Lesson Plan Topic: Graph & Types of graph Prepared by : Mrs. Saira Imran DA SKBZ College Khayaban-e- Rahat Topic: Graph Class: V Lesson Plan Goals: To tell the students that the purpose of a graph is to visually depict a set of data in a manner that all of the data can be viewed simultaneously. The students should be able to gather, organize, and display data in an appropriate graph Learning Objectives: 1. The student will analyze and solve different questions by using tables, bar graphs, and pie charts. 2. The student will draw conclusions using bar graphs and pie charts. Previous Knowledge: In their previous classes they have learnt about bar graph and pie graph Lesson Materials: Crayons or Colored Pencils Pencils Worksheet Methodology: I will explain to students that each day at school they have the option of buying or bringing a lunch from home. Survey the class to find out how many students will buy or eat a lunch from home on the day of the lesson. Have students brainstorm how this information or data can be represented other than merely stating the facts in words or with simple numbers. Can they think of any visual tools that can be used to show this information? A graph is a visual display of numeric values. A graph is a picture. Graphs make numbers and number comparisons more understandable. Graphs summarize data, show trends, and display patterns. Graphs make it quick and easy to interpret a large amount of data. Reading a basic graph is a quick and easy information-gathering method. Teaching students to understand and know which graphs may appear in lesson plans gives children an advantage when attempting to derive information from graph sources and succeed in the classroom. I Will discuss the following questions before explaining the types: 1. Where have you seen pie charts and graphs? 2. What are some of the benefits of representing data in a visual format? When you watch the news on television - particularly news that centers of business and investing you have probably noticed a number of colorful graphics used to describe and track trends. These graphics are generally graphs and charts and they are critical for clearly conveying information in an easy to understand manner as well as in a way that the difference between two different pieces of data is clearly drawn. In a way, graphs and charts are illustrative methods of clearly presenting various types of differences in a clear method. These graphs/charts generally fall into three different categories: line graphs, bar graphs and pie charts. Each of these three has their own particular similarities and differences all of which need to be examined for a better understanding. 1. Line Graph o o o o The line graph is used to demonstrate data that changes over time. Line-graph data has peaks, or high points, and valleys, or low points. Knowing the parts of a line graph is essential to read the graph and understand the information presented. Line graphs include titles, legends, sources, "Y" and "X" axes and data. The graph is "L"-shaped, with the vertical "Y" axis meeting the horizontal "X" axis at the base of the "L." The arrangement of the data on the "Y" and "X" axes depends on the type of data in the chart. The title allows the reader to gain clues regarding the data. The legend explains the lines on the chart, especially if the chart has more than one line. The source is the credit given to the source of the information. A line graph provides a means in which to compare two different types of information through showing how they are similar and how they are differ. This is performed through the use two lines each representing the two aforementioned pieces of information which are then charted along a numerical scale. A common example of a line graph would be two lines with one line showing the level of unemployment in the city of Los Angeles and one line showing the unemployment in New York City. The graph the lines run can represent the years 1978 to 2008 and the "ups and downs" of the unemployment rate of each city over the course of 20 years can be accurately compared. Example: Sarah bought a new car in 2001 for $24,000. The dollar value of her car changed each year as shown in the table below. Value of Sarah's Car Year Value 2001 $24,000 2002 $22,500 2003 $19,700 2004 $17,500 2005 $14,500 2006 $10,000 2007 $ 5,800 The data from the table above has been summarized in the line graph below. Pie Chart 2. An important part of decision making is having a clear understanding of the information used to base decisions from. Charts can be valuable when a need to represent numerical data would benefit communicating information visually. Some of the most important aspects of a good chart are to select the right type of chart (or graph) that can best characterize the data, also, to keep the design simple in order for an audience to easily understand the information. One of the most popular types of charts is the pie chart. The pie chart is used to visually represent the proportional value of individual parts to the whole. As the name describes, this is done by representing the numerical equivalence of each part as a piece of the whole pie, which in total equates to 100%. o Pie charts display data in a circular, fractional method. A circle is divided into sections using a protractor, working from the diameter of the circle. Sections of the circle are labeled appropriately, and the chart is titled. For example, a pie chart is based on the circle being a complete 100 percent. The data presented needs to be fractions of 100 percent; if the percentage is different, the legend needs to communicate the change. A pie chart serves the same purpose of a line graph and a