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Lawrence Skills
Read & Write Gold Assignment #1
Directions: Below are 4 articles. The articles are from CBS News about different issues or information related to
teen technology use.
Your goal is to:
1. Add a comment for this bullet/sentence and type your full name and class period in the comment box.
This will be comment #1.
2. Use Read & Write Gold to “read” the 4 articles in this document. Remember, you must you’re your
headphones on in class to hear Read & Write Gold.
3. For articles 1-4 from CBS News, you must make 5 observations in each article about the content of the
article using Comments in MS Word (Review tab, Add Comment)
a. The comments are going to be pointing out:
i. things you agree with
ii. don’t agree with
iii. things you didn’t know about before
iv. things you have experienced in your own life
v. things that you heard happen to someone else
b. All comments should be 1-2 sentences long.
4. When you are done making all comments in this document (there should be 21 comments in all), save
to the
a. R drive
b. Garza folder
c. Lawrence Skills
d. Your Class period folder
e. Make sure it is named RWG1 – Your name
This assignment is worth 45 points! Each comment is worth 2 points! Plus you will earn 3 additional points for
saving this document correctly to the R drive (see above!).
Lawrence Skills
Read & Write Gold Project 1
Article #1:
Poll: 1 In 5 Teens Use Web To Cheat
NEW YORK, June 13, 2006
(CBS) One in every five American teenagers admits using the Internet to plagiarize material for school assignments,
according to a CBSNews.com poll.
The survey found that 24 percent of the boys and 14 percent of the girls said they had done so at least once. The actual
number of teens who behave in this fashion could well be higher.
“Survey respondents sometimes find it difficult to admit to an interviewer they’ve done things that are illegal or unethical. While
teenagers might be less susceptible than adults to this, there’s a good chance the actual percentage might be higher,” said
Kathleen Frankovic, director of surveys for CBS News.
The poll also showed that the Internet has become an integral part of teen study habits. Ninety percent of U.S. teens say they
use the Web to research school assignments, including 57 percent who say they do so frequently.
TEENS WHO FREQUENTLY USE THE INTERNET FOR?
Researching School Work
57%
Instant Messaging
34%
Downloading Music
33%
E-mail
32%
Posting On Sites
31%
Reading Posts
19%
Playing Games
19%
Watching Videos
14%
Visiting News Web Sites
14%
Uploading Photos
12%
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Other highlights of the poll included:
 Despite the rapidly increasing use of high-tech gadgets, 57 percent of teens say being the deprived of technology for a week
– including cell phones, iPods and computers – wouldn’t matter either way to them, and 10 percent say they would feel
relieved. Nevertheless, about a third of all teens say they would be lost without technology for a week.
 The Internet now rivals TV in popularity. On average, teens who use the Internet report spending 2.9 hours online on a
typical day. Teens who watch TV also report spending 2.9 hours in front of the tube on a typical weekday.
 The Internet has also emerged as a major social venue. Nearly half of teens post something on Web sites like Facebook or
MySpace at least occasionally.
 Despite -- or perhaps because of -- widespread publicity about Internet-related sex crimes, most teens proceed with caution.
Only 10 percent say they are even somewhat likely to date someone they met online. Similarly, only 1 in 10 teens say they
regularly communicate with people they have never seen or met.
 Shopping is not on teens' Internet radar. Only 6 percent say they use the Web frequently for shopping, and 3 out of 4 teens
rarely or never shop online.
 News, surprisingly, blows away shopping. Four in 10 teens visit news Web sites at least occasionally, though less than one
in five say they do so frequently.
The poll also confirms some commonly held beliefs about teen use of technology and the Internet. About two-thirds of teens,
for example, use the Web for e-mail, and more than half go online to download music.
A majority – 67 percent - own a cell phone, and a little less than half (45 percent) say they have a iPod. Six in 10 teens use
their cell phones to send text messages, and four in 10 use them to take photos. Girls use the phones more often than boys to
send text messages and snap pictures.
©MMVI, CBS Broadcasting Inc. All Rights Reserved.
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Article #2:
How Safe Are America's Teens?
NEW YORK, June 14, 2006
(CBS) By CBSNews.com producer Joel Roberts
Violent video games and Internet porn; cyber-bullies and online predators; school shootings and teen gangs. The image of
today's teenagers often seems to be that of a tech-crazed generation run amok – either committing acts of unfathomable
brutality, like Columbine or Red Lake, or else, falling victim to malevolent adults via the same technology teens themselves
have so widely embraced.
But how widespread are these dangers really? Are America's teens more likely to be the victims – or perpetrators – of crime
today than in the past? How worried should parents be about what their kids are doing on the Internet?
The surprising answer is that while they remain vulnerable to a host of threats online and off, teens are actually safer today
than they've been in years.
"Teenagers are safer today, absolutely," says University of California-Berkeley law professor Frank Zimring.
While preliminary figures just released by the FBI show a rise in most categories of violent crime in the U.S. in 2005, there
have been dramatic declines overall since the bad old days of the early 1990s, including a huge drop in teen crime and teen
violence. (The FBI has not yet released 2005 crime data by age group.)
According to the U.S. Department of Justice, there were 49.7 victims of violent crime (homicide, rape, robbery and aggravated
assault) for every 1,000 12-to-15-year-olds in 2004, compared with a high of 118.6 in 1994. There was a similar drop of more
than 50 percent among 16-to-19-year-olds.
"Serious crime in general is down," says Zimring, author of "American Youth Violence" and the forthcoming "Great American
Crime Decline." "Burglary, robbery, auto theft, across the spectrum, the things we used to worry about, have gone down and
down substantially."
Even the nation's schools have gotten safer, despite the media focus on a wave of horrific school shootings. Violent crime
rates in public and private schools are about half what they were in 1992, according to "Indicators of School Crime and
Safety," a report from the U.S. Justice and Education Departments.
While many criminologists cite the demise of the crack cocaine plague in U.S. cities as the primary cause of the decreased
juvenile crime rate, Zimring says that's just part of the story. He says the same factors that contributed to an overall drop in
U.S. crime since the 1990s are responsible for the drop in youth crime. These include a high imprisonment rate, a strong
economy and expanded opportunity for young people, and demographic shifts that saw the highest risk age group, young
people ages 15-29, decrease as a percentage of the U.S. population.
"The big story why crime dropped among kids is the same as why crime dropped among all age groups," Zimring says.
None of this is to downplay the serious risks teens face. They remain more likely than any other age group to be the victims of
violent crime. And they’re especially vulnerable to online threats ranging from sexual solicitation to identity theft.
Most alarming is how frequently teens are targeted by sexual predators. Almost one in five young Internet users will receive an
unwanted sexual solicitation, according to the U.S. Department of Justice; nearly half the time, the harasser is another teen.
One in 33 teens will receive an aggressive invitation to meet the solicitor.
Since 1998, the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children says more than 16,000 cases of online enticement of
children for sexual acts have been reported to its CyberTipline.
John Shehan, the CyberTipline’s program manager, says teens aged 14 to 17 are the most common targets of these cyber
predators.
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"As children get older they have more freedom online," Shehan says, which can translate into greater vulnerability.
While most of these contacts never progress past e-mails or instant messages, sometimes they cross into the real world. In
March, for example, federal authorities arrested two men on charges that they had illegal sexual contact with Connecticut
minors whom they first met on MySpace.com.
"We teach kids 'don't talk to strangers' when they go to the library or walk down the street," Ron Teixeira, executive director of
the National Cyber Security Alliance, says. "The same is true online. Don’t talk to strangers. Protect their privacy. Keep their
personal information personal. Information can be used not only to hurt them but to hurt their families as well."
But kids, of course, don't always do as they're told – and don't always tell their parents what they're doing. Nearly two-thirds of
teens surveyed by The Pew Internet & American Life Project said they do things online that they wouldn’t want their parents
to know about. That includes, for many, corresponding with strangers.
Teixeira tells a story about his own niece, whom he describes as "a pretty average teenager" with a profile on MySpace.com.
Concerned about who she may be communicating with, Teixeira checked out her profile and found she was lying about her
age, calling herself 17 when she was really 14.
Teixeira decided to test her. He put together his own profile, posing as a 14-year-old, and asked his niece where she went to
school and where she lived. She e-mailed him right back with the information.
"This scared the hell out of us," Teixeira says of the fact that she so quickly shared this information with a complete stranger –
information that could be used to harm her. His niece was "shocked" that she was so easily fooled.
But Teixeira's niece is typical. Nearly 60 percent of teens in the Pew study said they've received an IM or e-mail from a
stranger, and 50 percent said they've written the strangers back.
Teens' tendency to trust the people who contact them online and their willingness to share personal information is also making
them increasingly susceptible to fraudsters and hackers.
A Federal Trade Commission survey, for example, found the number of victims of identity theft under 18 doubled from 2004 to
2005. It also found young people between 18 and 29 were the age group most often victimized.
Despite these threats, a survey by i-SAFE, a nonprofit organization dedicated to keeping children safe on the Internet, found
75 percent of teens say they actually feel safer online than off. Convincing them that these perils are real is the biggest
challenge for parents and educators.
"The number one thing they need to know is that there are dangers online," Teiuxeira says. "There are people who want to
hurt them and people who want to steal their money."
By Joel Roberts
©MMVI, CBS Broadcasting Inc. All Rights Reserved.
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Article #3:
You're 15: Who's Watching You Online?
NEW YORK, June 14, 2006
(CBS) By CBSNews.com producer Christine Lagorio.
Sue Balz-Verzal, a Wisconsin mother of two, logs onto popular social-networking site Xanga every day. Naperville, Ill., police
detective Rich Wistocki tools around MySpace during work hours, as does MIT professor Henry Jenkins. These adults don’t
browse social-networking sites to message friends or post blogs. They log on to watch.
Also lurking online is a small army of predators hoping to connect with young men and women.
Teenagers dominate social-networking sites such as MySpace or Xanga. In adopting the new communication medium as their
own, they generally assume their peers are their audience. But while teens design profiles on these sites with their friends in
mind, a wave of monitors — most notably parents, predators, and police — is following their tracks.
Balz-Verzal, 49, checks out all of her 14-year-old daughter's Xanga photos and messages, while Wistocki trolls local teens'
sites for signs of criminal activity. Jenkins, a communications scholar who has written extensively about technology, is simply
interested. He called MySpace "the most-watched teen hangout in the history of the planet." While MySpace CEO Chris
DeWolfe has said "MySpace is not a police state," it is a public space in which members have a decided lack of privacy.
"It’s not a private diary that a kid can keep locked up," said Parry Aftab, Internet-safety educator and director of
wiredsafety.org. (Aftab's charity takes donations from social-networking sites, including MySpace.) "Whatever they put online
is on a billboard on a superhighway."
Much like a well-stocked iPod or an extensive DVD collection, having a pimped-out presence on the "superhighway" can be a
status symbol. A MySpace profile full of edgy pictures, intriguing details and scores of friends is a desirable dose of social
capital.
"MySpace is a cultural requirement for American high school students. Or, as one teenager said, "If you’re not on MySpace,
you don’t exist,'" wrote University of California-Berkeley doctoral student Danah Boyd in a paper published by MIT last
month.
More than 40 million MySpace users — about half of its total members — log more than an hour on the site weekly; 20 million
visit Xanga regularly. For college students, Facebook is becoming the choice social-networking site — more than 85 percent of
students participate if their campus offers membership. Some high schools have begun offering Facebook logins as well, liking
its exclusivity to the scholastic community. As Facebook tends to serve older teens, Xanga is popular with tweens.
Balz-Verzal said her 14-year-old is already planning on making the switch from Xanga to MySpace in a year or two: "It's like
learning to drive now; it's a rite of passage."
Experts and scholars tell CBSNews.com that because so much teenage culture today is conducted in a very public online
theater, adults are newly privy to aspects — to phrase it classically: the sex, drugs and rock and roll — that previous
generations might have kept away from adults' gaze. But it's not just parents who are becoming enlightened about teen
culture.
School teachers, employers and college-admissions officers are logging on to learn about teens' evening and weekend social
habits. Although Internet networking is associated with lightning-quick access and change, social sites like MySpace can
cache pages, making a teen's profile available for years, and possibly even decades, to come.
"Usually, teens have a chance to experiment socially," Jenkins said. "We used to worry about what teachers or counselors put
in your 'permanent record.' Now what you put on MySpace is on your permanent record."
What’s wrong with all of this, 18-year-old David Mazzuca of Queens, N.Y., said, is that a visitor to MySpace or Xanga might
glean more information about a teen than would be apparent after having a lengthy face-to-face conversation with him or her.
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Pictures posted by teenage girls in particular are "not something anyone would ever want even their friends or anyone to see
in person — but on the Internet, it's just fine," he said.
Boyd sees this tendency as self-exploration, albeit in a wide-open space.
"These sites play a key role in youth culture because they give youth a space to hang out amongst friends and peers, share
cultural artifacts (like links to funny Web sites, comments about TV shows) and work out an image of how they see
themselves," she wrote.
But with lascivious images and the self-confirming rush of adding new friends or receiving friends' messages, socialnetworking is exploding, and both its benefits and its dangers are just becoming known.
"It's like sex in the 60's: No one is going to abstain from the Internet. But here, there is no condom," said cyber-security
consultant Tom Kellermann.
Predators
In February 2006, a deluge of news stories told a handful of horrifying tales of investigations into murders and sexual abuse
stemming from online predators’ MySpace connections to teenagers.
As many as seven girls from Middletown, Conn., were assaulted by men they met on MySpace who lied about their ages,
police said. The girls were between the ages of 12 and 16 and authorities said the men who touched or had sex with them
falsely claimed to also be teenagers.
Two unsolved murder investigations also involve MySpace: the case of 15-year-old Kayla Reed, whose body was found in a
canal near her Livermore, Calif., home; and the case of Judy Cajuste, a Haitian 14-year-old from Roselle, N.J.
Cajuste’s body was found in a park dumpster, badly bloated and possibly disfigured, according to sources close to her family.
Her body was assumed to be that of an adult, so Judy’s single mother was not notified for more than a week.
The Center for Missing and Exploited Children reported 2,660 incidents of adults using the Internet to entice children into
meeting in 2005. Attorney General Alberto Gonzales said in April that one in every five children who go online is solicited, and
that at any given time 50,000 predators are online trolling for youth contact.
The Justice Department is set to spend more than $14 million this year on a national network of task forces working to catch
Internet predators. But doing so is "like shooting a fish in a barrel — I could come have a pedophile meet me anytime,
anywhere," Wistocki said.
By the time of Judy and Kayla’s murders, The NBC show "Dateline" was running a popular series called "To Catch A
Predator," and many parents’ eyes were opened to the potential dangers of social networking.
Parents
When Balz-Verzal’s daughter wanted to get a Xanga account, both mother and daughter were aware of the possible dangers.
One aspect that worries her? "Predictability. They say 'I'm in school, I'm going bowling one night, I'm going to the movies one
night.' They give their name, they give out their birth date and their likes or dislikes,” Balz-Verzal said. “Kids are giving out way
too much information online.”
Balz-Verzal makes sure her daughter doesn't divulge too many personal details, but that's not the case with many parents.
There's a generation gap when it comes to online know-how according to Aftab, who has taught hundreds of parents the
intricacies of teenage social networking.
"Even if a parent uses computers and the Internet, they have no idea how kids do … a parent is likely to be alienated from a
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teen's Internet use, no matter how in touch they are,” she said.
Other factors can exacerbate the disconnect. Language barriers can separate parents from children in immigrant families.
Parents too poor to have a computer in their home have no way of monitoring children who go online at school.
In Cajuste's case, her mother — a Haitian immigrant — worked several jobs, said Roselle, N.J., school board president Yves
Aubourg. As a result, Judy was often cared for by her grandparents, who speak very little English.
Another consideration is the sheer size and scope of the Internet. Surfing the Web and chatting online can't be compared to a
teen activity familiar to many parents — going to the mall with friends.
“In a mall there are a couple hundred people. On the Internet there are millions,” said Rob Nickel, a veteran of the provincial
police force in Ontario, Canada. Nickel specialized in undercover work catching predators online and now lectures parents on
Internet safety. “We street-proof our kids, but on the Internet they don't know the consequences,” he said.
Catherine Saintilien, a community-center organizer in New Jersey who is acquainted with the Cajustes, said the lack of neutral
or kid-friendly public spaces push younger teens to their desktops.
“In the summer months, for more than 10 hours they might be in the house by themselves if they don’t have a place to go, and
it is very tempting to go online,” she said. “There is no place that's safe for our kids anymore.”
But experts say it is natural for the new technology of one generation to become the focus of adult anxieties.
"Social networking is just the latest in a slew of technologies, going back to radio, that shocks one generation and is taken for
granted by the next,” Jenkins, an MIT professor, says.
Police
Parents and schools fear what they don't understand in the case of tech-savvy teens — especially when violent crimes or
illegal activity can be tracked back to a teenager's computer. Patrolling MySpace and chat rooms has become commonplace
for detectives and school liaison officers — and MySpace is helping them make busts.
In April, Kansas police discovered and thwarted a plot for a Columbine-style school shooting involving five boys, after seeing a
MySpace posting citing the planned violence. It was at least the fourth Columbine-style plot this year revealed through
MySpace or Xanga, according to the Boston Globe.
In the same month, a 15-year-old New Jersey girl was charged with harassment when authorities found what they called a hit
list of 17 people, mostly peers, on her Web site.
"A big part of my caseload is juveniles who are committing crimes against their friends," said Wistocki.
Kellermann says 500 agents work primarily on cyber crime. With the FTC saying that 10 million Americans' identities have
been stolen, the recent boost in federal resources makes sense.
MySpace has also stepped into the crime-fighting arena by helping investigators to uncover users' identities. In April, MySpace
announced the hire of former federal prosecutor and White House cyber stalking adviser Hemanshu Nigam to serve as its
chief security officer.
The Pentagon is joining local police departments in setting its sights on MySpace. The New Scientist magazine reported last
week that the National Security Agency is "funding research into the mass harvesting of the information that people post about
themselves on social networks." The plan, the New Scientist reports, is to add online data, including pictures and links to other
people, clubs or hobbies to its phone analyses.
But teenagers who have grown up online are adept at getting around domestic surveillance systems and Web censors.
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"Hacking on the Internet is just a new vehicle to being mischievous," Kellerman said. "Kids love to know what other people are
thinking. Kids know they can screw other people up pretty badly."
And pretty easily. Trojan horse viruses that are easily downloaded from sites in Eastern Europe can be used to spy on
someone else's computer from afar or to even to issue commands — like turning on a Webcam in a child's bedroom.
Even without knowledge or intent, teens can stumble into illegal activity.
When investigating a child pornography case in Illinois, Wistocki found a teen who was "just curious and looked for teen sex
on [file sharing program] Limewire, and ended up downloading child porn files," Wistocki said. "Download it and you're guilty.
It's just like drugs, if you're guilty of possession."
"Unfortunately, many parents don't find out what their children are doing online until the FBI appears at their door with a search
warrant," Martha Stansell-Gamm, head of the Justice Department's Computer Crime and Intellectual Property Section,
wrote in Newsweek.
The concerns of schools and parents have spread to Capitol Hill, where legislation dubbed the Deleting Online Predators Act
seeks to block teens' access to social-networking sites when in school or public libraries. The bill would block not only
MySpace, but also Friendster, Google's Orkut, AOL and Yahoo instant messengers and even messaging-friendly Xbox 360.
Closer to home, parents, police and schools are mobilizing to educate one another on cyber crime both by and targeting teens.
Wistocki gets a hand from local schools in teaching parents both about MySpace and keeping their computer safe from
hacking. Nickel, in educational lectures across Canada, is adept at using scare tactics, such as tracking down a local woman's
whereabouts, to demonstrate why he advocates keeping tight reigns on children's Internet use.
But the societal ethics of so much surveillance — police, domestic or educational — of teens are still undefined, Jenkins said.
"If the only training is police training parents to police their kids on MySpace, it keeps it a criminalized environment. No one
knows how to guide kids through these spaces. There's a lot of surveillance going on, but not a lot of guidance," Jenkins said.
"That's the challenge of the present moment."
By Christine Lagorio ©MMVI, CBS Broadcasting Inc. All Rights Reserved.
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Article #4:
Cell Phones: Evolution Or Revolution?
NEW YORK, June 13, 2006
(CBS) This story was reported by Daniel Schorn.
Take the F train from Manhattan to Brooklyn and you will experience a phone phenomenon, of sorts. As the subway lurches
above ground for a stretch of two stations, teens immediately get on their cell phones, frantically sending text messages,
checking voicemail and making calls as if their lives depended on it, before the train descends back into the darkness of the
tunnel.
Many exec-types, sporting BlackBerrys, display a similar zeal to stay in touch during those brief moments of commuter
connectivity, but their devices generally don't play hip-shaking tunes when they ring, nor do their work e-mails evoke public
displays of emotion, angst or giggling.
So what is it about the cell phone? Are teens turning into anti-social phone addicts, shunning face-to-face communication in
favor of a cellular hook-up or a text messaging session?
Not so, says Scott Campbell, an assistant professor at the Department of Communication Studies at the University of
Michigan.
"I think what it is doing is keeping them perpetually connected between face-to-face communications," he says.
Instead of replacing traditional communication, Campbell says teens are taking advantage of the autonomy and freedom that
new technologies afford them. "Technology is not changing teens — they are in control, they are taking advantage of the
advances," he says.
According to the Pew Internet & American Life Project, a survey of technology use by teens published in July 2005, some
45 percent of American 12 to 17 year olds already say they have cell phones. And while they may have a cell phone, the
survey also found that over half of those teens actually spent more time talking on landlines.
Amanda Lenhart, the senior research analyst of the Pew survey, says when it comes to staying in touch with friends and
peers, teens will take "the available option, whatever it be."
So while teens in the pre-cell phone era tied up their parents' landline or passed notes in class, teens today just have a greater
range of options, including the phone, e-mail, instant messaging and texting.
But that freedom to stay in touch can cut both ways. Campbell points out parents can use the phone to keep tabs on their kids
— by being able to see their kids' phone bill, parents can get an idea who their teen is chatting with; what the billing statement
doesn't show is the content of the calls and text messages. This past April, service provider Sprint introduced a plan that
allows parents to track their kids — or at least their phones — using GPS technology.
Parenting educator Deb Cohen, from The Parenting Center At Abington in suburban Philadelphia, says the evolution of
communication can actually benefit some teens by helping them form their own identity, separating from the parents.
"Technology can be good for kids who are a little on the shy side, since there's a little anonymity," says Cohen, who is also the
mother of two teens.
But Cohen agrees that some teens — especially socially-driven ones — can get addicted to the constant stream of
communication since they may have a hard time limiting themselves. Her advice for concerned parents is to begin keeping a
log or tally on how long their teen is spending on the cell phone or computer, "so you can talk objectively to them, since they
are not aware how long they may be hooked in."
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"Sit down and negotiate with the kids on what you would feel would be reasonable," Cohen recommends. But since some kids
are not going to self-monitor, parents may need to get tough and "take things away for a while."
