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Figure 1: Location map of hydrographic and coastal sampling stations .
DO (µM)
DO (µM)
160 180 200 220 240
160 180 200 220 240
160 180 200 220 240
0
0
100
100
100
100
100
200
200
200
200
200
300
400
500
300
400
500
600
600
600
700
700
700
A1
300
400
500
A1
600
OS
29/01/03
160 180 200 220 240
160 180 200 220 240
DO (µM)
16/02/03
160 180 200 220 240
20/03/03
400
500
600
A1
300
400
500
600
13/04/03
11/05/03
A1
OS
OS
700
DO (µM)
700
15/06/03
DO (µ M)
160 180 200 220 240
1 60 180 200 220 240
160 180 200 220 240
0
300
OS
700
DO (µ M)
DO (µM)
Depth (d bar)
500
O xygen (µmol/L.)
0
Depth (dbar)
400
1 60 180 200 220 240
DO (µ M)
0
Depth (dbar)
Depth (dbar)
Depth (dbar)
200
DO (µM)
0
Depth (dbar)
0
100
300
DO (µ M)
160 180 200 220 240
0
0
0
100
100
100
200
200
200
0
100
200
400
500
Depth (dbar)
Depth (dbar)
300
400
Depth (dbar)
Depth (dbar)
200
300
300
400
500
Dep th (db ar)
100
300
400
500
300
400
500
500
600
A1
OS
700
13/07/03
600
600
600
700
14/09/03
A1
600
OS
OS
A1
700
A1
700
26/10/03
A1
OS
700
16/11/03
OS
B1
800
900
10/08/03
Figure 2: Dissolved oxygen profiles in stations A1 (blue), OS (pink) and B1 (green) during the cruise of
10/8/2003. The oxygen saturation for surface water is represented by the dashed blue line. Note the very low
oxygen concentration in deep water (Nov. 2003) indicating high supply of POM, productivity. This is
corroborated by the oxygen maximum developed at ca. 60 m during stratification (DO2˜ 5 mmol·L-1)
indicating relatively high summer productivity. This used to be a rare phenomenon in the Gulf that happened
after deep mixing winter such as 1992 and 2000.
pH
8.2
8.3
8.1
pH
8.2
8.3
8 .1
pH
8.2
8 .3
8.1
pH
8.2
8.1
8.2
8.3
8 .1
0
100
100
100
100
100
100
200
200
200
200
200
200
300
400
500
300
400
500
600
300
400
500
600
300
400
500
600
A1
700
700
29/01/03
pH
8.1
700
16/02/03
8.2
8.3
8.1
700
8 .1
8.3
500
700
8 .2
8 .3
8.1
8.2
8 .1
8.3
0
0
0
0
100
200
200
200
300
300
500
600
A1
400
4 00
500
5 00
600
6 00
OS
700
13/07/03
A1
300
400
500
600
A1
7 00
14/09/03
A1
700
26/10/03
8 .2
8 .3
300
400
500
600
A1
OS
OS
OS
700
Depth (dbar)
100
Depth (dbar)
100
2 00
Depth (dbar)
1 00
Depth (dbar)
100
200
400
700
pH
0
3 00
500
700
16/11/03
OS
800
A1
OS
11/05/03
pH
8 .3
400
600
A1
8.2
300
OS
13/04/03
pH
8.2
400
OS
20/03/03
pH
300
600
A1
OS
Depth (dbar)
0
Depth (dbar)
0
Depth (dbar)
0
Depth (dbar)
0
600
Depth (dbar)
8.3
pH
0
Depth (dbar)
Depth (dbar)
8.1
pH
B1
10/08/03
900
Figure 3: pH profiles in stations A1 (blue), OS (pink) and B1 (green) during the cruise of 10/8/2003.
