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Exam 3 Study Guide (this does not have everything you need to know but it should help guide you in
what you need to know and give you an idea of what you need to work on more)
The brain
What is the choroid plexus?
o What cells make up the choroid plexus?
o What do these cells produce?
 What is the product’s function?
What is the Blood brain barrier?
o What type of cell is it induced by?
o What is its function?
What part of the brain is ipsiliateral?
o In contralateral fibers, where do they cross?
Autonomic Nervous System
Define the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system.
o What effects do they have on the body? How?
The location of the synapse is called __________.
o What are the lengths of the pre- and postganglionic fibers in each division?
o Where do the fibers synapse in each division?
What are the two main neurotransmitters of the ANS?
o Where are they released from?
o What are the receptors that go along with each neurotransmitter?
 Are they excitatory/inhibitory/both?
 Where are they found?
Sense Organs
Define receptive field, sensory projection, phasic receptors, and tonic receptors.
Name the types of receptors and what they respond to.
Pain: Why do we need pain?
o What is fast pain and slow pain?
o Define bradykinin, referred pain, and analgesia
Taste: also called __________
o What are lingual papillae?
o Name and define the parts within taste buds.
Smell: also called __________
o What happens if the odorant is hydrophilic? Hydrophobic?
o What happens when receptor is stimulated?
o What are olfactory tracts?
What are the 3 regions of the ear? What separates them?
What are guard cells?
Where is perilymph located? Endolymph?
Where is the spiral organ of corti located?
o What is the tectorial membrane? Stereocilia?
Explain the process of hearing.
Equilibrium: list and describe the parts that are involved in equilibrium
o What happens when your head moves?
What are the 3 layers of the eye
o Define aqueous humor and vitreous humor
What are the three cells? What pathway do they follow?
What to rods do? Cones?
Go through and explain reactions in the light and reactions in the dark.
What is the optic chiasm
Endocrine System
Define steroid hormones, protein hormones, up-regulation and down-regulation
What are the two posterior pituitary hormones?
o Where are their target cells located?
What hormone does the pineal gland synthesize?
o What does this hormone do?
Try to write out the axis for each hormone we covered in class
What are the differences between Type I and Type II diabetes?
What is stress?
o What are the different stages?
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