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YrsepxAaro
Haqanruun YnpaBfl enr,tfl .neruofi
3Kcnrryararlnn OABT
%A.H-.{vxaHHH
MeroArrrrecKrre peKoMeHAarluu AJrfl oKcnJIyaraHToB no
noAroToBKe
3Krrnaxefi BC K noJreraM c rrcnoJrb3oBaHlreM dopronofi
MHoro0yHrcqr{onaJnHofi cucreMsr CPfIE3(GPWS)
Anuotaurrfl
tpe6oaaHlrtMl'l Oe,qepalruux
MeroAnn.recKoe uoco6ue parpa6orano B coorrBercrBurl c
B rp€l)K'4aHcrcoft aBI'I€uII]I
aBr,rauuogrrbrx rrpaBnl <<floAroroBKa 14 BbrnoJIHeHlIe noJleroB
Poccraficrofi (DenePaquu) (OAII- 128).
B ,TIaHHOM nOCO6UU paccMaTp[B€lIOTCfl IIpOIpaMMHbIe Boflpocbl [oAroToBKLI
BO3AyIIIHbIX CyAax'
eruua:rceft, BbIIIqJIHtIo[ryIx KOMMepqecK]Ie [oJIeTbI no npn6OpaM Ha
cucreuoft CP[IE3
ocHarrleHsbrx ofiopyaonaHr,reM 6opronoft rranoroQynrquonailruoft
(GPws).
2
Co4epxaHI{e
t.
2.
O6qlle [oJIox(eHI'Ifl
floArorosKa JIerHbIx sKllraxefi BC K [oneraM c
r4crroJlb3oBaHrleM 6optonofi vtrorooyHKul'toHaJlrnofr
cucreMbl CPIIE3 (GPWS)
4
6
O6urne rloJrolrenrrfl
B
AnaJ]I{s co6Hrufi, cBf,3aHHbrx co croJIKHOBeHI4flMI4 BO3AyITIHbIX CyAOB
llpellqrcrBvrflMr4
ylpaBrseMoM noJrere c noBepxHocrbro 3eunu uluttu LrcKyccrBeHHbIMI'I
cvcreMbl
ua ueft, [pIIBeJI K peIueHIIIo o pa3MeIIIeHIIu ua 6opry Bo3AyluHoro cyAHa
paHHeIo
lpeAy[pexAeHllfl (cnrnann3aUlll4) O6 yrpoee cToJIKHoBeHI4t' Haluque cncTeM
GPWS)
rpeAyrpexAeHrrfl 6nngocru 3eMrII{ (epn5g - anrnuftcKaf, a66penuarypa
M€CTHOOTT4 n, Tar<vltrl O6pa3otvt'
CHu,*aeT BepotTHoCTb cToJIKHoBeHuf, BC C penreQOrvr
rIoJIeroB' llynrcr 5'76
rroHlrx(aer orIeHKr{ prrcKoB B crrcreMe y[paBJIe1rrfl'6esouacHocrbrc
B
Oe4epalrnUx aBuaIII{OHHIIX [paBIUI <<flo4rOrOnra V BIInOJIHeHI'IS 1OJISTOB
rpaxlancrofi aBvra-*." Poccuficrofi Oe4epaquu> (OAII-128) ycraHaBnllBaer
p.nfl BC
rpe6onanue t1o H€uIIItILlrc cucTeMbl B cocTaBe 6opronoro o6opyAoBaHl'If,
BbrroJlHflIolqux noJIeTbI IIo fIfIfI, npu eToM cl'tcTeMa CPIIE3 A6JI111Ha o6naAarl
nOJIeTa' aBToMaTHqecKLI
synrquefi orIeHKu penresa MecTHocTlI B HanpaBneHI'II4o IIoTeHIIlliuIbHO Onacnofi
npeAocTaBJrflurlyrc JIeTHOMy SKI4IIaX(y [peAyIIpex(AeHI{e
Ha
3eMHofi noBepxHocrr{. Ha [paKTrlKe, cr4creMbl CPIts3 ycraHaBnl{BaeMble
6ilasocru
IIpu erou
BC, o6naAaror 6onee runpoKrrvr Ha6opovr QynrquoHuulbHblx Bo3Moxnocrefi.
Qynrqnu yKa3aH'oir s n-5.76 oAlI-128' B
o6sgarerbHbrM ycrroBueM .f,BJ'ercr
"-""".
