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Jane B. Reece, Lisa A. Urry, Michael L. Cain, Steven A. Wasserman, Peter V. Minorsky, Robert B. Jackson
Chapter 34
The Origin and Evolution of
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Questions prepared by
Ruth Buskirk
University of Texas at Austin
Michael Dini
Texas Tech University
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Why are tunicates thought to be more closely
related to vertebrates than are the other
invertebrate chordates?
a) They share the same 13 chordate Hox genes.
b) They have genes associated with a heart and
thyroid gland.
c) They have pharyngeal slits, unlike the other
invertebrate chordates.
d) They have a notochord, unlike the other invertebrate
e) They are larger in size than other invertebrate
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Why are humans considered members of the
chordates when we have no notochord,
pharyngeal slits, or muscular, post-anal tail?
a) Our mammalian ancestors show some of these
b) Other similar traits appear in humans.
c) Our nerve cord has replaced the notochord.
d) These traits are only found in invertebrate
e) These chordate traits appear in human embryos.
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Which of the following traits is shared by all
vertebrates, at least in some developmental
stages, except the lampreys?
a) notochord
b) vertebrae
c) cartilaginous skeleton
d) cranium (head)
e) mouth with jaws
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Members of the bony fish clade (Osteichthyes)
are very diverse. Of the following pairs, which
does not represent two classification subgroups
within the Osteichthyes clade?
a) ray-finned fishes and lobe-finned fishes
b) lungfishes and coelocanths
c) lungfishes and tetrapods
d) freshwater fishes and saltwater fishes
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
When early systematists distinguished Chondrichthyes
(cartilaginous fish) from Osteichthyes (bony fish), it was not
clear exactly when bony skeletons first appeared in the
vertebrates. Which of these suggests that a reduction of
bone in Chondrichthyes is a derived condition that emerged
after the origin of bony skeletons?
a) All fish except Agnatha have jaws.
b) Chondrichthyes and Osteichthyes have paired fins and lateral lines.
c) Traces of bone tissue are found in living and fossil Chondrichthyes.
d) The cartilage skeleton of Chondrichthyes is impregnated with
e) Chondrichthyes do not have swim bladders, as do many
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Most amphibians undergo metamorphosis
from an aquatic larva to a more terrestrial
adult. Which of the following is not part of that
a) finned tail  legs
b) lateral line  eardrum
c) gills  lungs
d) aquatic food  terrestrial food
e) smooth skin  scaly skin
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Which of the following is not a new
adaptation of birds that supports flight?
a) feathers of wings and tail
b) four-chambered heart and efficient lungs
c) keratinized beak in place of mineralized teeth
d) amniotic egg
e) single ovary in females
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
Which of these correctly describes phylogenetic
relationships among birds, mammals, and reptiles?
a) Birds share the closest common ancestor with dinosaurs.
b) Reptiles and birds, but not mammals, are amniotes.
c) Mammals evolved from therapsid reptiles after the fall of
the dinosaurs.
d) Birds and mammals are more closely related to each
other than either group is to crocodilian reptiles.
e) Among living species in the group we call reptiles, turtles
and snakes are most closely related to each other.
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
All of the following are correct matches for the
name of a taxonomic group containing humans
and some distinguishing characteristics of that
group except
a) genus Homo: short jaw, large brain
b) hominin (“hominid”) family of genera: upright posture,
bipedal locomotion
c) order Primates: grasping thumbs, forward-facing eyes
d) class Mammalia: placenta joining fetus and mother,
development entirely within uterus
e) species sapiens: slender body, lack of heavy brow ridge,
cave paintings
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
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