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Computer Crime
By FUNG Wai-keung
Hong Kong Police
Reliability of Computers
Money
• Is Web banking reliable?
• Sample case
$ 2,000,000
• Impact large enough to deter large
corporations to migrate to e-banking\
• Average bank robbery is $14,000 USD,
whilst average Computer theft was more
that $2M USD (Association of Certified
Fraud Examiners)
Profile of a cyber criminal
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•
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•
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crimes of concealment and deceit
no violence required (A weakling ?)
needs computer with a little skill
college kids
non organized
no investment needed.
Traditional Enforcement
• Evidence used to be paper format, hard
evidence - finger print, blood sample,
witnesses
Present Evidence
• Electronic evidence inside a computer
• cyber-trail
• pursuance of crime across continents
0100110100101100
Phenomenal with Cyber Crime
• Against the culture to report the crime
(Rape ?)
• Company reputation
• Victims don’t know they were robbed until
sometime late in time.
Implications for Law
Enforcement
• Pacing with technology (broadband,
WAP …)
• Collecting cyber Intelligence (Non
traditional)
• It is anachronism to testify new technology
with outdated Laws from the past,
• Acceptance of Electronic evidence
Serious Cyber Crimes
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•
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Cyber-terrorism
Information warfare
Infrastructure Attack
Electronic Battlefield
Cyber-Terrorism
• In 1996 - Times of London reported several
London financial institutions had paid over
400 M to fend off extortionist with logic
bomb.
• Some of the proceeds went to Russia.
• No national border boundary
Information Warfare
• In 1994 - two hackers downed a computers
in a Air Force Base in Rome N.Y. for 18
days
• Sensitive Defense projects with sensitive
files were stolen
• Use ROME computers to attack NASA’s
Goddard Space Flight Center and other
defence contractor’s computers
Information Warfare
• One was arrested in England
• All stolen data were still missing
• The victim estimated that their Defense
systems were attacked about 250,000 times
a year
• no secret as hackers attacked 130,000 U.S.
government sites on 1.1 million hosts in
1997 (National institude of Standards and
Technology)
Implications for Law
Enforcement
• Gathering of evidence (Ethical problem U.S. Electronic Communications Privacy
Act),
• Transnational
• Time Constrain - legal issue
Implications for Law
Enforcement
• Non standard interpretation of LAW
(Gambling, terrorism - Traditional
prerogatives of national sovereignty)
Common HK Cases
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Criminal Damage
Obtaining Property by Deception
Publishing Obscene Articles
Cyberstalking
Unauthorised Access to Computer
Case Study (March 1999)
Case Study (May 1999)
End
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