HaIIpaBJISHUI4
o6uleM BLrAe €urroplrTM pa6orH Synrqnn 9IISHKU penreQa MSCTHOCTI B
cocTaBe IIMeeT npI4eMHnK
rroJleTa BbIT;UIAIIT cJleAytoquu O6paSOu. CucreMa B cBoeM
(nrnroqan reoMerpl4r{ecKylo
onoHAC unu fJIOHAC/GPS) oupeAeJrf,rouluft Mecro BC
Bbrcory, orHocrrreJrbHo reolrAa BparrIeHI,Ir 3ervrnu), AaJIee nnQoprvraqvrfl' o n'recre BC
rryreM BbrqucJreHlrfi cpaBHr,rBaercr c 6opronofi 6asoft AaHHbIx, Koropafl BKltoqaer
ralr$opvraullro o reoAe3lrqecrofi MoAeJrrr 3elanra u ucKyccrBeHHbIX IlperlflTcrBl{sx ua nefi.
perylrrarou srr.rficreHufi flBlrflercfl. nHQopnraqua, orHocI'ITeJIbHo roropofi
[oporoBblx:Ha'reHufi) npe.qyupe)KAaloulat
Soprr,rupyrorcr (n sanucuMocru or 3aAaHHbIX
co
r4[rr4 aBapvir:flrafl, 3ByKOBiUr t4 BI,I3y€LJrbHiUr cttrH€lJII,I3ArIUfl,, peaKllllt Ha Koropyrc
cropoHbr gKrr1161;Ka rro3BoJrr4T us6exarr yrpo3br croJIKHoBeHufl. Taruu o6pasolra, cllcreMa
I4
orrpaB,qaer cBoe rrpeAHa3HaqeHue B ToM cJlfrae, KorAa ona o6ecnequr AocroBepHocTb
cBoeBpeMeHHocrb BbIAaqI4 cI4rH€lJII43arI4kr, a gKlil€t)Kervr 6y.uer o6ecneqeHo rIpI'IHf,TI'Ie
cBoeBpeMeHHbrx v e$serrnnnrrx yflpaBJltrcurlx sogAeftcreHfi, BJILI{IouIt4x Ha
BbrAepxr4BaHlre rpaerropuft (r rpexMepHoM [pocrpaHcrne), HcKnroqaroulux cJlyqau
qro
HcxoAa rroJrera. Oco6urvr o6pasorra neo6xoAuMo oroBopllTbct o roM,
He6egouacHoro
H€T[I{qLII4
AOCTOBepHOI{ cl4rHuulll3a\r4r4 npu H€ulI4LlllI4
clrcreMa cnoco6na o6ecne.rurr BbIAaqy AocroBepHoft
uoruoft Lr AocroBepnoft nnsoprr,raqur4, coAepxaulefics n 6opronofi 6ase AaHHbIx (EED.
Clegyer yqgTbrBarb ror Qarr, rrro reoAe3l{trecK€Ifl MoAeJIb 3eunu flB|rflercfl
ransopiraaq,neir, o roropofi HayKa roBopur rar o6 uH$oprvraquu AocroBepHo IagsecrHofi.
Buecre c reM, AocroBepHocrb cBeAeHI{fi ro I4CKyCCTBeHHbIM npen-f,TcrBl4tM
4
rapaHrr4poBarb He Mo)Ker HnKTo u3 npoBaft4epon aopoHaBLrraIILIoHHofi unQopMalrnn.
Irlcxo.{r us rarofi orIeHKLr, B orHorrreHllu I{cKyccrBeHHbIX rrperltrTcrnrlfi, neo6xoAuvro
crrr{Tarb, uro unsopMarlur rro HcKyccrBeHHbrM [perrrrcrBl,ItM tBJlserct HeAocroBepnofi
n rpe6yer oco6oro orHorrreH[s r Hefi B rrpoUecce rroAroroBKtl tI BbIrIoJIHeHI4t noJleroB.
Ilpegynpe?KAeHrre: flpu BbrrroJrHeHru rlorleroB rlo fIfIfI 3Kurlax o6-flsaH
BbrAepl1r4Barb 6esouacHrre Bbrcorbr, B coorBercrBvrrr c nJIaHoM rloJlera. flp"
BbrrroJrHeHr{r{ roneroB rro IIBII eKr{[ax o6qeaH pyKoBoAcrBoBarbctr sHaHI4rMI{ penre0a
MecrHocrl,I tI I4cKyccrBeHHbIX rrperrflTcrn.uir Ha HeM, B ToM qucJle 14 vr3I{HbIX I,IcroqHI{KoB,
a raK xce orrrlrM€urbnbrM (n :anncuMocrlt or BHeITIHI4x ycnonrEft) nu6opotr,t pe)o4Ma
rroJreroB. BrruonHeHue uoJreroB rrpu npeAeJrbHbrx MereoycnoBlltx uo IIBII vr :naJrv.9.vrv
r.rusoprvraqun o penre$e MecrHocrlr r4 LlcKyccrBeHHbIX [penflTcrBllf,x, nolyrreHHblx I43
6a:u AaHHrIX CPIIE3 - He AonycKaerct.
B coorBercrBr4r4 c rpe6onanneru nyHKra 5.84 @AII-128 <Srculyaranr He
AorrycKaer rIJreHoB JIeTHOTO gKnrra)Ita Bo3AyrrrHoro cyAHa .qo BbInoJIHeHut cBol4x
Synrqnfi, ecJul oHH He nporuntE rroAroroBKy no parpa6orausofi 3KcnJIyaraHToM
qJIeHoB
nporpaMMe rroAroroBKrr, Koropaf, o6ecneq[saer HaAne)KaIrIyIo [oAroroBKy
JrerHoro gKLIna)ICa, AJII BbIIroJIHeHut Bo3JIoxeHHbIx Ha nux o6gganHocreft>>. VragauHag
rrporpaMMa rBJgercr cocraBnofi .racrrro PyroBoAcrBa rlo [poll3BoAcrBy rIoJIeroB I'I
BKJrroqaer, lF.apfl,Iy c Apyrr{Mr,I qacrf,Mlr, Borrpocbl TIOATOTOBKI4 K BbIIIOJIHeHLIIO
MaHeBpoB vr Aeftcrsufi oKrrrrax(a Bo3AyluHoro cyAHa, rlpu cpa6arrtnanvrkr cllcreM
rrpeAyrrpe)r{AeHrlr o 6rursocrlr 3eMJrr,r, BKJrroqaf, cAatry eK3aMeHa. flepno4uqHocrb eroft
IISAI9T9BKI{ 14 TpSHLIpOBKU Ha JI9THOM TpeHa)Kepe, BKJIIoqat [poBepKy' ycTaHoBJIeHa He
pex{e oAHoro pa3a B 12 rraecsuen. flpu rpoBeAeHrI,I KB€rIII{SuraqnonHbIX rpoBepoK B
coorBercrBr.r1a c rryHKrorrr 5.95 OA[I-128 peKoMeHAyerct oueHllBarb HaBbIKI4 I'I yMeHLIe
Lrc[oJrb3oBarb JrerHbrMu oK]rrra)KaMrr Bo3AyruHbIX cyAoB, c noJlerHoft rvraccofi 6onee
5 7 00rr, o6opyaon arr:,z'e CP[IE3.
floArorosKa oKr4rroKefi, ntrnoJrHrroulux rIoJIerbI na BC, ocHalrleHHrrx o6opyAoBaHI'IeM
CPIIE3(GPWS), MolKer npoBoAr{rcr rrpri repeyql,IBaHvru B aBI,IaIIuoHHbIX yveourtx
UeHTpaX, a TaKlKe B aBl,raKoMrralvrv\ flpn ocHauIeHI{lI BC AoTIoJIHI'ITeJIIHbIM
o6opylonaHr.reM, B roM rrucre CPIIB3(GPWS), no yrBeplxAennoft rporpaMMe, corJlacHo
u.5.84 @AII-128.
