вход по аккаунту

код для вставкиСкачать
Introducing Government in
Chapter 1
• Definition:
– The institutions and processes through which
public policies are made for society.
• This definition leads to two basic questions:
– How should we govern?
– What should government do?
• Definition:
– The process by which we select our governmental
leaders and what policies these leaders produce.
Politics produces authoritative decisions about
public issues.
• Also consider Lasswell’s definition:
– Who gets what, when and how.
The Policymaking System
• The process
by which
policy comes
into being
and evolves
over time.
Figure 1.3
• Interests
• Problems
• Concerns
Linkage Institutions
Political Parties
News & Entertainment Media
Interest Groups
Policy Agenda
• Political Issues
– These are the “whats” that the various people
want taken care of.
• Items at the top of the policy agenda are
taken care of first.
• It may take years to get an item on the policy
agenda, and then several more years to get it
acted on.
Policymaking Institutions
Legislature (Congress)
Executive (President)
Courts (Federal and State)
Bureaucracies (Federal and State)
Expenditures of money
Raising or lowering taxes
New laws or regulations
Non-decisions (gridlock)
• Impacts of policies:
• Does it solve the problem?
• Does it create more problems?
• Definition:
– A system of selecting policymakers and of organizing
government so that policy represents and responds to the
public’s preferences.
• Cornerstones
Equality in voting
Effective participation
Enlightened understanding
Citizen control of the agenda
Theories of U.S. Democracy…
• Pluralist Theory
– A theory of government and policies emphasizing
that politics is mainly a competition among
groups, each one pressing for its own preferred
• Groups will work together
• Public interest will prevail
Theories of U.S. Democracy…
• Elite and Class Theory
– A theory of government and politics contending
that societies are divided along class lines and that
an upper-class elite will rule, regardless of the
formal niceties of governmental organization.
• Not all groups are equal
• Policies benefit those with money / power
Theories of U.S. Democracy…
• Hyperpluralism
– A theory of government and politics contending
that groups are so strong that government is
• Exaggerated / perverted form of pluralism
• Confusing / contradictory policies
• Gridlock- inability to act at all
Challenges to Democracy
Increased Technical Expertise
Limited Participation in Government
Escalating Campaign Costs
Diverse Political Interests
Questions About Democracy
• Are the people knowledgeable- and do they
apply what they know?
• Do interest groups help the process, or do
they get in the way?
• Do political parties offer clear consistent
choices for voters?
• Does the President & Congress work in the
best interests of ALL the people?
Questions about the Scope of
• How big a role does the Constitution say
should be played by the federal government?
• Does a bigger, more involved (active)
government limit the people’s freedoms?
• Do we need a bigger, more involved
government to protect our freedoms?
Questions about the Scope of
Government, continued…
• Do competing political parties make for better
• Do more interest groups create a bigger
• Does the media help control the size and
policies government?
Questions about the Scope of
Government, continued…
• Can the president control the government, or
has it gotten too big?
• Can Congress respond to the needs of the
people, or just to the interest groups?
• Do members of Congress expand government
by seeking to be re-elected?
Questions about the Scope of
Government, continued…
• Do the federal courts overstep their bounds
and intrude on the powers of other branches
of government?
• Are the federal agencies too large and
unresponsive to the public they are supposed
to serve?
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа