1 ПОЯСНЮВАЛЬНА ЗАПИСКА Згідно з Умовами прийому до вищих навчальних закладів України (затверджених наказом Міністерства освіти і науки України № 961 від 19.10.2010 р.) та Правилами прийому до Державного вищого навчального закладу «Запорізький національний університет» Міністерства освіти і науки України у 2011 році прийом до магістратури відбувається на конкурсній основі. До складу вступних екзаменів до магістратури внесено екзамен з іноземної мови, який базується на вимогах рівня володіння іноземною мовою В2, - стандартом для ступеня бакалавра, який є загальним для студентів різних спеціальностей. Враховуючи результати національної реформи викладання іноземної мови та беручи до уваги міжнародну практику мовної освіти у ВНЗ, «Програма вступного іспиту до магістратури з іноземної мови професійного спрямування» визначає рівень В2 як мінімально прийнятий рівень володіння мовою для вступника на освітньо-кваліфікаційний рівень «магістр». Критерії до вимог рівня В2 базуються на положеннях, запропонованих Загальноєвропейськими Рекомендаціями з мовної освіти (2007р.) та вимогах освітньо-кваліфікаційних характеристик випускників ВНЗ, затверджених Міністерством освіти і науки України, що складає основу даної програми. Мета вступних випробувань до магістратури з дисципліни “Іноземна мова професійного спрямування” передбачає визначення рівня сформованості комунікативної компетенції в іншомовному спілкуванні, професійно- зорієнтованого оволодіння абітурієнтами іноземною мовою в таких видах мовленнєвої діяльності, як читання і письмо. Читання. Оцінюється рівень розуміння матеріалу, котрий читається, уміння узагальнювати зміст прочитаного, виокремлювати ключові слова та визначати значення незнайомих слів за контекстом. Тексти побудовані на матеріалах, що відображають реалії життя у країнах, з мов яких проводиться тестування, а також галузеву специфіку. 2 Письмо. Перевіряється рівень сформованості навичок та вмінь писемного мовлення для вирішення практичних цілей, а саме: вміння передати в письмовій формі необхідну інформацію, з урахуванням особливостей лексики різних галузей знань та специфіки граматики певної мови. Вступні випробування до магістратури з дисципліни “Іноземна мова професійного спрямування” передбачають оцінювання основних видів мовленнєвої діяльності з метою визначення рівня навчальних досягнень учасників відповідно до вимог чинних навчальних програм та рівня В2 Загальноєвропейських рекомендацій з мовної освіти. У відповідності до вищезазначених вимог вступник на освітньокваліфікаційний рівень «магістр» має: Знати: - граматичні структури та явища, що є необхідними для коректного вираження певних понять, а також для розуміння і продукування широкого кола текстів в академічній та професійній сферах; - правила синтаксису, які дають можливість розпізнавати і продукувати широке коло текстів в академічній та професійній сферах; - лексичний мінімум, що є необхідним в академічній та професійній сферах; - специфіку побудови різних видів мовлення. Вміти: - розуміти автентичні тексти за фахом; - систематизувати та коментувати одержану інформацію; - вміння передбачати основну інформацію тексту за його заголовковою частиною та ілюстративним матеріалом, що супроводжує текст (прогнозуюче читання); - здійснювати ознайомче читання-неадаптованих наукових текстів для отримання інформації; - висловлювати та обґрунтовувати власну точку зору на задану проблему. 3 ЗМІСТ ВСТУПНОГО ІСПИТУ Зміст вступних випробувань з іноземної мови до магістратури передбачає реалізацію міждисциплінарних зв`язків: професійно-орієнтований характер тестів (тематика матеріалу) відображає спеціалізацію та професійний напрям вступників, що дозволяє визначити рівень володіння іншомовною інформацією, та використання її у подальшій професійній діяльності. Завдання тесту побудовані на текстових матеріалах, що відображають науково-професійні реалії та загально-гуманітарну тематику життя країн, з мов яких проводиться випробування. Формат вступного іспиту до магістратури базується на вимогах рівня володіння мовою В2 і охоплює як продуктивні, так і рецептивні види мовленнєвої діяльності. Іспит проводиться окремо по двох напрямах: гуманітарному та природничому. Іспит проводиться у письмовій формі і складається з двох частин: Перша частина (читання): - лексико-граматичний тест на виявлення мовленнєвої компетенції у межах програмного матеріалу. Вступникам пропонується вибрати правильну відповідь із запропонованих; - читання та розуміння текстів фахової