Chapter 7 Deviance and Crime What Is Deviance? Functionalist Perspectives on Deviance Symbolic Interactionist Perspectives on Deviance Conflict Perspectives on Deviance Postmodernist Perspective on Deviance Chapter 7 Deviance and Crime Crime Classifications and Statistics The Criminal Justice System Deviance and Crime in the U.S. in the Future The Global Criminal Economy Deviance Behavior, belief, or condition that violates social norms in the society in which it occurs. Deviance is relative and it varies in its degree of seriousness. Functionalist Perspectives Deviance is universal because it serves three important functions: Clarifies rules. Unites a group. Promotes social change. Strain Theory People feel strain when they are exposed to cultural goals they are unable to obtain. Merton identified 5 ways people adapt to cultural goals and approved ways of achieving goals. Merton’s Five Modes of Adaptation 1. 2. Conformity - accept culturally approved goals and pursue them through approved means. Innovation - accept culturally approved goals but adopt disapproved means for achieving them. Merton’s Five Modes of Adaptation 3. 4. 5. Ritualism - give up on societal goals but not the approved ways of achieving them. Retreatism - abandon approved goals and the approved means of achieving them. Rebellion - challenge approved goals and advocate an alternative set of goals. Symbolic Interactionist Perspectives on Deviance Three approaches: 1. Differential association and Differential reinforcement theory 2. Control theory 3. Labeling theory Control Theory: Social Bonding Deviant behavior is related to social bonds: Attachments to other people. Commitment to conformity. Involvement in conventional activities. Belief in conventional values and norms. Labeling Theory Stages in the labeling process: 1. Primary deviance - initial act of rule breaking. 2. Secondary deviance - acceptance of identity as a deviant. 3. Tertiary deviance - normalizing deviant behavior by relabeling it as nondeviant. Conflict Perspectives on Deviance People in positions of power use the law to protect their own interests. Laws ensure that individuals at the bottom of the social class do not infringe on the property or threaten the safety of those at the top. Feminist Perspectives Liberal - women's deviance is a rational response to gender discrimination. Radical - women's deviance and crime is related to patriarchy. Socialist - women's deviance and crime is the result of women's exploitation by capitalism and patriarchy. Sociologists Classifications of Crime Conventional (street) crime Occupational (white-collar) a crime Corporate crime Organized crime Political crime Four Types of Political Crime 1. 2. 3. 4. Secrecy and deception designed to manipulate public opinion. Abuse of power. Prosecution of individuals due to their political activities. Official violence, such as police brutality against people of color or the use of citizens as unwilling guinea pigs in scientific research. Functions of Punishment Retribution - a penalty is imposed on the offender. Social protection -restricting offenders so they cannot commit further crimes. Rehabilitation -returns offenders to the community as law-abiding citizens. Deterrence - instilling a fear of punishment. Deviance and Crime in the U.S. People agree that crime is an important issue but are divided over what to do about it. The best approach for reducing delinquency and crime is prevention. As long as racism, sexism, classism, and ageism exist, people will see deviant and criminal behavior through a selective lens.