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Marketing
Management and the
Planning Process
How do I Decide Where I am
Going?
Marketing Management
 process
of planning,
implementing, and controlling
marketing activities and
decisions in order to facilitate
exchanges
Planning

Process of
anticipating the
future and
determining the
courses of
action
necessary to
achieve
organizational
goals
2
levels
– strategic
planning
– tactical
planning
Strategic Planning

process of determining the primary
objectives of the organization, the
adoption of courses of action, and
the allocation of resources
necessary to achieve those
objectives.
– long-term (3-10 years)
– top management
– broad company issues: expansion or
contraction of markets, product lines
Tactical Planning
 focuses
on the implementation
of the actions specified by the
strategic planning process
– (1 year or less)
– middle and lower levels of
management
– determine target markets,
marketing mix strategies
The Marketing Planning
Process
Situation Analysis
 Determination of Organizational
Objectives
 Evaluate Environmental Risks and
Opportunities
 Formulate Marketing Objectives and
Strategies
 Implement Marketing Strategies

Situational Analysis

Internal Review
– Review each of the
elements of the
4p’s

External Review
–
–
–
–
–
Customer
Marketplace
Industry
Government/Legal
Competition
Determine Organizational
Objectives

Objectives are desired outcomes
which guides management planning
at lower levels and a standard for
evaluating performance. They must
be:
– clear and specific
– stated in writing
– ambitious, but realistic
– quantitatively measurable
– tied to a time period
Assess Organizational
Resources



Take stock of your
assets
what are we
capable of doing at
this moment?
examples:
personnel
strengths,
machinery
capability, markets
developed
Evaluate Environmental
Risks/Opportunities
 look
for the strategic window of
opportunity where key
requirements of the market and
the particular competencies of
the firm best fit
Formulation of a Marketing
Strategy

Overall company
program for
selecting a
particular target
market and then
satisfying
consumers in that
segment through
careful use of the
elements of the
marketing mix

Several Options
– undifferentiated
– differentiated
– concentrated

Ansoff’s Grid
– Market Penetration
– Market
Development
– Diversification
– Product
Development
Undifferentiated Marketing
 mass
marketing
 produces one product
 market to all consumers
 one marketing mix
 production efficient and
simplistic; minimize inventory
 assumes market homogeneous
Differentiated Marketing
 produce
numerous products or
services
 various marketing mixes
 aim for smaller segments; needs
better met
 costs of production and
marketing rise
Concentrated(Focused)
Marketing



service only one
segment of the
market
best informed of
their needs and
wants
is it dangerous to
put all your eggs in
one basket
Growth Strategies

Market Penetration
– use more effective marketing for
existing products and markets
– attempt to increase repeat purchases

Market Development
– geographical expansion
– new uses
– new regions
Growth Strategies
(cont’d)

Product Development
– same market
– develop new products
– i.e.., Sony

Diversification
– new products
– new markets
– poor industry growth
Consolidation Strategies
 Harvesting
- good fit of product;
little opportunity for growth;
reduce $’s spent for promotion
 Pruning - try to serve same
markets - just reduce segment
coverage. Stick to what you do
best!
More Consolidation

Retrenchment - opposite of
development
– offer same product line - but retreat to
strongest core market

Divestment
– sell off a product line or business
– weak fit between mission and
competencies and the requirements for
product success . EX: Burger King
Implementation of the
Strategy
 series of tactical


plans
monitoring
essential to
success
unplanned events
may impact plans
in a negative way
necessitating
updates or
changes
Tools Used in the Strategic
Planning Process

Strategic Business Units (SBUs)
– separately identifiable business
– distinct mission
– own competencies
– executives with profit responsibility
– key to determine optimal # of SBUs: to
many - bogged down with details of
planning operating, control. Too Few units covering too broad a market to be
useful
Other Tools
 Portfolio
Analysis
–Market Share/Market Growth
Matrix (BCG Matrix)
–Market
Attractiveness/Business
Strengths Matrix
 Spreadsheet
Analysis
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