тематики. Вступникам пропонується підібрати заголовки до текстових фрагментів, вибрати правильну відповідь на поставлені до текстів питання, а також визначити правильність тверджень. Друга частина (письмо): Письмове висловлювання за пропонованою тематикою (ситуацією). Підібрані ситуації вимагають адекватної мовленнєвої поведінки з врахуванням соціокультурних особливостей мовного середовища, використання автентичних засобів вираження, лексичної, граматичної та предметної (професійної) компетенції в межах програми з іноземної мови. Екзамен (І та ІІ частини) триває 120 хв. 4 КРИТЕРІЇ ОЦІНЮВАННЯ Підсумкова оцінка за екзамен виставляється за 100-бальною шкалою на підставі сумарної кількості залікових балів. Оцінювання виконання частини І (читання) – максимальна кількість балів – 80: Тип завдання Максимальна кількість балів лексико-граматичний тест на виявлення мовленнєвої компетенції у межах програмного матеріалу включає 50 25 завдань, кожне з яких оцінюється у 2 бали; читання та розуміння текстів фахової тематики: - підібрати заголовки до текстових фрагментів (6 заголовків – 6 балів), - вибрати правильну відповідь на поставлені до текстів 30 питання (7 питань – 14 балів); - визначити правильність тверджень (5 тверджень – 10 балів). Оцінювання виконання частини ІІ (письмо) – максимальна кількість балів – 20: Тип завдання Максимальна кількість балів - виконання вимог, які висуваються до об’єму висловлювання – 1 бал; - відповідність мовленнєвих дій комунікативному завданню в межах тематики або ситуації спілкування – 5 балів; - логічність і послідовність викладу – 5 балів; - зв’язність, наявність з’єднувальних елементів у тексті – 2 бали; лексична і граматична правильність писемного мовлення – 7 балів. 20 5 ЗРАЗКИ ЗАВДАНЬ ГУМАНІТАРНИЙ НАПРЯМ І частина. Читання. А) ЛЕКСИКО-ГРАМАТИЧНИЙ ТЕСТ (50 БАЛІВ) I. Choose the correct answer (30 балів). 1. What time does the plane take __________? a through b up c off d to 2. I __________ my grandmother for two months now. a haven’t seen b not seeing c didn’t see 3. If I __________ French, I’d go and live in France. a speak b spoke c have spoken d aren’t seeing d am speaking 4. This house __________ 500 years ago. a built b has built c building d was built 5. After __________ his meal, he went upstairs for a rest. a finish b finished c finishing d finishes 6. We have just had our living-room __________. a redecorated b redecorating c redecorates d redecorate 7. “Did you meet John?” asked Fred. / Fred asked us __________ John. a did you meet b we met c are we meeting d if we had met 8. My little brother takes _________ our father. They are so similar! a on b after c with d down 9. You’ve never been to Russia, ____________ a are you? b will you? c were you d have you 10. He _______ a new suit yesterday. a bought b have bought c had bought d buys 11. The plane ________ when I reached the airport. a has left b already left c had left 12. Peter is ___________ of all my students. d had been leaving 6 a the smartest b smart c smarter d most smart 13. You’re late. I _________ for an hour. a am waiting b have been waiting c wait 14. She realized that she ________ to lock the door. a forgot b had been forgetting c had forgotten d have waited d has forgotten 15. I’m sorry, but I haven’t got _______ advice to give you. a some b any d no d an II. Put the correct form of the phrasal verbs from the box below. There are more phrasal verbs than you need (10 балів). Example: They carried on with the job until it was finished. 1. Are you ___________ your holiday? 2. This yoghurt has __________. The top is rising off the pot. 3. He ___________ an interesting old letter between the pages of a book. 4. He didn’t shoot tigers, you know. He __________ that story __________. 5. They never __________ at meetings on time. put off, get on with, look forward to, look into, give up, turn up, let down, get over, look after, put up with, go off, set off, make up, carry on, come across, take after, take off III. Complete the sentences with the correct form of the word in brackets. Write ONE WORD ONLY on the line (10 балів). e.g. The bed was so uncomfortable I didn’t sleep all night. (COMFORT) 1. It was very __________ of you to shout at her. (KIND) 2. __________. I found my purse under the sofa. (FORTUNATE) 3. He lives in a __________ part of town. 4. At the __________ of the film the family move to New York. 5. They waited __________ for the performance to begin. (DANGER) (BEGIN) (PATIENT) 7 Б) ПІДІБРАТИ ЗАГОЛОВКИ ДО ТЕКСТОВИХ ФРАГМЕНТІВ (6 ЗАГОЛОВКІВ – 6 БАЛІВ): You are going to read a newspaper article about living and working in Antarctica. Choose the most suitable heading from the list A-H for each part 1-6 of the article. There is one extra heading which you don’t have to use. There is an example at the beginning. A. Avoiding human contact. B. Forced to remain. C. The most lonely place on earth. D. A choice of routine. E. Freezing temperatures. F. Alternative routes. G. A varied community. H. The need for human contact. (0)_C__ The last ship of the season has left; the next will not be here until December. There will be eight months of isolation, cut off from the rest of the world on the edge of the world’s coldest, remotest continent: Antarctica. The people who spend the winter at Davis Station in Antarctica regard the departure of the last ship not with fear but with something like a feeling of relief. Gone are the busy days of summer, the helicopters, the crowd of people. Now life starts again. (1)_____ There are more than 40 research projects being carried out in Antarctica but many of the scientists have left by the time winter arrives. The station is home to physicists, biologists, weather observers, mechanics, communications technicians, electricians, carpenters, plumbers, a doctor and a chef. There is also a station leader whose job it is to keep everyone happy and productive and to look after all the paperwork. When most of the team arrive each year in December, the sun never sets. By the beginning of the following June it will never rise, so people have to get used to many dark days. (2)_____ 8 It doesn’t matter what hours people choose to work so long as the work gets done, so they can start and finish work at whatever times suit them. The first real meal of the day, a hot breakfast, is served at 10am. There is a hot lunch and a hot supper but putting on weight is a potential problem for many people. The doctor is there to advise on diet and exercise and a gym is available to help people keep fit. (3)_____ Inevitably, small social groups develop within this isolated community. There is usually a group of smokers, a group of video watchers, a group of people who sit and chat. As people try to maintain contact with home so the cost of phone bills increases, but in any case there is nothing else to spend money on. (4)_____ It is quite common for the sea to freeze during April and instead of waves lapping the beach, thick plates of ice lift and move with the tide. Once the sea ice has been checked to see if it is strong enough to walk on, one can ski over and fish through the holes. Eventually it becomes strong enough for vehicles to drive on it and the researchers can open up a new road system to enable them to drive around the coast in minutes, to huts which could only be reached after hours of walking in summer. (5)_____ Trips to the huts are the only means of physically escaping from life on the station. Some trips are for science, others for recreation and a way of having some personal and private space. Some trips can be made on foot or skis, but in winter they are usually in vehicles. (6)_____ There are no animals as they all leave for the winter, but in spring seals and seabirds and penguins arrive. Only humans stay in Antarctica for the full year, and although their lives are comfortable they are still isolated and imprisoned. They have good food, comfortable buildings, telephones, entertainment, the internet, but for many months at a time no chance of leaving. 9 В) ВИБРАТИ ПРАВИЛЬНУ ВІДПОВІДЬ НА ПОСТАВЛЕНІ ДО ТЕКСТІВ ПИТАННЯ (7 ПИТАНЬ – 14 БАЛІВ): You are going to read an article about one young English person's experience of a 'gap year', a year spent overseas, in China, between leaving school and going to university. I questions 1-7, choose the correct answer A, B, C or D. 2 16 29 I am led into a large, whitewashed room to face a jury of 99. They are arranged in rows, and we look at each other through a cloud of yellow chalk dust. They have never met a foreigner before and eye me nervously as I step forward. I am in China for a year to work with 20-year-old students learning English. It felt odd being younger than my students, but I never felt too inexperienced to cope. everyone wants to be your friend. My best Chinese mate was Mr.Chow, a 35year-old electronics teacher with a son, wife, and a cheerful face like a full moon. I helped him with his English and he coached me at table tennis, and taught me how to ride a motorbike. Best of all, he was a great storyteller, and some of my best nights were spent eating with him and his family. In China I learnt that fun takes on different forms. 