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Musical Pluralism
(Music of the first half of the 20th
Created by Katherine Nikiforova
Musical pluralism (after World War I)
 style becomes a matter of choice rather than a matter of
accepted conventions;
 asymmetric rhythm;
 extensive use of percussion instruments;
 appearance of electronic music;
 computer gives composers new possibilities in
and processing sounds;
 experimental music and improvisation;
 appearance of pop music;
 new forms: jazz, rock, rap, techno, metal,
Achille-Claude Debussy
(1862-1918 )
Debussy was a French
composer and musical
critic. He composed in style
which is often named
impressionism, the term
which he never loved.
Debussy was also one of
the most considerable
figures in music on a
boundary of the 19th and
the 20th centuries; his
music represents the
transitive form from late
romantic music to a
modernism in music of the
20th century.
Joseph Maurice Ravel
He was a French composerimpressionist, one of reformers
and the most considerable
figures of music of the 20th
century. His most known work
is "Bolero“ in which he tried to
connect classical traditions
with rhythms of Spanish music.
When you listen to music of
this composer there’s an
impression as if you observe a
work of the artist creating his
Igor Stravinsky
He was a Russian composer, a conductor
and a pianist, one of the largest
representatives of the world musical culture
of the 20th century. Stravinsky took private
lessons from N.A. Rimsky-Korsakov. Under
his direction the first compositions — a
scherzo and a sonata for a piano, a suite for
a voice with an orchestra «the Faun and the
shepherdess», Symphony Esdur,
"Fireworks" for an orchestra had been
written. Stravinsky went on tour in Europe
and the world very actively as the conductor
and the pianist. In autumn of 1962 for the
first time after a long break he comes with
concerts to the USSR where conducts in
Moscow and Leningrad.
Dmitry Shostakovich
Shostakovich was a Soviet composer, a pianist, a
teacher and a public figure. As one of the largest
composers of the 20th century he made a huge
contribution to the development of the world musical
culture. Being since the first months of the Great Patriotic
War in Leningrad Shostakovich started to work over the
7th symphony — "Leningrad". The symphony was
performed for the first time on a scene of Kuibyshev
opera and ballet theater on March, 5th, 1942, and on
March, 29th, 1942 — in the Columned Hall of the
Moscow House of the Unions. On August, 9th 1942 it
was performed in blockade Leningrad. This was an
important event in the life of a battling city and its
inhabitants. Today Shostakovich is one of the most
popular composers in the world. His works are true
expressions of an internal human drama and annals of
the awful sufferings which have dropped out for 20 th
A genre and esthetic variety of music of Shostakovich is
huge. Expressionism and «the big style» combine with
modernism and traditionallism. However the size of his
talent is immense.
Alfred Schnittke
Alfred Schnittke was a Soviet and
Russian composer, the theorist of
music and the teacher (the author of
articles about Russian and Soviet
composers), one of the most
considerable musical figures of
second half of 20th century. The
honored worker of arts of RSFSR
(1987). Since1961 for 1972
Schnitke taught in the Moscow
Conservatory, then in Humburg
Conservatory. His creation is
characterized by scale, an
expression, the invoice,
polystylistics, systems of citations.
Prevalence of instrumental genres is
Bela Bartok
He was a Hungarian composer, a pianist
and a musicologist, a specialist in folklore.
He represented an expressionism in
music. Connecting folklore melodies with
musical avantguard (an expressionism,
etc.), he became one of the deepest and
influential innovators in 20th century
music. He wrote 6 string quartets, an oneact opera «the Lock of the duke the Dark
blue Beard» (1918), ballets «Wonderful
tangerine», «the Wooden Prince», the
Concert for an orchestra (1942—1945),
«Music for string», 2 concerts for a violin
with an orchestra, a symphonic poem
"Koshut", suites «On an open air» and
"Microcosm", and many other
compositions compositions.
George Gershwin
He was an American composer. Since
his childhood he absorbed jazz culture.
He was the fan of jazz concerts, and
when he was 12 years old he started to
learn to play a piano independently.
Much later, becoming the glorified
composer, Gershwin didn't stop to study,
improving the technics. In 1924
Gershwin created a musical «Lady, Be
Good!», which became the first success
of the composer on the Broadway. In this
performance Gershwin worked with the
brother Ajroj Gershwin who wrote all
texts. Next decade this creative union
was the most productive and claimed on
the Broadway. The most successful
show was «Of Thee I Sing», 1931.
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