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Counting
How did it all start?
©2013 Robert Chuckrow
Reference
• Donald Smeltzer, Man and Number, Dover
Publications, Inc., Mineola, NY, 2003 (republication of
edition originally published in 1958).
With just a glance, guess how many
objects are on each line.
Now see if it is easier to guess the
correct number.
Symbols for Number Association
Tallying
Note: the word tally comes from the French word taille,
meaning cut.
• Making notches on a stick (stock).
• Using pebbles to create a one-toone correspondence.
• Using fingers (and toes).
Number Names
• Naming the numbers is easier than
naming the things themselves (e.g. a
shepherd naming each of his sheep).
Number Symbols
• Having number symbols enables better
preservation of amounts and easier
manipulation of them.
Some Examples of Early Number
Symbols
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