15/0 6/03
Nitrite (µ M)
1.0
0.0
0.5
0.0
1.0
0
400
500
600
1.0
0.0
0.5
0
100
100
100
100
10 0
200
200
200
200
20 0
300
400
500
300
400
500
600
300
400
500
600
A1
700
1.0
0.0
500
700
700
0.5
1.0
0.0
0.5
1.0
0.0
1 00
100
100
100
100
2 00
200
200
200
200
300
4 00
5 00
6 00
A1
400
400
500
500
600
600
OS
7 00
13/07/03
300
400
500
A1
600
OS
700
A1
700
Depth (dbar)
0
Depth (dbar)
0
Depth (db ar)
0
300
14/09/03
70 0
15/06/03
0.5
1.0
300
400
500
A1
600
OS
700
A1
Nitrite (µM )
0
3 00
50 0
OS
11/05/03
Nitrite (µM )
1 .0
40 0
OS
13/04/03
0.5
30 0
60 0
A1
OS
20/03/03
0.0
1.0
400
600
A1
Nitrite (µM )
0.5
300
0
Depth (dbar)
Dep th (dbar)
700
16/02/03
Nitrite (µM )
0.5
0.0
0
Nitrite (µ M)
0.0
1.0
0
OS
29/01/03
0.5
0
600
700
0.0
1.0
Nitrite (µM )
Depth (dbar)
300
Depth (dbar)
Depth (dbar)
200
0.5
Nitrite (µM)
0
Depth (dbar)
100
Nitrite (µM)
Depth (dbar)
0.5
Nitrite (µM)
Depth (dbar)
0.0
Nitrite (µM)
26/10/03
A1
OS
700
16/11/03
OS
800
B1
10/08/03
900
Figure 4: Nitrite profiles in stations A1 (blue), OS (pink) and B1 (green) during the cruise of 10/8/2003.
Note that the vertical location of the nitrite peak (during stratification) depends on the location of the
station.
Nitrate (µ M)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
0
1
3
4
5
6
7
0
1
2
3
4
5
Nitra te (µM)
6
7
0
1
2
3
4
5
Nitrate (µM)
6
0
7
1
2
3
4
5
Nitr ate (µM )
6
0
7
0
1 00
100
100
100
100
10 0
2 00
200
200
200
200
20 0
4 00
5 00
300
400
500
600
29/01/03
1
2
3
4
16/02/03
700
5
500
6
7
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
2 00
20 0
200
7 00
Depth (db ar)
100
OS
Depth (dbar)
30 0
A1
40 0
2
3
60 0
600
A1
A1
4
5
700
14/09/03
400
500
A1
OS
6
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
30 0
40 0
50 0
60 0
OS
11/05/03
700
N itrate ( µM )
70 0
A1
OS
1 5/0 6/0 3
Nitrate (µ M )
7
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
0
0
0
100
100
200
200
300
400
500
600
700
OS
26/10/03
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
300
400
500
A1
A1
OS
300
600
13/04/03
700
0
400
500
70 0
1
300
50 0
13/07/03
500
0
10 0
6 00
OS
0
7
1 00
5 00
400
Nitrate (µM )
0
3 00
300
600
20/03/03
700
Nitrate (µM )
0
4 00
A1
600
Nitrate (µ M)
0
400
Depth (dbar)
7 00
300
Depth (dbar)
3 00
Depth (dbar)
0
Depth (dbar)
0
Depth (dbar)
0
Depth (dbar)
0
6 00
Dep th (dbar)
2
Nitrate (µM)
0
Depth (dbar)
Depth (dbar)
0
Nitrate (µM)
A1
600
OS
700
16/11/03
OS
B1
80 0
1 0/0 8/0 3
90 0
Figure 5: Nitrate profiles in stations A1 (blue), OS (pink) and B1 (green) during the cruise of 10/8/2003. Note
the excellent similarity between stations A1 and B1 indicating no traceable horizontal gradient in deep water
on a scale of 20 km.
Phosphate (µmol/L.)
0.25
0.00
0.50
0.25
Phosphate (µ mol/L.)
0.50
0.00
0.25
Phosphate (µmol/L.)
0.50
0.00
0.50
0.00
0.25
Phosphate (µ mol/L.)
0.50
0.00
0
100
100
100
100
100
100
200
200
200
200
200
200
300
400
500
300
400
500
300
400
500
600
600
700
700
A1
300
400
500
600
29/01/03
Ph osphate (µmol/L.)
0.00
0.25
16/02/03
Phosph ate (µmol/L.)
0.50
0.00
0.25
20/03/03
0.0 0
400
500
0.2 5
13/04/03
Ph osphate (µmol/L.)
0.5 0
0.00
0.25
0.50
100
100
10 0
100
100
200
200
20 0
200
200
Depth (dbar)
300
400
500
600
A1
400
500
40 0
50 0
60 0
600
OS
700
13/07/03
A1
400
500
600
OS
700
A1
70 0
1 4/0 9/0 3
Depth (dbar)
0
Depth (dbar)
0
Depth (dbar)
0
300
A1
26/10/03
15/06/03
0.25
0.50
300
400
500
600
OS
700
A1
OS
700
11/05/03
0.00
0
30 0
500
Phosphate (µmol/L.)
0
300
0.50
400
OS
700
0.25
300
600
A1
OS
700
Phosp hate (µ mo l/L.)
0.50
300
600
A1
OS
700
Depth (dbar)
0
Depth (dbar)
0
Depth (dbar)
0
Depth (dbar)
0
600
De pth (db ar)
0.25
Phosphate (µmol/L.)