IIoAroroBKa
JreTHbIx 3K[na]Kefi BC K IIOJIeTaM C I{CIIoJIb3OBaHueM 6OprOnofi
MHorooyHKrlroHaJrbHofi cncrenrsr cPfIE3 (GPWS)
perorueHAa.lMvl u3JroxeHHbre B rnnosoft [porpaMMe rIoAroroBKI4 qreHoB JIeTHbIX
o 6il{socrl{ 3eMJII4'
ercnuaxefi K rroJreraM c ucrloJlb3oBaHlreM cucreMbl [peAyrlpexAeHut
(GPWS)
uueroulefi Synxquro orIeHKH penreSa MecrHocrLr B HarIpaBneHI4I4 rloJlera
(flpnnox."tl 1 r uucruy @e4epalrsoft cnyx6rt IIo HaA3opy n cQepe rpaHcnopra Nl
rloAroroBKy
6.1,.14-1790 or 07.12.2004r) u HaronleHnHfi orlblr rlpeAycMarpl'IBaer
STana'
JreTHbrX sruuaxefi Bo3AyIIIHbIx cyAoB pa3AeJII{Tb Ha TpII
Ilepnstfi sTarl noAroroBKlr
flepnurvr graloM rroAroroBKH flBilflercfl. o6yvenue JlerHoro cocraBa
B
o6rUero
ceprra$uUllpoBaHHoM yre6Horrn IIeHTpe, HaIIpaBJIeHHOe Ha LI3yrIeHHe
TeopeTlltlecKoro MaTepu€ua u npoqeAypHblx BonpocoB' cBt3aHHbIX C BbIIIOJIHeHI4eM
rr orreroB rIpI4 I4 cn o JIb3oBaHI4u CPfIB3 (GPWS)'
B reuaruqecKoM nnaHe o6yveHur IIpeAycMaTpuBaIoTcs BOIIpoCbI :
1 llpearocbrJrKn vr rrorpe6Hocrb BueApeHr,rr GPWS. Jlernue npouclnecrBllfl 14
*orrq.nqrs GFIT (controlted flight into terrain). oclroBHbre rrorlo)KeHnn flpunoxeHuc 6
<3rcnnyar a\ufl,Bo3AyrxHbrx cyAoB) r 9urcarcroft ronseHlluu, lI3AaHlIe 9, ntolr 2010 r.
Tpe6onaHnr OAII <<flo4roroBKa r,r BbrrroJrHeHue noJreroB B rpax4ancroft aBvra\w
poccuficrofi Oe4eparlr4rr> B orHorueHr4ra ocHalqenvrfl. o6opylonaHvrfl BC, nrrnoJrHtroqux
fIfIfI
GPWS.
2. HASHA'{CHUE GPWS. IIPEAOTBPAUIEHUE CTOJIKHOBCHU{ I'ICIPABHbIX I{ YIIPABIqCMbIX
BC c seMHoft lloBepxHocrblo. OcnosHrte Qyurqul4 cllcreMbl:
serureft (peNurrau 1-6
[ -Synrqur rpeAyrpexAeHufl oracHoro c6lnxenns
rroJlerbl no
c
a\rrrr up ra 6nra xeH I'Ir K 3 e M JIe ( C IIII3 ) ) ;
tr -oro6paxeHlre xapaKTepa rroAcrrlJlaroulefi rloBepxHocrll Ha AucrIJIee GPWS;
I -oIIeHKa Mecrlrocru B HarIpaBJreHLIu [onera;
T _syHrqux rpeAyrpe)KAeHuf, o npexqeBpeMeHHoM cHI4x(eHI{I{;
f -IIBerHoe oro6paNeHl4e xapaKTepa rroAcrlrJrarouleft nonepxHocru 14 llcKyccrBeHHblx
npefllnrcr rluir Ha AI,IcrIJIee GPWS ;
n -curHuulu3allufl rlpoxoAa Bblcorbl 150 u;
-[peAcTaB JIeHH e ran Qop rr,raq r4I4 Ha ALIcIIJIee GPW S o rrpenf, TcTButx.
c
lr rH €uIrI
3
r4 crpyKrypHar cxeMa GPWS. Cpanneune reKylrlefi sHcorut c
grarloB rloJlera. Curualugaq[tr o
3aBr4clrMocrll
6esouacHoft n51soroft,
npe)KAeBpeMeHHblx cHllx(eHr({x.
CrpyrrypHar cxgMa GPWS ri ocHoBHbre rexHldqecKne AaHHbIe. 3rcunyatauuoHHble
orpaHllqenus GPWS.
4. Pexuvrrr pa6orru GPWS. Ocnonnrre orarlbl rloJlera, rpLIMeHf,eMbIe B GPWS.
Jlorura o[peAeJIqHI4t gTarIoB [oJlera.
Pexuu 1. r{perrrqpHa.t cKopocrb cHI{)KeHI'Is BC.