bar graph in the sense it is designed to show differences between two separate subjects although it eschews the common linear style found in the two other graphs. A pie chart is a very common type of graph that is in the shape of a circle with the circle representing a collective of 100%. Then, within the circle smaller percentage portions within the 100% will be presented in different colors. Sometimes the shapes look like slices taken out of a pie and this is where it gets the nickname of a pie chart. But what happens when you yourself are the person who is supposed to create a chart? Which chart should you pick? Well, there really is not clear cut answer to this question because the specific subject matter, the format in which you are presenting the chart, the audience in which it is intended and your own personal preferences will all play a role in selecting a chart. But, no matter which chart you do select each of these three is reliable and effective at communicating critical information. So, you can't realize lose no matter which one you pick! Examples of Circle Graph or pie graph: In the example shown below, the circle graph shows the percentages of people who like different fruits. Each sector in the circle graph represents the percentage of people liking the respective fruit. Bar Graph o The most common graph is a bar graph or column chart. Bar graphs display information with shaded columns. In a bar graph the highest column demonstrates the highest number or the most quantity. Bar graphs present information on a vertical "Y" and horizontal "X" axis, which meet in an "L" shape. The axes are labeled according to the data information. Information is drawn at varying heights in a brick-style rectangle, called a variable. Variables extend to reach the appropriate statistical number. Variables will be colored differently to clarify graph information. The graph will be labeled at the "X" and "Y" axes and will have a title. A bar graph is very similar to a line graph in the sense that it is designed to show different values of two or more subjects but instead of using lines it using horizontal and vertical bars that represent a different value. There are numbers along the side of a bar graph and they are scales identical to what would be found on a line graph. In a way, this type of graph is somewhat easier to read than a line graph and it conveys informational equally as well. How to draw a bar graph For the following example, we will make a bar graph of the Favorite Color data set to the right, giving information about a group of Red children's favorite color. Blue Green Black Pink Number of Students 22 15 11 5 2 1. Look at your data to determine how big your bar graph should be and whether horizontal or vertical bars will fit better on your paper.Decide the scale your bar graph will have. This is determined by the biggest and the smallest numbers in your data set. In the data from our example, the biggest number is 22; the smallest is 2. In this case, a scale showing multiples of 5 makes creating and reading the graph easier. Label the scale on your graph. 2. Decide how wide the other axis should be to show all of the type of data (5 colors in this case). Label this axis of your graph. 3. Draw the rectangles the right length to represent the data. Pick a good width for the data bars. Color coding can make a graph easier to read. 4. Give your graph a title. When to Use . . . . . . A Line graph. Line graphs are used to track changes over short and long periods of time. When smaller changes exist, line graphs are better to use than bar graphs. Line graphs can also be sued to compare changes over the same period of time for more than one group. . . .A Pie Chart. Pie charts are best to use when you are trying to compare parts of a whole. They do not show changes over time. . . . A Bar Graph. Bar graphs are used to compare things between different groups or to track changes over time. However, when trying to measure change over time, bar graphs are best when the changes are larger. An X-Y Plot. X-Y plots are used to determine relationships between the two different things. The x-axis is used to measure one event (or variable) and the y-axis is used to measure the other. If both variables increase at the same time, they have a positive relationship. If one variable decreases while the other increases, they have a negative relationship. Sometimes the variables don't follow any pattern and have no relationship. Assessment The lesson objectives can be assessed by evaluating students’ abilities to: 1. Use the Assessment of Student Progress to assess students’ overall abilities to meet the lessons learning objectives which include creating visual representations of data and drawing conclusions from tables, bar graphs, and pie charts. Ask from all student that answer the following questions 1. What are two new things that you have learned? 2. What else would you like to learn about this topic? Summary Of The Lesson: Difference between bar, pie and line graphs: Line graph shows change in a long period of time and bar graph shows bars showing different amounts. A bar graph has vertical lines, showing different heights to denote percentages, and A Pie graph is a circle cut into pie slices to denote different percentages. Important points to remember: Line graphs are used to indicate trends over a period of time usually. ex. Temperature as a function of the time of day Bar graphs are used to make comparisons. ex. Sodium content in foods (comparing them) Pie graphs are mostly used to indicate percentages of something. ex. Percentage of annual income spent in various things

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