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The Progressive Era: 1890-1917 > The Progressive Era
The Progressive Era
• The Progressive Era
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The Progressive Era: 1890-1917 > The Progressive Era
The Progressive Era
• Characteristics of the Progressive Era include purification of the government,
modernization, a focus on family and education, prohibition, and women's
suffrage.
• Many Progressives sought to rid the government of corruption, and muckraking
became a particular type of journalism that exposed waste, corruption, and
scandal on a national level.
• Two of the most important outcomes of the Progressive Era were the Eighteenth
and Nineteenth Amendments, the first of which outlawed the manufacturing, sale,
or transport of alcohol, and the second of which enfranchised women with the
right to vote.
Col.Theodore Roosevelt
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• The national political leaders of the Progressive Era included Theodore
Roosevelt; Robert M. La Follette, Sr.; Charles Evans Hughes; and Herbert Hoover
on the Republican side, and William Jennings Bryan, Woodrow Wilson, and Al
Smith on the Democratic side.
• Many progressives argued that independent experts were better decision makers
than local politicians, and called for government budgets at every level to avoid
haphazard spending.
• Progressive thinkers such as John Dewey and Lester Ward placed education at
the top of the Progressive agenda, claiming that the public needed a good
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education to create successful
leaders.
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The Progressive Era: 1890-1917 > The Progressive Era
• Progressives reformed education by introducing compulsory school laws and standardized testing while emphasizing
bureaucratization and professionalization of teachers and school administrators.
• Other Progressives focused on cultural reforms, as evidenced by muckracking journalism, in which corporate abuses or
unsanitary health practices were exposed.
• Some muckrackers, such as Ida Tarbell and Upton Sinclair, were so influential that their work inspired many Progressive
reforms, such as the dismantling of the Standard Oil Trust or federal food safety acts.
• Theodore Roosevelt is often cited as the first Progressive President, known for his trust-busting activities.
• As Roosevelt's presidential successor, Howard Taft advocated American businesses as the vehicle through which American
progressive values should spread, loaning large sums of money to Latin American countries in order to facilitate US
businesses' control over production in those areas.
• Woodrow Wilson, the Democratic Progressive president, believed that a strong relationship between the federal government
and the economy was necessary to promote Progressive values.
• Wilson signed the Clayton anti-trust act, which broke up the remaining American monopolies by making certain business
practices illegal.
• Wilson also saw the passage of the Fifteenth Amendment, which instituted universal male suffrage, the Sixteenth Amendment,
which instituted an income tax, and the Nineteenth Amendment, which gave women the vote.
• Progressives did little for civil rights or the plight of African Americans in the aftermath of Reconstruction, as the Supreme Court
affirmed the constitutionality of many racist southern laws.
• In Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), the Supreme Court upheld the "separate but equal" doctrine that enabled segregation and
upheld diiscriminatory Black Codes.
• The Dawes Severalty Act of 1887 divided Native American reservations into homesteads and allowed Native Americans to own
Free to practices.
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land provided they did not participate in "Indian" activities or cultural
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Appendix
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The Progressive Era: 1890-1917
Key terms
• Eighteenth Amendment Amendment XVIII of the United States Constitution established prohibition in 1920.
• muckraker Reform-oriented investigative journalists during the Progressive Era.Their work called attention to the problems of
the time, including poor industrial working conditions, poor urban living conditions, and unscrupulous business
practices.Prominent muckrakers included novelist Upton Sinclair, photographer Jacob Riis, and journalists Ida M. Tarbell and
Lincoln Steffens.
• Nineteenth Amendment Ratified in 1920, it granted women the right to vote and forbade any suffrage restrictions based on
gender.The amendment was the culmination of the women's suffrage movement, which had been active since before the Civil
War.
• progressivism The political ideology that favors rational governmental action to improve society.It arose in response to
industrialism and dominated American politics for the first two decades of the Twentieth century.
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The Progressive Era: 1890-1917
Taft
Official White House portrait of William Howard Taft (1911)
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The Progressive Era: 1890-1917
Col.Theodore Roosevelt
Portrait of Theodore Roosevelt
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The Progressive Era: 1890-1917
What were the general aims of the Progressive Movement?
