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Towards more
effective Capacity
Development
Module 2:
Concepts and Principles
1
Definitions
Capacity is the ability of people, organisations and
society as a whole to manage their affairs successfully
= a means for an end
Capacity Development is the process by which people,
organisations and society as a whole strengthen,
create, adapt and maintain capacity over time = a
process
Capacity Development Support refers to what outside
partners (domestic or foreign) can do to support,
facilitate or catalyse capacity development & related
2
change processes = an input
Conceptual Model for change
Contextual factors beyond influence
Recurrent
inputs
Internal
resources
Capacity
Outputs
Outcomes
CD
processes
Contextual factors and actors within influence
Wider
impact
What is Capacity?
•
Capacity Levels
•
Capacity for What?
•
Elements of Capacity
Capacity Levels
Levels
Areas (examples)
• Sectors, networks
• Enabling factors
• Coordination
• Leadership
• Service delivery
• Skills, performance
• Ambition, drive
Action fields
Creation
Individual
Organisational
Retention
Development of
adequate skills,
Application of skills,
Reduction of staff
turnover, facilitation
of skills and
knowledge transfer
within institutions
Establishment of
efficient structures,
Integration of
structure, processes
and procedures in the
Regular adaptation
knowledge,
competencies and
attitudes
processes and
procedures
Establishment of
Institutional
and policy
environment
Utilization
adequate institutions,
laws and regulations
knowledge,
competencies in the
workplace
daily workflows
of structures,
processes and
procedures
Enforcement of laws Regular adaptation
and regulations for
good governance
Source: Rwanda Public Sector Capacity Building Secretariat available at
http://resourcecentre.pscbs.gov.rw/best accessed 3.1.2012
of institutions, laws
and regulations
6
Capacity for what?
Contextual factors beyond influence
Recurrent
inputs
BLACK
BOX
Capacity
for what?
(output)
Internal
resources
CD
processes
Contextual factors and actors within influence
Outcomes
Wider
impact
Elements of Capacity
CAPACITY
STRUCTURE
LEADERSHIP
STRATEGIES
LEGAL FRAMEWORK
RESOURCES
KNOWLEDGE/INFORMATION
STAFF SKILLS
SYSTEMS
EQUIPMENT
COOPERATION
CULTURE
INFRASTRUCTURE
Elements of capacity
The ECDPM
Five Core Capabilities Model
(the 5Cs)
9
Types of capacity: tangible and intangible
Technical, functional,
tangible and visible
Social, relational, intangible
and invisible
Technical: skills, knowledge and Operational capacities such as:
methodologies
• Culture and values
• Leadership, political relationships
Assets staff, equipment, money, • Implicit knowledge and experience
technical systems, etc.
• Relational skills: negotiation,
teamwork, conflict resolution
Empowerment and
• Facilitation, problem solving skills
organisational attributes laws • Intercultural communication
and regulations, structures, HRM
systems, mandates
Adaptive capacities such as:
• Ability and willingness to self-reflect
Strategic elements such as
and learn from experience
policies and strategy,
• Ability to analyse and adapt
cooperation agreement
• Change readiness and change 10
management
What is Capacity development?
•
Lesson learns
•
CD and change management
• Roles
for CD support
What is Capacity Development?
Contextual factors beyond influence
Recurrent
inputs
Internal
resources
Capacity
Outputs
Outcomes
CD
processes
Contextual factors and actors within influence
Wider
impact
What has been learned about
capacity and its development
• Strong endogenous dimension, development
partners can support, not lead
• Relies on knowledge sharing
• Influenced by incentives and opportunity
• A change process (+ change is political:
winners and losers)
• Involves complexity and uncertainty
Capacity Development and Change
Far From
Agreement
▲
▲
▲
Close to
Agreement
Complex
Chaotic
Complicated
Complex
Simple
Complicated
Close to
Certainty
►►►
Complex
Far From
Certainty
Support to Capacity Development
Contextual factors beyond influence
Recurrent
inputs
Internal
resources
Capacity
Outputs
Outcomes
CD
processes
Contextual factors and actors within influence
Wider
impact
What is Support to Capacity Development?
• A modest but important role ….that goes beyond TA
• The Quality Criteria – guidance on how on to apply
good practice in supporting capacity development
• Ownership - the local drive for change is most
important
To play this role requires:
• A thorough understanding of context,
challenges and opportunities for change
• Consideration of range of alternative
strategies and entry points
• Being open and explicit in discussing
approaches/options
• Being flexible and ready to adapt and learn
to changing needs, and opportunities
17
The changing donor role
• First listen, listen again …..
• Are you relevant to your partner?
• Dialogue, negotiate, influence, facilitate
• Broker
…… so watch your language
The big picture challenges
Make capacity
development a country
led process
Make existing
capacities the strategic
starting point
Challenges
Be realistic (and
innovative) about
support options
Define and measure
capacity results
Support for Capacity Development
• Quality criteria offer guidance on how on to
apply good practice for supporting capacity
development
• Applying quality criteria raises questions for the
EU:
• What expertise does it require?
• What scope to adapt procedures to realities on the
ground?
• How to manage trade-off between investing in complex
and long CD processes and meeting short-term
expectations for quick concrete results, and meeting
disbursement targets
The Quality Criteria
QC 1: Fit to the context and existing capacity
QC 2: Adequate demand, ownership and commitment
QC 3: Clear link to results and expected outcomes
QC 4: Harmonised support
QC 5: Appropriate Programme Implementation
Arrangements
What are
your main challenges to
Capacity Development?
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