43 It had not been an easy choice to take the opportunity of doing a gap year. I was afraid of not being able to settle down to a life of studying when I returned and of loosing touch with my friends. But once the decision was made, I looked for somewhere challenging to live and work, with the possibility of travelling around the country at the end of my work placement. In the more remote areas of China where life and landscape have changed little in hundreds of years, you can really feel like a cross between a celebrity and a creature from outer space. I've been on train journeys when kids have asked me to sign their clothes, been on television a few times - and just what do you say when Chinese men are stroking your legs, I worked at a huge, concrete institute in a city amazed by the fact that they are so hairy? with, a million inhabitants and I grew to love it. The size of the class which could sometimes So, what have I come away with? I had no include up to 99 students, of very mixed ability choice but to adapt, budget, bargain and and enthusiasm, left me feeling exhausted, but become more independent. There's no faster rewarded. way to grow up than having to stand in front of those 99 students, all older than yourself One of the best things about the work was that I and tell someone off for turning tip late again met hundreds of people, and felt appreciated and to a lesson. welcomed by them -people who had had practically no contact with the West. In China, Most of all I lined the experience of living in a different country and the challenge of trying to understand it. 1. What does the use of the word 'jury' suggest about the writer's feelings in line 2? A He thinks he has committed a crime. B The students already find him boring. C He cannot understand their behaviour. D He knows they want to see what he is like. 2. What does the word 'decision' in line 16 refer to? A going to university B returning home 10 3 4 5 6 7 C going abroad D contacting friends Which phrase best sums up the writer's feelings about his job? A concerned and nervous B tired but fulfilled C enthusiastic but worried D successful and excited How do the 'hundreds of people' react to the writer? (line 29) A They were suspicious of him. B They were amused by him. C They were sociable to him. D They were puzzled by him. What does the writer suggest by saying 'fun takes on different forms' in line 43? A He was surprised at his enjoyment of simple things. B He got more fun from learning than teaching. C He missed Western forms of entertainment. D He enjoyed meeting his students outside lessons. The children wanted the writer to sign their clothes because he was A famous. B unusual. C popular. D funny. What does the writer conclude about his gap year? A It enabled him to learn Chinese. B He learnt how to control a class. C He learnt to cope with foreigners. D It helped him become more mature. Г) ВИЗНАЧИТИ ПРАВИЛЬНІСТЬ ТВЕРДЖЕНЬ (5 ТВЕРДЖЕНЬ – 10 БАЛІВ): Read the article below. Then read statements 1-5 and decide if the statements are true (T) or false (F). SUITS or SMART CASUAL? The modern office dilemma Once, it was easy to know what to wear to the office. For male managers, it was always a dark suit and white shirt with a tie. With the arrival of Dress-Down Friday, all the old rules went away. Some companies introduced the system in which once a week (on Friday) the employees were allowed to wear casual clothes of their choice. In recent years, casual dress days at the office have become widespread in the USA, and employees are starting to push the policy to extreme limits. Casual Fridays have become so casual that some people are coming to work in outfits that resemble pyjamas. In a recent poll, 82% of Americans thought that it is OK for businesses to have a dress-down day, while 12% thought it is not. Those who opposed the dress-down 11 policy pointed out that casual dress style might encourage casual or sloppy work. Others commented that the relaxed atmosphere and comfort of casual clothes leads to increased productivity. So what's appropriate for the office? Experts differ it opinions, but there are a few points they agree on. Ripped and worn looking jeans, shorts and Hawaiian print shirts are all