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Poets, Musicians and
Status and personality in
Islamic oral performance
Islamic tradition
 The
Qur’an and its recitation…
Not Music
Not Poetry
The Hadith
 Unfavourable
opinions of:
 Non-Quranic reciation
Prophet: "From among my followers there will be
some people who will consider illegal sexual
intercourse, the wearing of silk, the drinking of
alcoholic drinks, and the use of musical
instruments as lawful. And (from them), there will
be some who will stay near the side of a mountain, and
in the evening their shepherd will come to them with
their sheep and ask them for something, but they will
say to him, 'Return to us tomorrow.' Allah will destroy
them during the night and will let the mountain
fall on them, and Allah will transform the rest of
them into monkeys and pigs and they will remain
so till the Day of Resurrection.”
Al-Bukhari 7:494
The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon
him) made allowances for certain types of musical
instruments at weddings and the like, and he made
allowances for women to play the daff (drum) at
weddings and on other joyful occasions. But the men
at his time did not play the daff (drums) or clap
with their hands. It was narrated in Al-Saheeh that
he said: "Clapping is for women and tasbeeh
(saying Subhaan Allah) is for men." And he cursed
women who imitate men and men who imitate
Shaykh Ibn Taymiyah
Got Nusrat?
Reclaiming the sacred
Musical and lyrical performance in ritual
Profane Medium
Special Performer
Special Audience
Recitation of the Qur’an
Sacred Medium
Special Performer
Special Audience
Inversion of Status
Musical and lyrical
Status from performer
and audience…
To text
Recitation of the
Status from text…
To performer and
The performer and listener
Ecstasy in production and consumption of text.
 Self control.
 The real thing
 “Mystical” process for performer and listener.
Emotional response to Surat Al-Fatiha.
 Recitation by children.
 Professional training.
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