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Benchmark SC.B.1.2.2 AA
The student recognizes various forms of
energy (e.g. heat, light, and electricity). (Also
assesses B.1.2.3, B.1.2.4, B.1.2.5, and B.1.2.6)
Benchmark Clarification:
The student identifies types of energy by their source and
Content Limits:
Items will NOT address chemical energy.
Items will NOT require memorization or quantification of energy quantities.
Items may address both renewable and nonrenewable forms of energy.
Items may assess the student’s knowledge of potential and kinetic energy.
• Energy can cause motion and can also cause
changes in matter.
• It can be transferred from object or system to
• Energy cannot be created or destroyed, this is
known as the law of conservation of energy.
• Energy comes in many different forms.
Forms of Energy
Mechanical energy
• Energy an object has because of its motion or
• There are two kinds of mechanical energy:
Kinetic energy – energy an object has
because it is moving
Potential energy – energy an object has
because of its position or shape
Thermal Energy
(also called heat energy)
• Moving particles have energy. The energy of
moving particles is called heat energy.
• Temperature is the average speed of the
particles in a substance.
(also called light energy)
Light is a form on energy that travels
in waves and can move through
empty space where there is no air
• The light you see is part of waves called the
electromagnetic spectrum
• Most objects that emit light also emit heat.
Energy produced by electric charges.
• An electric current results from the movement
of electrons
• Electricity and magnetism are closely related
because both are caused by negative and
positive charges in matter.
• Electricity can produce magnetism, and
magnetism can produce electricity.
Other Forms of Energy
• Nuclear energy - energy contained in the
nuclei of atoms; energy used to generate
electricity in a nuclear power plant
• Chemical energy – energy stored in chemical
bonds; energy stored in the foods you eat;
energy stored in fuels such as wood or
• Sound energy – energy carried by sound
The student knows that most things
that emit light also emit heat.
Benchmark Clarification:
The student identifies radiation in the form of
light and heat.
Content Limits:
Items will NOT require unit conversions to compare
Energy from the Sun
• Energy from the sun travels as radiation. The
sun produces several kinds of radiation:
Light – is radiation we see
Heat – radiation we feel
X rays and ultraviolet rays – are produced
from the sun.
Radio waves – we hear as static on the
The student knows the many ways in which
energy can be transformed from one type to
• Potential to kinetic or kinetic to potential
• Chemical to mechanical
• Electrical to light
The student knows that various forms of energy (e.g.,
mechanical, chemical, electrical, magnetic, nuclear,
and radiant) can be measured in ways that make it
possible to determine the amount of energy that is
Benchmark Clarification:
The student identifies energy transformations by changes that
occur and knows ways to measure energy changes.
Content Limits:
Items will NOT require the student to quantify energy transfers.
Items will NOT require unit conversions to compare data.
Items may ask students to identify the various forms of energy.
The student knows ways that heat can move
from one object to another.
conduction – the transfer of heat from
substance to another through direct contact.
convection – the movement of heat energy
through liquids and gases in currents
radiation – the transfer of energy as
electromagnetic waves
If a liquid is mixed with baking soda and calcium chloride, then …………
1. Get a sealed bag of baking soda and calcium chloride pellets from your teacher. Pay
attention to which substance your teacher says there is more of in the bag.
2. Examine them while they are still in the bag. Describe one property of each substance.
Put a star next to the substance that there is more of in the bag.
Physical Property
Baking soda
Calcium chloride
3. Shake the sealed bag in order to mix the two powders.
4. Unseal the Ziploc bag containing the baking soda and calcium chloride and carefully
the vial UNOPENED with the phenol red inside in a upright position (facing up).
5. Carefully seal the bag, squeezing all of the excess air out without opening the vial of
phenol red.
6. Once the bag is completely sealed and in the pie pan, THROUGH the bag (without opening
the bag) pop off the top of the vial and tip it over thoroughly mixing the contents in the bag.
Immediately place the bag into your aluminum pie pan and DO NOT pick it up again at all!
Color of the contents of the bag
Temperature of the bag (hot or cold)
Amount of gas (a little puffy or a lot)
1. Create a Venn Diagram to compare your observations with another group that your
teacher tells you to switch with. Give a possible reason why there may have been
2. Explain the flow of energy during the experiment. (chemical
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