close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

код для вставкиСкачать
Organizational
Behavior, 9/E
Schermerhorn, Hunt, and
Osborn
Prepared by
Michael K. McCuddy
Valparaiso University
John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Chapter 7 Study Questions
 How are motivation, job satisfaction, and
performance related?
 What are job-design approaches?
 How are technology and job design
related?
 What alternative work arrangements are
used today?
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7
2
Study Question 1: How are motivation,
job satisfaction, and performance related?
 Job satisfaction.
– The degree to which individuals feel positively
or negatively about their jobs.
– Job satisfaction can be assessed:
• By managerial observation and interpretation.
• Through use of job satisfaction questionnaires.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7
3
Study Question 1: How are motivation,
job satisfaction, and performance related?
 Implications of key work decisions for job
satisfaction.
– Joining and remaining a member of an organization.
• Satisfied workers have better attendance and less turnover.
– Working hard in pursuit of high levels of task
performance.
• Three alternative relationships between performance and
satisfaction.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7
4
Study Question 1: How are motivation,
job satisfaction, and performance related?
 Argument: satisfaction causes
performance.
– Managerial implication — to increase
employees’ work performance, make them
happy.
– Job satisfaction alone is not a consistent
predictor of work performance.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7
5
Study Question 1: How are motivation,
job satisfaction, and performance related?
 Argument: performance causes
satisfaction.
– Managerial implication — help people achieve
high performance, then satisfaction will
follow.
– Performance in a given time period is related
to satisfaction in a later time period.
– Rewards link performance with later
satisfaction.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7
6
Study Question 1: How are motivation,
job satisfaction, and performance related?
 Argument: rewards cause both satisfaction
and performance.
– Managerial implications.
• Proper allocation of rewards can positively
influence both satisfaction and performance.
• High job satisfaction and performance-contingent
rewards influence a person’s work performance.
• Size and value of the reward should vary in
proportion to the level of one’s performance.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7
7
Study Question 1: How are motivation,
job satisfaction, and performance related?
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7
8
Study question 2: What are jobdesign approaches?
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7
9
Study question 2: What are jobdesign approaches?
 Scientific management.
– Sought to improve work efficiency by creating
small, repetitive tasks and training workers to
do these tasks well.
– Job simplification.
• Standardizes work procedures and employs people
in clearly defined and highly specialized tasks.
• Intent is to increase efficiency, but it may be
decreased due to the motivational impact of
unappealing jobs.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7
10
Study question 2: What are jobdesign approaches?
 Job enlargement and job rotation.
– Job enlargement.
• Increases task variety by combining into one job
two or more tasks that were previously assigned to
separate workers.
– Job rotation.
• Increases task variety by periodically shifting
workers among jobs involving different tasks.
– Enlargement and rotation use horizontal
loading to increase job breadth.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7
11
Study question 2: What are jobdesign approaches?
 Job enrichment.
– The practice of enhancing job content by
building motivating factors such as
responsibility, achievement, recognition, and
personal growth into the job.
– Adds planning and evaluating duties to the job
content.
– Uses vertical loading to increase job depth.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7
12
Study question 2: What are jobdesign approaches?
 Ways to increase job depth.
– Allow workers to plan.
– Allow workers to control.
– Maximize job freedom.
– Increase task difficulty.
– Help workers become task experts.
– Provide performance feedback.
– Increase performance accountability.
– Provide complete units of work.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7
13
Study question 2: What are jobdesign approaches?
 Concerns about job enrichment.
– Job enrichment can be very costly.
– Controversy concerning whether pay
must be increased when jobs are
enriched.
• Herzberg’s argument regarding the impact
of competitive pay and enriched jobs.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7
14
Study question 3: What are the keys
to designing motivating jobs?
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7
15
Study question 3: What are the keys
to designing motivating jobs?
 Core job characteristics.
– Skill variety.
• Degree to which a job requires a variety of different activities
and involves the use of a number of different skills and
talents of the individual.
– Task identity.
• Degree to which the job requires the completion of a “whole”
and identifiable piece of work; one that involves doing a job
from beginning to end with a visible outcome.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7
16
Study question 3: What are the keys
to designing motivating jobs?
 Core job characteristics (cont.).
– Task significance.
• Degree to which the job is important and involves a
meaningful contribution to the organization or society in
general.
– Autonomy.
• Degree to which the job gives the employee substantial
freedom, independence, and discretion in scheduling the
work and in determining the procedures used in carrying it
out.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7
17
Study question 3: What are the keys
to designing motivating jobs?
 Core job characteristics (cont.).
– Job feedback.
• Degree to which carrying out the work activities provides
direct and clear information to the employee regarding how
well the job has been done. .
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7
18
Study question 3: What are the keys
to designing motivating jobs?
 Motivating potential score.
– Combined together, the core job characteristics
create a motivating potential score (MPS).
– MPS indicates the degree to which the job is
capable of motivating people.
– A job’s MPS can be raised by enriching the
core characteristics.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7
19
Study question 3: What are the keys
to designing motivating jobs?
