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Lessons learnt from support programs
to rubber smallholder plantations
Panel 1: Rubber smallholder plantations dynamics
and policies to support them
HE LY PHALLA, General Director
General Directorate of Rubber
Regional Conference
Cambodiana Hotel, 24th June, 2009
History of Rubber Smallholder
Plantations in Cambodia
• By 1960’s, spontaneous plantations have been set up on
the edge of industrial scale plantation estates in order to
ensure outlets and to limit transport costs.
• New smallholders’ plantations were set up from 1990,
with neither any real technical assistance nor financial
support.
• In 1999, beginning of the “Rubber Smallholders’
Development project” or also called “Pilot Project”
funded by AFD
History of Rubber Smallholder
Plantations in Cambodia
Cont. . .
• In August 2000, the RGC announced a national policy to
promote the “family-scale rubber plantation “ which would
insure livelihood security, land tenure, and technical
assistance.
• In 2004, the Rectangular Strategy of the Royal Government
is to improve the agricultural sector activities including the
promotion of rubber smallholder development.
• Since 2004, the areas of smallholder and private plantations
are growing rapidly owing to largely spontaneous process.
Project to support Rubber
Smallholder Plantations
• Supported by AFD from 1999 to 2008 for an
amount of 10 MUSD
• Objectives: test on significant scale (500
ha/year) the best technical, institutional and
financial answers to the successful development
of rubber smallholders.
• Result: 4,000 ha assisted by 1,300 families
(around 3 ha/family)
Project to support Rubber
Smallholder Plantations
3 main directions for the farmers support:
• Technical support
– monitoring during immature period and
tapping training on new mature trees
– access to input with a good quality of planting
material
• Official Land titling
• Long term credit
Rubber Smallholder’s Development Project
Historical Rubber Areas
Smallholder Rubber Project
1- Certified budwood garden
1- Certified budwood garden
PROJECT
Contract for 3 to 5 years
Provide
 Budded Polybags with certified clones.
 Chemical fertilizer.
 Fungicide.
 Petrolatum (plant protect after cut back).
 Technical advice.
BUDWOOD’S OWNER
Responsible






Acceptable land.
Pump and irrigation system.
Fuel.
Labor and management.
Maintenance.
Small equipments and tools.
Budwood gardens network
in Kg. Cham Province
4036 stumps
4590 stumps
7861 stumps
3998 stumps
6286 stumps
16485 stumps
8120 stumps
7512 stumps
6551 stumps
Total number of stumps is 65 439
2- Certified nursery
2- Certified nursery
PROJECT
Contract for 1 production cycle
Provide







Polybags of good quality.
Fertilizer (chemical + natural).
Hevea seeds.
Fungicide and pesticide.
Certified Budwood.
Grafters team.
Technical Advice.
NURSERY’S OWNER
Responsible






Acceptable land.
Water pump and irrigation system.
Fuel (ex. D.O.)
Labor and management.
Maintenance.
Small equipments and tools.
The Rubber Smallholder’s Development
Project (1999-2008)
Access to good quality planting material
Budwood
Garden
Young Budwood garden
4 years old of budwood garden
Nursery
1 month after seeding
6 month after seeding
3 . FINANCING AND CREDIT
Rubber Smallholder’s Development
Project
AFD
Ministry of Agriculture
Ministry of Economy and Finance
Rubber Smallholder Project
Rural Development Bank
Gret
Land Title
Farmers
(Rubber Plantations)
Contract
Strong dynamic of smallholder and private
rubber plantations
Cambodian Rubber Plantations
Areas in 2008
Areas (Ha)
No
Rubber Plantations
I
Private Estates *
II
Eco. Land Concession
III
Rubber Smallholders
Total
Tapping
Replanting
New Planting
20,633
21,460
3,377
0
0
8,305
13,044
904
40,669
33,677
22,364
52,351
Total
45,470 41.95
8,305
7.66
54,617 50.39
108,392
Note: (*) The 7 SORE’s are sold to the Private (local & Foreign) Companies
Source: GDR May 2009
%
100
Policies
Sector policy
•
Rubber sector changed drastically these last
few years with :
1. Privatization of the 7 SORE’s (completed early
2009)
2. Important development of small and medium
private rubber plantations (> 10,000 ha/y)
•
•
A draft sector policy has been developed and
is under discussion at MAFF level
The sector policy on smallholder is based on
the lessons learned from AFD support project
Policy orientation
•
Set up a new and autonomous coordination
body (Rubber Board) in charge to support
smallholder rubber plantations for :
1. Technical support
2. Development of certified budwood gardens
3. Support a long term credit mechanism
•
•
Funding through a new mechanism based on
specific tax on rubber production/exportation.
For a transitional phase, creation of the Office
of Rubber Smallholder Plantations within GDR.
Access to planting material
• Planting material are provided by private
nurseries:
– 5 ha of nurseries supported by AFD Project,
and 40ha developed by private sector,
controlled by GDR, provide good quality
planting materials for around new 4,500 ha/y
– Other new plantations got planting materials
from various sources (from neighboring
countries) without any quality control.
Need for a certification process implemented by GDR & CRRI
Access to technical advices
• Currently provided by GDR through 2
technicians based in Kg. Cham (Memot
and Chamcar Leu) supported by a team at
central level.
• GDR is working closely with the 4 existing
Rubber Smallholder Associations to
provide technical advices to planters, and
to organize trainings.
Access to credit
• Existing credit line at Rural Development
Bank (RDB) supported by AFD project
– Direct support to planters with an on-going
credit lines set up during AFD project
– Short term credit to rubber smallholder
associations to support the procurement of
fertilizers.
Need for additional fund to extend the credit line for new planters
Access to land
• Crucial issue
• Land issue is impacted by the recent past
history:
– All land belongs to State unless a new land title has
been issued
– Forest land is huge (>80% in areas for rubber
development) with unclear demarcation
• Long process to secure land title if needed as a
prerequisite for a long term credit.
Need to adjust Land law to support rubber smallholder plantations
Access to information
GDR is preparing the support to inform the
rubber stakeholders on the relevant
technical expertise (planting, tapping,
harvesting, maladies control,…) as well as
marketing, prices trend, production and
consumption of NR and SR in the world
(more specifically the situation of NR in
SE Asia).
THANK YOU VERY MUCH
FOR YOUR KIND ATTENTION
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