Campbell acknowledges that teens are among the heaviest personal and social users, but says the ability to stay connected
also enables teens to put distance between themselves and others; kids can use cell phones to control who they talk to. The
obvious way to do that is through caller ID.
But teens also give their pals specific ring tones so they know who's calling; if it's 50 Cent ringing, it must be Samantha, or
some other friend.
Aside from musical ring tones, young people – especially students - are also downloading a high-frequency ring tone which
adults – think teachers - supposedly can't hear.
David Mazzuca, a university-bound graduate from Regis High School in New York City, says he uses special ring tones to
screen calls; he sometimes even changes tones as his relationships evolve — for better or worse.
During a recent interview, Mazzuca, 18, admitted that a good friend got mad at him when he realized that he had been
assigned a generic ring tone, versus a specialized, musical one. "Someone has to have the generic tone," Mazzuca argues.
Mazzuca bought a $30 link to download ring tones to his Nextel, without having to shell out the usual $1.99 per ring tone fee
some providers are charging.
Ring tones have not only become a big business but have also made it into the mainstream of music, sort of: last year, a ring
tone-inspired track called "Crazy Frog" made headlines when it topped the British Pop charts, beating a new release from the
band Coldplay.
Geoff Mayfield, Director of Charts and Senior Analyst for Billboard, says a ring tone "says as much about your personality as
what you're gonna wear that morning."
Billboard.com launched a Top 40 ring tone chart in October 2004; the first No. 1 tone to hit the chart, "My Boo" by Usher and
Alicia Keys, sold 95,000 copies.
Billboard has been keeping tabs on polyphonic and monophonic ring tones — synthesized versions of songs — but Mayfield
says they are in the process of creating a new chart measuring "master tones," which are real clips of songs; the new chart is
expected to be launched some time this summer.
According to Mayfield, BMI (Broadcast Music Incorporated) estimated that people snapped up half a billion dollars' worth of
ring tones in 2005 in the United States and are projecting sales of $600 million this calendar year.
The industries, he says, have been more mature in Europe and especially Asia, where users have been able to download fulllength songs for some time.
Campbell agrees with that notion, saying that while the United States has not been at the forefront of the cellular technology
curve, "we are definitely catching up."
Laurie Armstrong, a spokesperson of Finnish cell phone maker Nokia, says one reason why wireless technology has been
more advanced in Europe is that major infrastructure changes — namely standardizing to one technology platform — fueled
the cell phone push.
The company made its first phone with SMS (short message service) capability in 1994; Armstrong says texting became
popular in Europe in the mid-1990s and began to gain popularity stateside in late 2001.
She added that while the cell industry made leaps overseas, the IP industry took over faster in the United States.
Earlier this month, Nokia launched a new phone, the N91, which can also be used as a digital music player, with capacity to
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hold about 3,000 songs. U.S. cell phone maker Motorola launched its own phones with music download capability, some
models utilizing Apple's popular iTunes software.
Cell phones keep evolving in other ways as well, partially fueled by the popularity of text messaging and e-mail on the go. One
example is T-Mobile's Sidekick, a cell phone with a flip-up screen that has a full keyboard, making it easier to type messages
than on traditional cell phones. A new version, the Sidekick 3, is expected to hit the market in early July 2006.
"Keypads were never designed for text messaging the way it's being used," says Campbell, adding that teens have been able
to adapt to the limitations of technology. A study published in May 2006 by the University of Michigan's communications
department found that younger users are more likely to be familiar with texting than older users.
Mazzuca says while he is not a big fan of texting because of the cumbersome typing, it "can be finite to send one message,"
versus having a longer conversation.
So is it revolution or evolution when it comes to teens and cell phones? Campbell's argument that it's evolutionary may well
hold true — teens have always been addicted to communicating with one another but advances in technology are making it
easier to stay in touch.
Asked what would be revolutionary, Campbell says, "revolution would be when people will seamlessly connect to the Internet."
By Daniel Schorn
©MMVI, CBS Broadcasting Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Posted with Permission
from Sally Garza,
Lawrence School, OH
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