Pexurvr 2. Otaggta.r cKopocrr c6nnxeHr,rr BC c floAcrl,IJlaroulefi uosepxHocrblo.
Pexuvt 3. CnuxeHue BC Ha gTarle B3JIera.
Pexuu 4. flpn$nraxeHlre BC K noAcrularoqefi roBepxHocru He B nocaAoqnofi
3.
flpuuquu pafiorg
or
B
rconSurypalulau.
PeNuu 5. 3naqureJrbHoe orKJroHeHrae BC HHxe Irr4HLru rJll4ccaAbr.
Pexuu 6. flponqpKa oTHocl,trenrnofi 6aporvretpnqecrofi sHcorrr BC.
Pyrono4crBo rro npon3Bo,{crBy rroneroB aBI{aKoMrIaHI{I4, B qacrl4 Kacarouleftcr noupocoB
CFIT.
Pexnvr 7. @ynrqut oIISHKI4 MecTHocTI4
B HaIIpaBneHLIu rroJlera
BC.
8. OyHrUr4r rrpeAynpe)KAeHr,rr o rpexAeBpeMeHHoM cHuxesIaIE BC.
9. Cnmalrr3allut rpoxoAa Bblcorbl 150 rvr BC.
Oop vrupoB aHue Uro6paxe Hlafl, xapaKrepa n oAcTunaloqefi uosepxHo cTI'I.
5. Irlcuo.urcyeMhle Bagu AaHHIIX.
I4n$opuaqur o qnsponofi MoAeJrlr peme$a (UMP), KaK cuoco6e rpeAcraBJleHuf,
oJreKTpoHHbIX AaHHrIX o MecrHocTIa. O6rqne xapaKrepucrllKu IIN{P.
XaparrepucruKll qusporofi uoAeln penreQa, [prlMenseuoft Ha pa3JILItIHbIX 3Ta[ax
Pexnu
Pexuu
TIOJICTA.
AspoHannraqrloHHble AaHHbIe, [puMeHteMble n GPWS.
yrpo)KaTb 6esonacHocrrl
.{aHHue o6 ucrcyccTBeHHblx npeIIf,TcTBLItX, KoTopble MoIyT
noJreroB Bo3AyIUHbIX CyAOB.
6. llpoqelypHbre Borrpocbr npr4 rroAroroBKe u BbInoJIHeHr4r rIoJIeroB. flpe4nonerHat
uoAroToBra BC, BKJIIoIIeHue o6opy4oBaurlf, I{ npoBepra GPWS.
Arryalrnocrr 6az AaHHbrx penreSa MecrHocrLr vr lIcKyccrBeHHbIX npenxrcrnnfi
pernoHa noJlera u asponoproB e GPWS.
3rcunyararlvfl. GPWS Ha Bcex orauax rroJlera BC. flpoueAypbl pearupoBanvrfl' Jlernoro
3Klrraxca BC, upn cpa6arrrnaHtrv pe.renofi I4 cBeroBoft curnaln3allurl GPWS.
HeucnpanHocrpr GPWS u Aeficrntdf, eKr4na)Ka BC. flo noupocaM yKa:lannof reMar]IKll
cnyuraTenb AoJJxeH rroKa3aTb AocTaToqHbIe 3HaHI/tfl Ha SK3aMeHe 14 [oIyrII4Tb
cBlrAereJlbcrBo, ycraHoBJleHHoro o6pasua.
Bropoft orar rIoAroroBKIr
Bropofi gTarr rroAroroBKlr JrerHoro gKuraxta rro ucrloJlb3oBauulo CPilB3
rrpoBoALITct c I4cIIoJIb3oBaHI,IeM rpeH46epa B yre6noru IIeHTpe
fpuor - prHcrpyKTop, r,rMeroqr{ft 4ouycr K IlcrIoJIb3oBaHI,Irc KoHKperHoft uoAelu
o6opy.uon alnfl, CPIIE3(GPWS) Ha coorBercrByloqeM rpeHCIKepe, rpoBo.ql'Ir Ha3eMHyK)
u
nerHyro rroAroroBKy
c o$oprvrneHlreM saralnfl. Ha rpeHl{poBKy lJenuo
nageunofr
o6ecne.{eHlle AocraroqHoro TIOHI{MAHU' IILIJIOTAMI4
'BIqCTC'
Bo3MoxHocrefi u orpaHr.r.reHr.rft AaHHoro o6opy4onannfl, I4 o[peAeJIeHI'If, roroBHocrll K
MeTO,IIUqeCKOM
lry(,D\rArrr.Dw
lvlur y I rrpoBoAI,ITbCt
JaHrItl4x MOryr
TpeHnpOBKr4. 3ansrus
JIeTHOLI TpeHlrpoBKn.