unacceptable. Faded denim is also associated with sloppiness. Keep your look smart. For example, pair up dark jeans with a button-down blazer. There are two important factors when discussing dress codes in the workplace. First of all, it must b clear. Employees need to know what is expected of them; otherwise, a dress code that is meant to create relaxed atmosphere might actually increase stress. Second, employees must always consider their clients. We spoke with a lawyer in a firm with a casual dress policy who keeps a jacket and tie in his office and puts it on when expecting a client who might be offended by a more casual approach. And one final thing - no matter what clothes people wear, they must always be clean and neat. Coffee stains are unacceptable on the front of one's casual a well as one's formal shirt 1. Cleanliness is always important in the workplace. T / F 2. Employers should precisely specify what their employees might wear on casual days. T/F 3. Lately, some employees have started wearing unusually informal clothes for the office. T/F 4.Some clients may not accept casual dress code in business situations. T/F 5. Jeans are considered inappropriate for office casual days. T/F ІІ частина. Письмо (20 балів). Write an essay of 200-250 words about environmental issues. In your essay, consider the following aspects: - current threats to the environment; - the relationship of business issues and the environment; - any action that you believe should be taken. Give reasons for your ideas. 12 ПРИРОДНИЧИЙ НАПРЯМ І частина. Читання. А) ЛЕКСИКО-ГРАМАТИЧНИЙ ТЕСТ (50 БАЛІВ) І. Choose the correct answer (30 балів). 1. My teacher made me __________ my work again. a doing b done c do d did 2. I would have bought that coat yesterday if it __________ cheaper. a would be b had been c was d has been 3. It’s no use ___________ angry with babies. They don’t understand. a to get b gets c got d getting 4. It really isn’t worth _____________ to see that film. It’s terrible. a to go b go c to going d going 5. ____________ the bad weather, we decided to have a picnic. a Although b Despite c In spite d In order 6. If we had set off earlier, we _______________ arrived before lunch. a have b had c would have d had been 7. He decided ____________ the whole house redecorated. a to make b to have c to do d to paint 8. After ____________ school the children ran to the sweet shop. a to leave b have left c leaving d were leaving 9. I’ll come to the party unless I ____________ ill. a will be b am c was d had been 10. She turned the volume up ___________ she could hear. a so that b in order to c as a result d because of 11. I ____________ a cake, if I’d known you were coming. a would make b would have made c will make d will be making 12. She _________ poor but now she is rich. 13 a used to be b has been c is d were 13. He __________ at five o’clock yesterday evening. a was working b worked c had worked 14. I’ve got ________________ news to break you. a a b any c a piece of d had been working d a bit of 15. The bank is _______ away than the station. a far b farer c further d the furthest III. Complete the sentences with the correct form of the word in brackets. Write ONE WORD ONLY on the line (10 балів). Example: They carried on with the job until it was finished. 1. She __________ her grandfather; he was a very good runner, too. 2. I __________ most people, but I don’t like the new manager. 3. He __________ smoking over ten years ago. 4. The helicopter __________ in strong winds. 5. Please do your homework now; don’t __________ it __________ any longer. put off, get on with, look forward to, look into, give up, turn up, let down, get over, look after, put up with, go off, set off, make up, carry on, come across, take after, take off III. Complete the sentences with the correct form of the word in brackets. Write ONE WORD ONLY on the line (10 балів). e.g. The bed was so uncomfortable I didn’t sleep all night. 1. My grandmother has a book of old __________ stories. (COMFORT) (CHINA) 2. My uncle is an ___________. He makes all kinds of strange things. (INVENT) 3. I think scissors are the most _____________ kitchen tools, much better than knives for a lot of things. (USE) 4. Hamburgers, chips and pizza are quite ___________ 5. The _____________ escaped with jewellery and antiques. (HEALTHY) (ROB) 14 Б) ПІДІБРАТИ ЗАГОЛОВКИ ДО ТЕКСТОВИХ ФРАГМЕНТІВ (6 ЗАГОЛОВКІВ – 6 БАЛІВ): You are going to read a newspaper article about a photographer who specializes in taking photographs of birds called storks. Choose the most suitable heading from the list A-H for each part 1-6 of the article. There is one extra heading which you don’t have to use. There is an example at the beginning. A. Storks will nest anywhere. B. An impressive sight. C. Storks unlikely to find new nesting areas. D. An important factor affecting stork numbers. E. The reason for the photographer’s visit. F. Storks don’t mind where they feed. G. The photographer’s first task. H. Storks able to guarantee their existence. (0)_E__ As I walked along the narrow streets of a small Spanish village, I felt excited at the prospect of being allowed up onto the roof of a beautiful church. My purpose in being there was to take photographs of the white storks which had been seen nesting in the bell tower high above the village streets. In fact, storks had been my ticket into many similar adventures over the years. (1)_____ Storks are large, beautiful birds with long necks and taking pictures of them is not easy. In towns and villages storks build their nests, which are like platforms made out of twigs, high up on rooftops or treetops. So my initial job was to collect a huge key, let myself into the church, and climb up the bell tower so that I could at least see the white stork nest on the roof of the tower. (2)_____ I eventually reached the top and lifted the door above my head. After the hot, dry streets below there was a wonderful cool breeze and staring at me from their nest about forty meters away were three half-grown storks. It was a marvelous scene, 15 especially in view of the fact that towards the end of the twentieth century there was great concern about the future of the white stork. (3)_____ The numbers of storks had been decreasing for various reasons. The major cause for this decrease was probably due to the lack of rain in West Africa. Storks traditionally escape the European winter and depend on insects and other animals for their food supply. The severe drought caused by hardly any rainfall for years in West Africa had reduced the storks' supply of food with disastrous consequences. (4)_____ Human development has also affected the stork's ability to survive, but in this case the bird has proved to be very adaptable. In natural environments, the stork nests in trees and on rocks. However, as buildings began to spread onto the storks' natural nesting sites, the birds adjusted to this loss by carrying their twigs even higher. Radio towers, road signs, statues, monuments, chimneys and even pylons carrying electricity have become loaded with piles of twigs. (5)_____ Another example of the stork's amazing ability to adjust to changes in the environment is its diet. If a stork can't find sufficient food in its natural habitat, then it seems it will quite happily feed off what it can find in rubbish tips. This reliable source of food is probably one of the reasons why a sizeable percentage of the stork populations in Spain no longer migrate by flying off to Africa for the winter. (6)_____ However, there is a new threat to storks on the horizon. European Union rules and regulations may affect the source of food found on rubbish tips, as governments are now being asked to clean up rubbish tips by covering them over. This will obviously cut off a valuable food supply for the storks. Nevertheless, like any animal or bird which has so successfully adapted to human development, the stork will no doubt find a way to ensure it will survive long into the future. 16 В) ВИБРАТИ ПРАВИЛЬНУ ВІДПОВІДЬ НА ПОСТАВЛЕНІ ДО ТЕКСТІВ ПИТАННЯ (7 ПИТАНЬ – 14 БАЛІВ): You are going to read an article about a UK journalist called Paul Howeils who gives advice on how to design web pages for the internet. For Questions 1-7, choose the correct answer A, B, C or D. DESIGN YOUR OWN WEBSITE What I love about my job is the variety. I get enquiries from people all over the world asking me how they should go about setting up their own website. I've been asked about so many subjects - anything from someone wanting to teach people how to throw boomerangs to another person selling paper flowers which they make at home in their spare time. 14 29 Obviously with all the thousands of websites available at the click of a button, you want to create an impression with your website so that it becomes a must-see destination. Not everyone is prepared, however, for the way in which a website can become so popular that it