0
Depth (dbar)
Depth (dbar)
0.00
Phosphate (µmol/L.)
A1
OS
700
16/11/03
OS
800
B1
10/08/03
900
Figure 6: Phosphate profiles in stations A1 (blue), OS (pink) and B1 (green) during the cruise of 10/8/2003.
Note the excellent similarity between stations A1 and B1 indicating no traceable horizontal gradient in deep
water on a scale of 20 km.
a
b
c
Figure 7: Time versus depth variations of a- temperature, b- salinity, and c- fluorescence
(chlorophyll) in station A1.
No cruises
mmol·L-1
mmol·L-1
mmol·L-1
c
No cruises
b
No cruises
a
Figure 8: Time versus depth variations of nitrate in station A1 (solid points denote water samples) from Sep. 99 to Apr.
04. a- vertical scale 0-100 m; b- vertical scale 100-300 m; and c- the whole water column (0-700 m, surface to bottom).
The color concentration scale (at the right of each section) is different for each depth range. Note: 1. The high nitrate
concentrations in surface waters during the deep mixing of march 2000 and the decrease during march of the consecutive
years when mixing depth did not reach the bottom (b); 2. The enhanced nitrate regeneration in mid-water during summer
2000, following the deep mixing event as compared to consecutive years (b); and 3. The high nitrate content deep water
prior to the deep mixing event of 2000, the decease during the deep mixing event and the build up of large deep water
nitrate reservoir toward the 2004 values (see also Fig. 18 in report number 7, Lazar and Erez, 2004). At present, t is not
clear whether a new steady state has been reached.
Figure 9: Time variations of Chlorophyll-a in surface water between Jan. 2000 and April 2004:
coastal stations and open sea. Note that chlorophyll is higher in the north than in the south. The
lowest concentration are in the open sea station (OS). Station locations are given in Fig. 1 where N
and T denotes MP and Tb (in Fig. 1) respectively.
Figure 10: Time variations of Secci disk visibility between Jan. 2000 and April 2004: coastal stations
and open sea. Note that visibility is lower in the northern stations than in the south. The highest
visibility is in the open sea station (OS). Station locations are given in Fig. 1 where N and T denotes
MP and Tb (in Fig. 1) respectively.
Figure 11: Time variations of nitrate in surface water between Jan. 2000 and April 2004: coastal
stations and open sea. Note that nitrate is higher in the north than in the south and in the open sea
station (OS). Station locations are given in Fig. 1 where N and T denotes MP and Tb (in Fig. 1)
respectively.
Figure 12: Time variations of nitrite in surface water between Jan. 2000 and April 2004: coastal
stations and open sea. All stations show roughly the same mixing/stratification behavior. Station
locations are given in Fig. 1 where N and T denotes MP and Tb (in Fig. 1) respectively.
Figure 13: Time variations of ammonium in surface water between Jan. 2000 and April 2004: coastal
stations and open sea. Note that ammonium is higher in the north than in the south and in the open sea
station (OS) and the highest concentrations were measured during 2001 close to the fish farms (FF).
Station locations are given in Fig. 1 where N and T denotes MP and Tb (in Fig. 1) respectively.
Figure 14: Time variations of phosphate in surface water between Jan. 2000 and April 2004: coastal
stations and open sea. Note that phosphate is highest in the fish farms (FF) up to the year 2002.
Relatively high concentrations were measured in the north beach (NB) and the highest
concentrations were measured close to the port (PT) during June and August 2000 (phosphate
loading?). Station locations are given in Fig. 1 where N and T denotes MP and Tb (in Fig. 1)
respectively.
Figure 15: Time variations of silica in surface water between Jan. 2000 and April 2004: coastal
stations and open sea. Note that silica is higher in the north than in the south and in the open sea
station (OS). Station locations are given in Fig. 1 where N and T denotes MP and Tb (in Fig. 1)
respectively.
a
b
Figure 16: Time variations of pH (a) in surface water between Jan. 2000 and April 2004: coastal stations and open sea. The
pH is lower in the north than in the south and in the open sea station (OS) as indicated by the deviations from the
contemporaneous open sea (OS) pH values (b) and that the lowest pH was measured close to the fish farms (FF). Note that a
pH decrease by 0.l units is equivalent to a PCO2 rise (due to enhanced respiration?) by ca. 60 matm (assuming constant total
alkalinity), more than 15 % increase as compare to equilibrium with atmospheric CO2. Station locations are given in Fig. 1
where N and T denotes MP and Tb (in Fig. 1) respectively.
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