 Critical psychological states.
– When the core characteristics are highly
enriched, three critical psychological states
are positively influenced.
• Experienced meaningfulness of work.
• Experienced responsibility for work outcomes.
• Knowledge of actual results of work activities.
– Positive psychological states create positive
work outcomes.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7
20
Study question 3: What are the keys
to designing motivating jobs?
 Enriched core job characteristics will
create positive psychological states, which
in turn will create positive work outcomes
only when:
– Employee growth-need strength is high.
– The employee has the requisite knowledge and
skill.
– Employee context satisfaction exists.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7
21
Study question 3: What are the keys
to designing motivating jobs?
 Social information processing theory.
– Social information in organizations influences
the way people perceive their jobs and respond
to them.
– Research evidence shows that both social
information and the core characteristics are
important determinants of how people
perceive their jobs.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7
22
Study question 3: What are the keys
to designing motivating jobs?
 Managerial and global implications of
enriching jobs.
– Not everyone’s job should be enriched.
– Job enrichment can apply to groups.
– Culture has a substantial impact on job
enrichment.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7
23
Study Question 4: How are technology
and job design related?
 Sociotechnical systems.
– Reflects the importance of integrating people
and technology to create high-performance
work systems.
– Essential for new developments in job design,
given the impact of computers and information
technology in the modern workplace.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7
24
Study Question 4: How are technology
and job design related?
 Flexible manufacturing systems.
– Adaptive computer-based technologies and
integrated job designs that are used to shift
work easily and quickly among alternative
products.
– Workers develop expertise across a wide range
of functions.
– Jobs offer a wealth of potential for enriched
core job characteristics.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7
25
Study Question 4: How are technology
and job design related?
 Workflow and process reengineering.
– Process reengineering is the analysis,
streamlining, and reconfiguration of actions
and tasks required to reach a work goal.
– This approach for improving workflows and
job designs is driven by one question:
• What is necessary and what else can be eliminated?
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7
26
Study Question 5: What alternative
work arrangements are used today?
 Compressed work weeks.
– Any scheduling of work that allows a full-time
job to be completed in fewer than the standard
five days.
– “4/40” is most common form.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7
27
Study Question 5: What alternative
work arrangements are used today?
 Compressed work weeks (cont.).
– Advantages.
• For workers: added time off.
• For organizations: lower absenteeism and
improved recruiting of new employees.
– Disadvantages.
• For workers: increased fatigue and family
adjustment problems.
• For organizations: work scheduling problems,
customer complaints, and possible union
opposition.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7
28
Study Question 5: What alternative
work arrangements are used today?
 Flexible working hours.
– Gives individuals a daily choice in the timing of
their work commitments.
– Advantages:
• For workers: shorter commuting time, more leisure
time, more job satisfaction, and greater sense of
responsibility.
• For organizations: less absenteeism, tardiness, and
turnover; more commitment; and higher
performance.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7
29
Study Question 5: What alternative
work arrangements are used today?
 Job sharing.
– One full-time job is assigned to two or more
persons who divide the work according to
agreed-upon hours.
– Advantages.
• For workers: less burnout and higher energy level.
• For organizations; attracting talented people who
who would otherwise be unable to work.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7
30
Study Question 5: What alternative
work arrangements are used today?
 Work at home and the virtual office.
– Telecommuting.
• Work done at home or in a remote location via use
of computers and advanced communication
linkages with a central office or other employment
locations.
– Variants of telecommuting.
• Flexiplace.
• Hoteling.
• Virtual office.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7
31
Study Question 5: What alternative
work arrangements are used today?
 Advantages of telecommuting.
– For workers: flexibility, comforts of home, and choice
of work locations consistent with one’s lifestyle.
– For organizations: costs savings, efficiency, and
improved employee satisfaction.
 Disadvantages of telecommuting.
– For workers: isolation from co-workers, decreased
identification with work team, and technical
difficulties with computer linkages.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7
32
Study Question 5: What alternative
work arrangements are used today?
 Part-time work.
– Temporary part-time work.
• An employee is classified as temporary and works
less than the standard 40-hour work week.
– Permanent part-time work.
• An employee is classified as a permanent member
of the workforce and works less than the standard
40-hour work week.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7
33
Study Question 5: What alternative
work arrangements are used today?
 Advantages of part-time work.
– For workers: appeals to people who want to
supplement other jobs or do not want full-time work.
– For organizations: lower labor costs, ability to better
accommodate peaks and valleys of business cycle, and
better management of retention quality.
 Disadvantages of part-time work.
– For workers: added stress and potentially diminished
performance if holding two jobs, failure to qualify for
benefits, and lower pay rates than full-time
counterparts.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7
34
COPYRIGHT
Copyright 2005 © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.
Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted in Section
117 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the express written
permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Request for further
information should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley
& Sons, Inc. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his/her own use
only and not for distribution or resale. The Publisher assumes no
responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages, caused by the use of these
programs or from the use of the information contained herein.
Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7
35
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа