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SAPBI
SAP BI - Business Intelligence
mySAP Business Intelligence
Date
Training Center
Instructors
Education Website
Instructor Handbook
Course Version: 2004 Q3
Course Duration: 1 Day(s)
Material Number: 50069672
Owner: Stefan Binnig (D038740)
An SAP Compass course - use it to learn, reference it for work
Copyright
Copyright © 2004 SAP AG. All rights reserved.
No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or for any purpose
without the express permission of SAP AG. The information contained herein may be changed
without prior notice.
Some software products marketed by SAP AG and its distributors contain proprietary software
components of other software vendors.
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•
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•
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S/390®, AS/400®, OS/390®, and OS/400® are registered trademarks of IBM Corporation.
•
ORACLE® is a registered trademark of ORACLE Corporation.
•
INFORMIX®-OnLine for SAP and INFORMIX® Dynamic ServerTM are registered
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•
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•
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•
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or registered trademarks of their respective companies.
Disclaimer
THESE MATERIALS ARE PROVIDED BY SAP ON AN "AS IS" BASIS, AND SAP EXPRESSLY
DISCLAIMS ANY AND ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR APPLIED, INCLUDING
WITHOUT LIMITATION WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A
PARTICULAR PURPOSE, WITH RESPECT TO THESE MATERIALS AND THE SERVICE,
INFORMATION, TEXT, GRAPHICS, LINKS, OR ANY OTHER MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS
CONTAINED HEREIN. IN NO EVENT SHALL SAP BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT,
INDIRECT, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, CONSEQUENTIAL, OR PUNITIVE DAMAGES OF ANY
KIND WHATSOEVER, INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION LOST REVENUES OR LOST
PROFITS, WHICH MAY RESULT FROM THE USE OF THESE MATERIALS OR INCLUDED
SOFTWARE COMPONENTS.
About This Handbook
This handbook is intended to complement the instructor-led presentation of
this course, and serve as a source of reference. It is not suitable for self-study.
Typographic Conventions
American English is the standard used in this handbook. The following
typographic conventions are also used.
Type Style
Description
Example text
Words or characters that appear on the screen.
These include field names, screen titles,
pushbuttons as well as menu names, paths, and
options.
Also used for cross-references to other
documentation both internal (in this
documentation) and external (in other locations,
such as SAPNet).
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Example text
Emphasized words or phrases in body text, titles
of graphics, and tables
EXAMPLE TEXT
Names of elements in the system. These include
report names, program names, transaction codes,
table names, and individual key words of a
programming language, when surrounded by body
text, for example SELECT and INCLUDE.
© 2004 SAP AG. All rights reserved.
iii
About This Handbook
SAPBI
Type Style
Description
Example text
Screen output. This includes file and directory
names and their paths, messages, names of
variables and parameters, and passages of the
source text of a program.
Example text
Exact user entry. These are words and characters
that you enter in the system exactly as they appear
in the documentation.
<Example text>
Variable user entry. Pointed brackets indicate
that you replace these words and characters with
appropriate entries.
Icons in Body Text
The following icons are used in this handbook.
Icon
Meaning
For more information, tips, or background
Note or further explanation of previous point
Exception or caution
Procedures
Indicates that the item is displayed in the
instructor’s presentation.
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© 2004 SAP AG. All rights reserved.
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Contents
Course Overview ............................................................................. vii
Course Goals.................................................................................vii
Course Objectives .......................................................................... viii
Unit 1: Integration of SAP Business Intelligence into SAP NetWeaver ............1
SAP Business Intelligence within SAP NetWeaver ...................................... 2
Unit 2: Overview of SAP Business Information Warehouse..........................9
Fundamentals ............................................................................... 11
SAP Business Information Warehouse ................................................. 19
Unit 3: Warehouse Management .......................................................... 29
Administrator Workbench (AWB) ......................................................... 30
SAP BW Objects and Terminology ....................................................... 38
Unit 4: Extraction Management ........................................................... 51
Data Extraction.............................................................................. 52
Third Party Extraction Tools ............................................................... 60
Unit 5: Reporting & Analysis .............................................................. 67
BEx Browser ................................................................................ 69
BEx Query Designer ....................................................................... 79
BEx Web Application Designer .......................................................... 109
Unit 6: Business Content .................................................................. 117
Business Content (BCT) .................................................................. 119
Technical Content: BW Statistics ........................................................ 129
Unit 7: Outlook SAP Business Information Warehouse 3.5 .......................137
SAP Business Information Warehouse 3.5............................................. 138
Index ............................................................................................149
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© 2004 SAP AG. All rights reserved.
v
Contents
vi
SAPBI
© 2004 SAP AG. All rights reserved.
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Course Overview
This course gives an overview of SAP Business Information Warehouse
Target Audience
This course is intended for the following audiences:
•
Managers and project team members who require an overview of the
SAP Business Information Warehouse
Course Prerequisites
Required Knowledge
•
Knowledge of information requirements within an organization
Recommended Knowledge
•
A good understanding of business processes and their analyticaldemands
Course Duration Details
Unit 1:
Integration of SAP Business Intelligence into SAP NetWeaver
15 Minutes
SAP Business Intelligence within SAP NetWeaver
Unit 2: Overview of SAP Business Information Warehouse
20 Minutes
Fundamentals
40 Minutes
SAP Business Information Warehouse
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Unit 3: Warehouse Management
Administrator Workbench (AWB)
SAP BW Objects and Terminology
Exercise 1: Using the Metadata Repository
30 Minutes
30 Minutes
20 Minutes
Unit 4: Extraction Management
Data Extraction
Third Party Extraction Tools
20 Minutes
20 Minutes
Unit 5: Reporting & Analysis
BEx Browser
BEx Query Designer
Exercise 2: Query Designer
30 Minutes
45 Minutes
20 Minutes
© 2004 SAP AG. All rights reserved.
vii
Course Overview
SAPBI
BEx Web Application Designer
40 Minutes
Unit 6: Business Content
Business Content (BCT)
Technical Content: BW Statistics
45 Minutes
30 Minutes
Unit 7: Outlook SAP Business Information Warehouse 3.5
10 Minutes
SAP Business Information Warehouse 3.5
Course Goals
This course will prepare you to:
•
•
Integrate SAP Business Intelligence in SAP NetWeaver and explain
the role of SAP BW in the context of SAP BI as data warehousing and
analysis solution
Describe the architecture of SAP BW and its benefits
Course Objectives
After completing this course, you will be able to:
•
•
•
•
Navigate in the Metadata Repository of SAP BW
Name the various InfoProviders of SAP BW
Use basic functions of the Business Explorer components for reporting
requirements
Gather information about SAP Business Content and describe its
advantages
SAP Software Component Information
The information in this course pertains to the following SAP Software
Components and releases:
The user ID TRAINING is reserved for instructors and has a password that
changes every month. Ask your local system administrator for the current
monthly password, as well as for the number range that has been assigned to
your course.
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SAPBI
Course Overview
The participant’s user IDs have already been created in the system; they are
SAPBI-01 to SAPBI-99. The number range assigned to your course by your
local training administration tells you which of these users your participants
are authorized to use. The initial password init has already been assigned to
all of these user IDs.
Use transaction ZUSR to change the initial password. Do not copy new users.
Choose Maintain users on the default screen to branch to this screen. Fill the
select option User with the number range assigned to your course before you
start the program (press F8 or choose Execute). This displays a list containing
all users that match your selection.
Check the users you want to change before you choose the icon in the
application toolbar. Choose action Change password.
Use transaction SE38 and program ZSENQOFF in order to unlock the BW
objects. Unless you dońt do that the students cannot access BW objects
simultaneously.
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© 2004 SAP AG. All rights reserved.
ix
Course Overview
x
SAPBI
© 2004 SAP AG. All rights reserved.
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Unit 1
1
Integration of SAP Business Intelligence
into SAP NetWeaver
Focus of this lesson lies in the integration of SAP Business Intelligence,
respectively SAP Business Information Warehouse (SAP BW) into SAP
NetWeaver.
Unit Overview
Integrate SAP Business Intelligence into SAP Netweaver
Unit Objectives
After completing this unit, you will be able to:
•
•
Explain how the SAP Business Information Warehouse is positioned
within the overall concept of SAP NetWeaver
Outline the options available for reporting
Unit Contents
Lesson: SAP Business Intelligence within SAP NetWeaver ..................... 2
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© 2004 SAP AG. All rights reserved.
1
Unit 1: Integration of SAP Business Intelligence into SAP NetWeaver
Lesson:
2
SAPBI
SAP Business Intelligence within SAP NetWeaver
Lesson Duration: 15 Minutes
Lesson Overview
This lesson gives you a general overview of the integration of SAP Business
Intelligence, respevtively SAP Business Information Warehouse (SAP BW) into
SAP NetWeaver. It also offers an initial overview of the functions available
for reporting.
Lesson Objectives
After completing this lesson, you will be able to:
•
•
Explain how the SAP Business Information Warehouse is positioned
within the overall concept of SAP NetWeaver
Outline the options available for reporting
Show the SAP BW Curriculum on the SAP Service Marketplace:
http://service.sap.com/education for an overview of SAP’s education offerings
in the area of BW.