actually has to be closed down. When people first set up their website they probably pay their web advertiser a monthly fee based on the number of hits or page impressions their site receives. If they can pay their monthly fee without it costing them too much, that is the best that most people hope for. One guy, Pete Bennet, whom I helped, wanted to set up a one-stop shop to provide decent images of the world's flags. He'd been fascinated by flags since his boyhood and had no idea that thousands of other people shared his passion. Anyway, in one month his web page had over 1.5 million hits. As a result his internet provider trebled the fee that he was being charged. He wasn't a rich person and he couldn't afford to spend that amount of money on a hobby without any benefit to himself, so he decided to carry advertising on his site. He found a company which specialises in smaller sites and adverts were added to the pages on his website. So, although he doesn't make a huge profit, at least his hobby provides him with a small income. If you have specialist skills or expertise, it can pay you to sell the products that people want. I helped one woman design a page to advertise the fact that she tells fortunes, based on the information that her clients supply her with. If you want her to tell your 49 fortune, you fill in a questionnaire online your age, date of birth, hobbies, interests and so on and for a small fee she e-mails you back your fortune. You can print it out and it looks really good, decorated with moons and stars, your zodiac sign and your birthstone. I tried it myself and although I'm not sure I 43 believe it, my future according to her is positive and exciting. I also found out that for someone born in August, like me, the birthstone is a peridot, a pale green stone which I'd never even heard of! I also get a fair number of complaints from people e-mailing me to say that they can't access a website. When they click on the site a message appears on their screen saying 'An error has occurred in the script on this page'. This usually happens when someone has tried to achieve fancy effects on their website by using programming techniques based on a scripting language. This means that unless they really know what they are doing, whoever designed the site has probably made a mistake in their programming. This is where people like me come in. Most computer instruction guides make things appear quite straightforward, but unless you're very skilled, you're likely to run into problems. It's generally worth getting a professional to help you set up your site in the first place - otherwise people like me would be out of work. And let's face it, this is big business. 17 1. What does Paul Howells enjoy most about his job? A dealing with different people B his worldwide contacts C teaching design skills D the range of topics 2. What does Paul mean by 'a must-see destination' in lines 14/15? A a website that can no longer be seen B a website that everyone wants to visit C a website that does not make a charge D a website which has been well prepared 3. Why did Pete Bennett set up a website on flags? A He knew lots of people shared his interest. B He hoped to make a lot of money. C A web advertiser wanted to sell flags. D He'd been interested in flags for years. 4. Why did Pete Bennett accept advertising on his website? A to attract more hits B to repay the huge fee C to add more interest D to help him earn same money 5. Who are the 'clients' referred to in line 49? A interested people B web page designers C internet providers D product advertisers 6. Why do error messages sometimes appear? A People make a mistake in their e-mail address. B People try to put too much on the web page. C People have used a program incorrectly. D People have clicked on the wrong button. 