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Functional
Neuroanatomy: The
nervous system and
behaviour
Chapter 2
Neuroanatomical methods
nissl
myelin
golgi
autoradiography
Immunohistochemistry
In vivo imaging
Examples of Nissl stains
Example of fibre stain
(gold chloride)
Example of Golgi method
Example of autoradiography
Example of immunohistochemistry
Arc-positive cells after varying amounts of sleep deprivation
Imaging brain structure
Imaging activity
Types of cells in the nervous
system
Neurons

The main information processors
Glia

Important supporting roles
Types of glial cells
Astrocytes

support, nurturance
Oligodendroglia or Schwann cells
•insulation
Oligodendroglia or Schwann cells
insulation
Microglia
Represent the immune system in the brain
(protect from invasion, clean up debris)
Basic structure of the neuron
cell body
nucleus
dendrite
axon
myelin
boutons
Categorization of neurons
by shape

multipolar, unipolar, bipolar
Categorization of neurons
by shape

multipolar, unipolar, bipolar
by size


large (pyramidal, eg)
small (granule, eg)
Categorization of neurons
by shape

multipolar, unipolar, bipolar
by size


large (pyramidal, eg)
small (granule, eg)
by function



sensory neuron
motor neuron
interneuron
The basics of the synapse
Neurons communicate at synapses
synapses can be chemical or electrical,
but chemical synapses are more common
Synaptic terminology
Boutons, cleft, dendritic spines, postsynaptic membrane,
vesicles, transmitter, receptors
Axonal transport
Anterograde vs retrograde
microtubules and neurofilaments
Anterograde vs retrograde axonal transport
Information flow
Terminology:
Afferents and efferents
convergence (many:one) and divergence
(one:many)
nuclei (containers of DNA) and
nuclei (collections of neurons)
Neuroanatomical terms
and conventions
Neuroanatomical directions
Rostral vs.
caudal
Dorsal vs.
ventral
Medial vs.
lateral
Superior
vs. inferior
Terminology:
Central nervous system (CNS) vs
Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
Meninges
Dura mater (tough mother)
arachnoid
pia mater
The very thing
Major divisions of the brain
Lobes of cerebral
cortex
Sulci and gyri maximize surface area
Cytoarchitecture
Brodmann’s areas
The limbic system
Basal ganglia
Midline structures of the brain
Diencephalon
Thalamus

A large mosaic of nuclei which contribute to
sensory and motor processing (you’ll meet
several of the nuclei later in the course when
we look at systems).
Hypothalamus


Located just inferior to the thalamus
A collection of nuclei involved in motivated
behaviour (feeding, drinking, sexual
behaviour)
Mesencephalon (midbrain)
Tectum (roof)

Superior and
inferior colliculi
Tegmentum
(floor)


Some reticular
nuclei and
cerebellar relay
nuclei
Also contains
substantia nigra
and crus cerebri
Metencephalon
Cerebellum

A ‘mini’ brain for computing skilled movements
and many other things
Pons

Many cranial nerve nuclei, reticular nuclei,
long tracts
Metencephalon
Pons (contains cranial nerve nuclei,
reticular nuclei)
Metencephalon
Cerebellum


Many fine folds (folia) increase surface area
Very large # of cells with very tight
organization
Myelencephalon (medulla)
Some nuclei related to breathing, heart
rate (so-called vegetative functions)
Long tracts
Another view of the brainstem
Spinal cord
Autonomic nervous system
Ventricular system
Blood supply
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