A) All these answers
B) To expose government corruption
C) To pass legislation on prohibition, women's rights, education, and
hygiene
D) To apply scientific methods to economics, government, industry,
finance, schools, and the family
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The Progressive Era: 1890-1917
What were the general aims of the Progressive Movement?
A) All these answers
B) To expose government corruption
C) To pass legislation on prohibition, women's rights, education, and
hygiene
D) To apply scientific methods to economics, government, industry,
finance, schools, and the family
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Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://www.boundless.com/
The Progressive Era: 1890-1917
What were two of the most important legacies of the Progressive
Movement?
A) Scientific reform of banking laws and the overthrow of the Federal
Reserve System in 1913
B) The 18th amendment, prohibiting the sale of alcohol, and the 19th
amendment, enfranchising women
C) The growing number of Americans with college degrees and national
reform of health codes
D) All these answers
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The Progressive Era: 1890-1917
What were two of the most important legacies of the Progressive
Movement?
A) Scientific reform of banking laws and the overthrow of the Federal
Reserve System in 1913
B) The 18th amendment, prohibiting the sale of alcohol, and the 19th
amendment, enfranchising women
C) The growing number of Americans with college degrees and national
reform of health codes
D) All these answers
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Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://www.boundless.com/
The Progressive Era: 1890-1917
Which of the following statements BEST describes the major
difference between the Populist and the Progressive reform
movements in the United States?
A) Populist reformers only represented people living in rural areas, while
Progressive reformers only represented people living in urban areas.
B) Populist reformers primarily focused on economic matters, while
Progressive reformers primarily focused on social issues.
C) While Populist and Progressive reformers were both fiscally liberal
(social programs, equality, government regulation), Progressives were
socially liberal and Populists socially conservative.
D) Populist reformers opposed all forms of government, while
Progressive reformers embraced government as a tool for reform.
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The Progressive Era: 1890-1917
Which of the following statements BEST describes the major
difference between the Populist and the Progressive reform
movements in the United States?
A) Populist reformers only represented people living in rural areas, while
Progressive reformers only represented people living in urban areas.
B) Populist reformers primarily focused on economic matters, while
Progressive reformers primarily focused on social issues.
C) While Populist and Progressive reformers were both fiscally liberal
(social programs, equality, government regulation), Progressives were
socially liberal and Populists socially conservative.
D) Populist reformers opposed all forms of government, while
Progressive reformers embraced government as a tool for reform.
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Saylor OER. "History « Saylor.org – Free Online Courses Built by Professors." CC BY 3.0 http://www.saylor.org/majors/History/
The Progressive Era: 1890-1917
Which of the following was NOT a way that Progressive reformers
sought to correct problems in America's cities?
A) Bribing political bosses to carry out reforms
B) Changing election practices to undermine machine politics
C) Establishing settlement houses to assist new immigrants
D) Instituting nonpartisan commissions to investigate urban problems
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The Progressive Era: 1890-1917
Which of the following was NOT a way that Progressive reformers
sought to correct problems in America's cities?
A) Bribing political bosses to carry out reforms
B) Changing election practices to undermine machine politics
C) Establishing settlement houses to assist new immigrants
D) Instituting nonpartisan commissions to investigate urban problems
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Saylor OER. "History « Saylor.org – Free Online Courses Built by Professors." CC BY 3.0 http://www.saylor.org/majors/History/
The Progressive Era: 1890-1917
Attribution
• Wikipedia. "Progressivism in the United States." CC BY-SA 3.0
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Progressivism_in_the_United_States
• Wikipedia. "Eighteenth Amendment." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eighteenth%20Amendment
• Wikipedia. "Nineteenth Amendment." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nineteenth%20Amendment
• Connexions. "The Progressive Era (Part II)." CC BY 3.0 http://cnx.org/content/m19715/latest/
• Wikipedia. "muckraker." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/muckraker
• Wiktionary. "progressivism." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/progressivism
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