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Evolution Study Guide Answers
1. EVOLUTION refers to the phenomenon where changes are noticed in a
species over time.
2. CHARLES DARWIN developed the theory of natural selection based on his
observations of plants and animals on the Galapagos islands. This theory
supported the ideas of evolution.
3. NATURAL SELECTION is a theory that explains evolution. It relates to the
phrase “survival of the fittest” because it shows that individuals with
characteristics suited to an environment will survive and have a better
chance of reproducing. Organisms without these characteristics will not be
able to reproduce and therefore will die. (Example: giraffe neck length and
pepper moths of Manchester)
4. TRUE or False. The changes that occur during natural selection are due to
5. A THEORY is a well tested concept that explains a wide range of
6. Circle the options that provide evidence for
similarities in DNA sequences, similarities in
embryos, fossils , similarities in body structure
7. True or False. A change in a single organism over
time is an example of evolution.
8. Fossil are the preserved remains or traces of an
organism that lived in the past.
9. According to the diagram below, which layer of
soil would contain the youngest fossils? Layer A
10. A characteristic that enables an organism to live
more successfully in its environment is a(n)
11. A group of similar organisms that can mate with
one another and produce fertile offspring is a
12. The body color of a moth can vary just as height
among humans can vary. These differences between
members of the same species are known as
13. A scientist surveyed 18 islands for animal species
that live only on each island. According to the graph,
what is the distance to the mainland of the island
with the greatest number of unique animal species?
14. Due to a drought in the giraffe’s habitat, only the
giraffes with the longer necks were able to get the
food they needed. This meant that giraffes with
shorter necks were at a disadvantage. In order for
the giraffe species to beat extinction, should the
females choose mates with longer necks or mates
with shorter necks? Explain your answer based on
what you learned about evolution.
They should choose mates with longer necks, their
babies will have a higher chance of having long
necks, being able to eat from the trees, they have a
better chance to survive and reproduce
15. Which animals are more closely related: raccoons and lesser
pandas or lesser pandas and giant pandas?
16. When did giant pandas and bears evolve from their common
ancestor? 10 M.Y.A
17. Which animal would have DNA that is most similar to lesser
pandas? Raccoons
18. When a species produces more offspring than it has
resources, this is known as Overproduction
19. If there are more organisms than resources,
Competition will occur between members of the same
species. This does not mean animals of the same
species will fight one another but simply that some will
find enough to eat while others will not.
20. What are the four parts of natural selection?
Overproduction, competition, variations, selection
21. Explain the term homologous structures. If two
organism have homologous structures they have
common Ancestor
22. In modern times, where does MOST evidence for
evolution come from? DNA
23.What is the difference between camouflage and
mimicry? Camouflage-blends in with environment;
mimicry- copying another organism’s look
24. What is the difference between gradualism and
punctuated equilibrium? Gradualism- theory that states
evolution happens slowly over time. Punctuated
equilibrium-theory that states organisms evolve in
short periods of rapid change
25. Where are the oldest fossils found? A. In the
bottom layers of rocks. B. In the top layers of rocks. C.
In the middle layers of rocks. D. In museums
26. Why did the peppered moths evolve? The industrial
revolution caused the trees to change colors (darker)
and those moths that were darker, survived and
passed on their traits.
27. Why did the Galapagos finches evolve? The finches
were separated on the different islands and had
different types of food to eat. The finches with beaks
that could easily eat the available food survived and
passed their traits.
28. If a population cannot adapt to their changing
environment, what will eventually happen to them?
They will go extinct.
29. Evolution is the change of a species over time.
Natural Selection is those who are best suited to
the environment survive pass on their traits.
30. The mammoth
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