Musical Pluralism (Music of the first half of the 20th century Created by Katherine Nikiforova Musical pluralism (after World War I) style becomes a matter of choice rather than a matter of accepted conventions; asymmetric rhythm; extensive use of percussion instruments; appearance of electronic music; computer gives composers new possibilities in synthesizing and processing sounds; experimental music and improvisation; appearance of pop music; new forms: jazz, rock, rap, techno, metal, Achille-Claude Debussy (1862-1918 ) Debussy was a French composer and musical critic. He composed in style which is often named impressionism, the term which he never loved. Debussy was also one of the most considerable figures in music on a boundary of the 19th and the 20th centuries; his music represents the transitive form from late romantic music to a modernism in music of the 20th century. Joseph Maurice Ravel (1875-1937) He was a French composerimpressionist, one of reformers and the most considerable figures of music of the 20th century. His most known work is "Bolero“ in which he tried to connect classical traditions with rhythms of Spanish music. When you listen to music of this composer there’s an impression as if you observe a work of the artist creating his painting. Igor Stravinsky (1882-1971) He was a Russian composer, a conductor and a pianist, one of the largest representatives of the world musical culture of the 20th century. Stravinsky took private lessons from N.A. Rimsky-Korsakov. Under his direction the first compositions — a scherzo and a sonata for a piano, a suite for a voice with an orchestra «the Faun and the shepherdess», Symphony Esdur, "Fireworks" for an orchestra had been written. Stravinsky went on tour in Europe and the world very actively as the conductor and the pianist. In autumn of 1962 for the first time after a long break he comes with concerts to the USSR where conducts in Moscow and Leningrad. Dmitry Shostakovich (1906—1975) Shostakovich was a Soviet composer, a pianist, a teacher and a public figure. As one of the largest composers of the 20th century he made a huge contribution to the development of the world musical culture. Being since the first months of the Great Patriotic War in Leningrad Shostakovich started to work over the 7th symphony — "Leningrad". The symphony was performed for the first time on a scene of Kuibyshev opera and ballet theater on March, 5th, 1942, and on March, 29th, 1942 — in the Columned Hall of the Moscow House of the Unions. On August, 9th 1942 it was performed in blockade Leningrad. This was an important event in the life of a battling city and its inhabitants. Today Shostakovich is one of the most popular composers in the world. His works are true expressions of an internal human drama and annals of the awful sufferings which have dropped out for 20 th century. A genre and esthetic variety of music of Shostakovich is huge. Expressionism and «the big style» combine with modernism and traditionallism. However the size of his talent is immense. Alfred Schnittke (1934-1998) Alfred Schnittke was a Soviet and Russian composer, the theorist of music and the teacher (the author of articles about Russian and Soviet composers), one of the most considerable musical figures of second half of 20th century. The honored worker of arts of RSFSR (1987). Since1961 for 1972 Schnitke taught in the Moscow Conservatory, then in Humburg Conservatory. His creation is characterized by scale, an expression, the invoice, polystylistics, systems of citations. Prevalence of instrumental genres is appreciable. Bela Bartok (1881-1945) He was a Hungarian composer, a pianist and a musicologist, a specialist in folklore. He represented an expressionism in music. Connecting folklore melodies with musical avantguard (an expressionism, etc.), he became one of the deepest and influential innovators in 20th century music. He wrote 6 string quartets, an oneact opera «the Lock of the duke the Dark blue Beard» (1918), ballets «Wonderful tangerine», «the Wooden Prince», the Concert for an orchestra (1942—1945), «Music for string», 2 concerts for a violin with an orchestra, a symphonic poem "Koshut", suites «On an open air» and "Microcosm", and many other compositions compositions. George Gershwin (1898—1937) He was an American composer. Since his childhood he absorbed jazz culture. He was the fan of jazz concerts, and when he was 12 years old he started to learn to play a piano independently. Much later, becoming the glorified composer, Gershwin didn't stop to study, improving the technics. In 1924 Gershwin created a musical «Lady, Be Good!», which became the first success of the composer on the Broadway. In this performance Gershwin worked with the brother Ajroj Gershwin who wrote all texts. Next decade this creative union was the most productive and claimed on the Broadway. The most successful show was «Of Thee I Sing», 1931.