effects
cultural awareness,
more appreciation of native and other cultures
Employability Effects of Mobility
professional competencies
“trade talk”,
management skills
international and intercultural competencies
to be able to live and to work in a foreign country and handle cultural diversity
to be able to work effectively in foreign company culture
to able to relate in a different way of thinking and communication
multicultural personality characteristics
suitability of a person to work in a different international and cultural
environment (cultural empathy, open-mindedness, emotional stability and
Students’ Personal Effects
of Mobility
Preferred Strategy of Intercultural
The aim of the research:
- to Explore a Psychological Nature of Intercultural
Adaptation (IA) of Students during their stay
individual preferable strategies of IA
level s of IA
factors influencing the process of IA
mobility effect on students’ personal growth
cultural shock and re- entry cultural shock
59 students of
Pskov State University
Novgorod State University
Kaliningrad State University
Age: 18 – 27 years old
Countries of Mobility: Sweden, Germany,
France, Netherlands, Finland, Estonia, the USA,
Period of Stay: 3- 24 months
• Questionnaire on Mobility Experience
• Reflective Self-Report and Self-Assessment
of Mobility Personal Experience
• Psycho-diagnostic Scales for Measuring
Type and Level of IA
• “Self-Actualization” Test
• Cultural Shock Scale Test
Concept Thesaurus
Intercultural Adaptation
Intercultural Sensitivity
Intercultural Communication
Cultural Shock/ Re-entry Shock
Intercultural Identity
• Intercultural Adaptation (IA)
– an
adjustment a to a new culture, the process of becoming an
intercultural or bi-cultural individual
• Strategies for IA – individual ways of IA:
Integration – an orientation to preserve one’s own culture yet being
open to other cultures
Assimilation - a process of "absorbing" into an established, generally
larger community with a loss of many characteristics of the absorbed
Separation is an orientation to preserve one’s own culture rejecting
contacts with the other culture
Marginalization is an individual's exclusion from meaningful participation in society,
a loss of one’s native culture without an intention to seek contacts with the other
• Acculturation – a natural process of adaptation of an
individual who has been socialized in one culture and moves to
another culture
• Cultural Shock – a part of acculturation,
a psychological and cognitive reaction of
strain and anxiety resulting from a contact
with a new culture and a loss of familiar
cultural environment
• Re-entry Cultural Shock – a reverse
acculturation, a process of re-alignment
with one’s original culture on coming back
• Intercultural Competence is an integrity of
knowledge, communication skills, language
proficiency and intercultural identity
• Intercultural Identity is an individual’s ability to
grow beyond her/his own culture and encompass
a new culture, gaining additional insight into both
cultures (Y.Y.Kim)
Intercultural Adaptation:
Students’ Preferred Strategy of IA:
Integration - 55%
Marginalization – 17.5%
Assimilation- 17.5%
Separation - 10%
Intercultural Adaptation:
Level of IA (according to 4 points Scale):
Integration Strategy – 3.5
Marginalization Strategy – 2.3
Assimilation Strategy – 3.1
Separation Strategy - 2.75
Mean level – 3.1
Cultural Shock
Level of Cultural Shock
(according to 10 points Scale):
Maximum - 6.57 (students with Marginalization
Minimum – 4.0 (students with Integration
Mean level – 4.4
Re-entry Cultural Shock
Level of RE-entry Cultural Shock
(according to 10 points Scale):
Maximum - 6.57 (students with Marginalization
Minimum – 5.3 (students with Integration Strategy)
Mean level – 5.65
Factors influencing the process and results of
IA positively
Outer factors:
cultural similarity of the host country
high quality of mobility programs of the host University,
guidance provided to the students by the home University, etc.
Inner factors:
cultural awareness
language skills
prior abroad experience
positive ethnic identity
optimal level of ethnocentrism
students’ motivation: self-actualization, strive for personal growth, feeling
of satisfaction
intercultural personality traits
personal maturity
Self-Assessment of Personal Growth
as an impact of study abroad
• Personal Domain- more independent in decision making, more
self-efficient, more responsible
• became more inquisitive to the world,
lValues – more appreciation of their family, of the culture of
home country, showing respect to elderly people, human
relations based on sincerity and open-heartiness
• Emotional Domain- more self-control, a more positive outlook
at life problems, more patient, more assertive
Communicative and Cognitive Domain – became more
inquisitive to the world, learned to take initiative,sitive when
learned to understand people better, more sensitive when
trusting peoplee smore sensitive when trusting people,
Personality Type of an Ideal Student
for Mobility
emotionally self-controlled,
flexible, curious, tolerant to uncertainty
appreciating time and
enjoying the present moment,
responsible, optimistic, friendly,
dedicated yet open to new knowledge and ideas
Personal Barriers to Effective
Outcome of Student Mobility
intercultural ignorance
lack of self-confidence
low communicative initiative
super-attachment to one’s home
Mobility is
- a valuable learning experience for students
multicultural awareness,
language competence,
knowledge growth
- a powerful factor for personal growth
intercultural identity,
individual ways of intercultural adaptation and
coping with cultural shock
- an effective tool for developing professional
Policy and Practice to increase
Student Mobility Potential • Implementation of International
Dimension in academic curriculum
• Provision of Psychological Coaching and
Support for Mobility Students at all stages
(before the start, while being abroad, on coming back)
• Task oriented preparedness of students
• Psychological preparedness of students
A man travels the world over in
search of what he needs and
returns home to find it
George Moore (1852-1938)
Thank you
for your kind attention!
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