7. What comment does Paul make about setting up a website? A It is usually fairly easy to do. B You must use a good instruction guide. C It can be quite complicated. D You should rely on your own skills. Г) ВИЗНАЧИТИ ПРАВИЛЬНІСТЬ ТВЕРДЖЕНЬ (5 ТВЕРДЖЕНЬ – 10 БАЛІВ): Read the article on tourism. Decide which sentences are true (T) and which are false (F), according to the text. GETTING OFF THE BEATEN TRACK Back in the 1980s and early 1990s, when Africans first realised that tourism might be a way out of poverty, they built big concrete hotels on the beaches of Kenya, South Africa and other countries. For some time numerous charter flights came from 18 Germany and Italy. Tourists hoping to see lions in nature reserves - but also expecting to enjoy the comforts of home – packed into overcrowded resorts that were trying to look like the Mediterranean. That was then. Fortunately, a new kind of travel is in fashion now. Today's tourists are leaving the European-style hotels for more authentic experiences, like horsebackriding through the bush. Sitting by the fire at night after a typical dinner of stew, pumpkin leaves and wild spinach, they listen to the local Xhosa people telling folk stories. This experience is not offered by a multinational tour operator but by the Xhosa themselves, through a small, locally run firm called Amadiba Adventures. The money they earn will provide the Xhosa tour guides with an income two and a half times the average local wage. In many ways, this off-the-beaten-track holiday represents the future of global tourism. Despite difficulties, international and domestic tourism is expected to grow fast over the next two decades. While a global recession and the terrorist attacks of 9/11 pushed down tourist numbers in 2001 for the first time since 1982, the impact was less than many had expected. Longer-term trends, including a rise in global wealth, improving transport technology, cheaper flights and the use of the Internet as a travel tool, will make it possible for more people around the world to travel than ever before. Last year there were 693 million international tourist arrivals. The World Tourism Organisation expects that number to increase to more than 1billion by 2010. Tomorrow's tourists will come from new places; the number of Asian, and particularly Chinese, tourists is predicted to explode as that region becomes more integrated into the global economy. Future tourists will also want to do different things. While sun-and-sea tourism still dominates, overcrowding and time pressures mean that the standard twoweek beach holiday is becoming less popular. Rather than spending two weeks on a beach, Americans and Europeans are now taking shorter but more varied trips, causing the rapid development of adventure travel, ecotourism, cultural tours, spa holidays, cruises and sports vacations in ever more distant places: China, the Maldives, Botswana. Western travellers who have ‘been there and done that’ choose more exotic, individualised experiences. Local governments and firms are trying hard to satisfy this new demand, which offers them the opportunity to make huge profits from tourism. 1. Hotels built in Africa in the 1980s and early 1990s were totally different from European hotels. T / F 2. There are no African agencies providing services to European tourists. T / F 3. African tour guides earn less than people doing other jobs. T / F 4. According to expectations, the tourist industry is facing a serious crisis in the near future. T / F 5. There is little chance that new types of holidays, like adventure travel or cultural tours, will be offered in African countries. T/F 19 ІІ частина. Письмо (20 балів). Write an essay of 200-250 words about environmental issues. In your essay, consider the following aspects: - current threats to the environment; - the relationship of business issues and the environment; - any action that you believe should be taken. Give reasons for your ideas. 20 СПИСОК РЕКОМЕНДОВАНОЇ ЛІТЕРАТУРИ 1. Бонк Н.А. , Левина И.И. Английский язык для начинающих. - М., 1996. 2. Верба Л.Г., Верба Г.В. Граматика сучасної англійської мови. Довідник.-К., 1997. 3. Зеленський П.Г. Англійська мова вступникам до вузів. – К., 1980. 4. Паніна О.А. 435 тем з англійської мови (для школярів, абітурієнтів, студентів і викладачів). - Донецьк, 2004. 5. Каверіна В., Бойко В., Жидких Н. 100 тем з англійської усної мови.- Донецьк, 1998. 6. Зеленська О.П. Навчальний посібник з англійської мови для студентів юридичних вузів. – К., 1999. 7. Богацкий И.С., Дюканова Р.М. Бизнес-курс английского языка. - М., 2004. 8. Дорожкіна В.П. Англійська мова для математиків. - М., 1976. 9. Шпак В.В. Англійська мова для повсякденного спілкування. - К, 2004. 10. Шевельова С.А. Англійська мова для економістів. - М, 1998. 11. Бондар О. English Communication (для студентів університету). - К., 2004 . 12. Кулікова Н.В Англійська мова для психологічних факультетів. – К., 2004. 13. Донченко Е.Н Англійська мова для філософів та політологів. - Р., 2003. 14. Гаврилов К.І. Посібник з розвитку навичок усної мови та читання для істориків. - К, 2004.