IIpOBeAeHI,IT JICTHOLI
KJracce, TpeHarepe, o6opy.uonaHHoM CP[IE3. O6rque reMbl na:eIrlnofi rIoAroroBKI,I
Moryr r{3yqarbcr KJraccHo - rpy[rroBbrM MeroAoM B Qopnre npoQeccuosalrnofi y're6u.
O6sgarenbHbrMr4 TeMaMr4 AoDKHbr .f,Br.f,Tbcs AonoJIHeHne r PJI3 Bo3AylxHoro cyAHa rlo
ycraHoBrreHHoMy o6opyaonanuro CPIIE3 flonropnoe lI3yqeHLIe pa3AenoB Pnn
aBuaKoMrr aH;g1r4 11o BorrpocaM rroJleroB rlo upu6oparvr, pacrrery 6esouacHrrx Bblcor,
o3HaKoMJreHr4e rrrrJroroB c Sarropauu, conyrcrBytoulllMl4 CFIT. oqenxa ycBoeHl4t
NOATOTOBKLI
Mareplr€ura rrpoBoAhrrcfl. LIHAT4BUAy€rrrbHO c KpaTKr4M OnpocoM
rro rr3yqeHHblM TeMaM B 3AAaHI,dVT Ha TpeHI{poBKy.
u
BbIcraBJIeHueM oueHKI4
Tperufi sTarl noAroroBKl'r
Tperrafi grarr rroAroroBKr.r JrerHoro oKl4rlaxa JIerHat IIoAroroBKa. O6rerra
rpeHrrpoBK1 vr rrpoBepKu o[peAemercf, rrporparvruofi aBHaKoMrIaHr4n. I{emro {BJltercf,
orpa6orra [paKTl,IqecKrrx
cpftF3,
HaBbrKoB
rro BbrnoJrHeHr4IO TIOJIeTOB C
LTCnOJIb3OBaH[eM
v B3auMoAeficrnus B 3Kr{[DKe. JIerHaq rloAroroBKa nI{JIora
noA pyKoBoAcTBoM KOMaHAHO-JIeTHOIO COCTaBa Ha
TexHoJroryrv
ocyulecTBJrf,eTCfl
cepruQraqllpoBaHHoM rpeHiDKepe.
B
[p
npoqecce BbrrroJrHeHuf, rroJreroB Ha rpeHaxepe nLIJIor AonxeH orpa6orarr
aKTurIecKIa e
H
aBbIKll rIO BbIII O JIHeHLIIO
:
o npeAronernofi [poBepKu vr noAroroBKI,I
o6opy.uonanus'
CPIIB3 Bo3AylxHoro
cyAHa;
CyAHa, B
coorBercrBr,rr4 c graflaMn rroJrera rrpl4 t4crloJlb3oBaHllra CP[IF3. Orpa6orKa MaHeBpa
yxoAa or npe1rflrcreufi Ha rrpeAeJrbHoM pexLIMe Ao [peoAoJIeHLIt upenxrcrnufi,
noKa He rrpeKparrrrcfl clrrHaJrr{3aps, CPIIE3 u 6y,uer o6ecueqeH rlocrotHnufi pocr
o KoHTponnpyroqefo vr aKTuBHoro
IILIJIOTI4pOBAIJIdfl. BO3AyTUHOTO
Bblcorbl BC no paArIoBbIcoroMePY;
o rexHoJrorr4rr pa6oru rr B3alrMoAeficrsuq B gKI4rIa)Ke Ha Bcex gTanax [onera rlpll
llcrro Jrb3o Balvrkr un S oprraaquu CP[IE3.
flocne neo6xoAuvroft TpeHupoBKrr rlpoBoAl{rct KoHTpoJIbHo
rroJler na cepruQuqupoBaHHoM rpeHaxepe.
I_\em groro noJrera f,BJrf,ercfl orrpeAeJreHue
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1/--страниц
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