Towards more effective Capacity Development Module 2: Concepts and Principles 1 Definitions Capacity is the ability of people, organisations and society as a whole to manage their affairs successfully = a means for an end Capacity Development is the process by which people, organisations and society as a whole strengthen, create, adapt and maintain capacity over time = a process Capacity Development Support refers to what outside partners (domestic or foreign) can do to support, facilitate or catalyse capacity development & related 2 change processes = an input Conceptual Model for change Contextual factors beyond influence Recurrent inputs Internal resources Capacity Outputs Outcomes CD processes Contextual factors and actors within influence Wider impact What is Capacity? • Capacity Levels • Capacity for What? • Elements of Capacity Capacity Levels Levels Areas (examples) • Sectors, networks • Enabling factors • Coordination • Leadership • Service delivery • Skills, performance • Ambition, drive Action fields Creation Individual Organisational Retention Development of adequate skills, Application of skills, Reduction of staff turnover, facilitation of skills and knowledge transfer within institutions Establishment of efficient structures, Integration of structure, processes and procedures in the Regular adaptation knowledge, competencies and attitudes processes and procedures Establishment of Institutional and policy environment Utilization adequate institutions, laws and regulations knowledge, competencies in the workplace daily workflows of structures, processes and procedures Enforcement of laws Regular adaptation and regulations for good governance Source: Rwanda Public Sector Capacity Building Secretariat available at http://resourcecentre.pscbs.gov.rw/best accessed 3.1.2012 of institutions, laws and regulations 6 Capacity for what? Contextual factors beyond influence Recurrent inputs BLACK BOX Capacity for what? (output) Internal resources CD processes Contextual factors and actors within influence Outcomes Wider impact Elements of Capacity CAPACITY STRUCTURE LEADERSHIP STRATEGIES LEGAL FRAMEWORK RESOURCES KNOWLEDGE/INFORMATION STAFF SKILLS SYSTEMS EQUIPMENT COOPERATION CULTURE INFRASTRUCTURE Elements of capacity The ECDPM Five Core Capabilities Model (the 5Cs) 9 Types of capacity: tangible and intangible Technical, functional, tangible and visible Social, relational, intangible and invisible Technical: skills, knowledge and Operational capacities such as: methodologies • Culture and values • Leadership, political relationships Assets staff, equipment, money, • Implicit knowledge and experience technical systems, etc. • Relational skills: negotiation, teamwork, conflict resolution Empowerment and • Facilitation, problem solving skills organisational attributes laws • Intercultural communication and regulations, structures, HRM systems, mandates Adaptive capacities such as: • Ability and willingness to self-reflect Strategic elements such as and learn from experience policies and strategy, • Ability to analyse and adapt cooperation agreement • Change readiness and change 10 management What is Capacity development? • Lesson learns • CD and change management • Roles for CD support What is Capacity Development? Contextual factors beyond influence Recurrent inputs Internal resources Capacity Outputs Outcomes CD processes Contextual factors and actors within influence Wider impact What has been learned about capacity and its development • Strong endogenous dimension, development partners can support, not lead • Relies on knowledge sharing • Influenced by incentives and opportunity • A change process (+ change is political: winners and losers) • Involves complexity and uncertainty Capacity Development and Change Far From Agreement ▲ ▲ ▲ Close to Agreement Complex Chaotic Complicated Complex Simple Complicated Close to Certainty ►►► Complex Far From Certainty Support to Capacity Development Contextual factors beyond influence Recurrent inputs Internal resources Capacity Outputs Outcomes CD processes Contextual factors and actors within influence Wider impact What is Support to Capacity Development? • A modest but important role ….that goes beyond TA • The Quality Criteria – guidance on how on to apply good practice in supporting capacity development • Ownership - the local drive for change is most important To play this role requires: • A thorough understanding of context, challenges and opportunities for change • Consideration of range of alternative strategies and entry points • Being open and explicit in discussing approaches/options • Being flexible and ready to adapt and learn to changing needs, and opportunities 17 The changing donor role • First listen, listen again ….. • Are you relevant to your partner? • Dialogue, negotiate, influence, facilitate • Broker …… so watch your language The big picture challenges Make capacity development a country led process Make existing capacities the strategic starting point Challenges Be realistic (and innovative) about support options Define and measure capacity results Support for Capacity Development • Quality criteria offer guidance on how on to apply good practice for supporting capacity development • Applying quality criteria raises questions for the EU: • What expertise does it require? • What scope to adapt procedures to realities on the ground? • How to manage trade-off between investing in complex and long CD processes and meeting short-term expectations for quick concrete results, and meeting disbursement targets The Quality Criteria QC 1: Fit to the context and existing capacity QC 2: Adequate demand, ownership and commitment QC 3: Clear link to results and expected outcomes QC 4: Harmonised support QC 5: Appropriate Programme Implementation Arrangements What are your main challenges to Capacity Development?