Focus of this lesson:
•
•
Integration and Architecture of the SAP BW
A general overview of a SAP BW data flow
This lesson offers a general overview of SAP BW and its integration into
SAPNetWeaver. It does not deal with more detailed topics such as data
modeling, extracting data, generating complex queries, or Web templates.
Refer to the BW curriculum if there are more detailed questions from students.
Business Example
You are planning to implement SAP Business Information Warehouse (SAP BW)
on the basis of SAP NetWeaver in your company. You want to classify SAP BW
in the SAP NetWeaver environment.
Integration of SAP Business Intelligence in SAP
NetWeaver
The SAP Business Intelligence component is part of the SAP NetWeaver subarea,
Information Integration .
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Lesson: SAP Business Intelligence within SAP NetWeaver
Information Integration makes both structured and unstructured information
on your enterprise available to users who require general access to the
information available. This information has to be in a consistent form
when accessed by the user. For this reason, the integrity of data has to be
guaranteed. mySAP Business Intelligence allows you to integrate and analyze
relevant information in real-time. mySAP Business Intelligence, within the
context of SAP Business Information Warehouse (SAP BW) , provides you with a
range of tools that support you in generating interactive reports, and thereby
facilitate decision-making at every level.
Figure 1: SAP NetWeaver
Data Flow in SAP Business Information Warehouse (SAP
BW)
Data from various sources (SAP systems, non-SAP systems, flat files, XML
data, databases, and so on) is loaded into the SAP BW using extraction
processes, and, where necessary, is then transformed. For example, this may
take the form of:
•
•
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Technical modifications
Business modifications (such as currency translation)
© 2004 SAP AG. All rights reserved.
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Unit 1: Integration of SAP Business Intelligence into SAP NetWeaver
SAPBI
After being processed, the data is saved in InfoProviders. InfoProviders are
created with specific business considerations in mind. This simplifies the
process of evaluating and analyzing data later for reporting purposes.
InfoProviders are objects that make data available for reporting. You access
this InfoProvider and generate reports based on it using the reporting tools
provided by the Business Explorer (BEx). This allows you to get a focussed
readout of your data.
In BW there are physical InfoProviders (BasicCubes, ODS objects) and also
virtual InfoProviders (MultiProviders, InfoSets), which present a logical view
of physical data. Refer to this distinction and the definition in Unit 3 → SAP
BW objects and terminology, if there are questions on this part of the course
Figure 2: Data Flow in SAP BW
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Lesson: SAP Business Intelligence within SAP NetWeaver
SAP BW: Overview
SAP BW allows the evaluation of data from operative SAP applications, from
any other business applications, and from external data sources (databases,
online services and the Internet). The Administrator Workbench provides
functions for controlling, monitoring and maintaining all data retrieval
processes.
The SAP BW allows Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) for preparing
information on large quantities of operative and historical data. OLAP
technology makes multidimensional analysis possible for various business
perspectives.
With the Business Explorer, SAP BW makes flexible reporting and analysis
tools available. This enables strategic analysis and supports decision-making
within a company. Authorized employees can access and evaluate historic
and current data in different levels of detail.
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© 2004 SAP AG. All rights reserved.
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Unit 1: Integration of SAP Business Intelligence into SAP NetWeaver
SAPBI
Facilitated Discussion
Classification of SAP Business Intelligence into SAP NetWeaver
Discussion Questions
Use the following questions to engage the participants in the discussion.Feel
free to use your own additional questions.
Why is SAP Business Intelligence part of the Information Integration within SAP
NetWeaver?
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© 2004 SAP AG. All rights reserved.
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SAPBI
Lesson: SAP Business Intelligence within SAP NetWeaver
Lesson Summary
You should now be able to:
•
Explain how the SAP Business Information Warehouse is positioned
within the overall concept of SAP NetWeaver
•
Outline the options available for reporting
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© 2004 SAP AG. All rights reserved.
7
Unit Summary
SAPBI
Unit Summary
You should now be able to:
•
Explain how the SAP Business Information Warehouse is positioned
within the overall concept of SAP NetWeaver
•
Outline the options available for reporting
8
© 2004 SAP AG. All rights reserved.
17-08-2004
Unit 2
Overview of SAP Business Information
Warehouse
7
Lesson: Fundamentals
This lesson does not have a demonstration. Give a general overview of the
demands made by an organization for data warehousing solutions. In doing
so, consider the following questions:
•
•
•
•
•
Why is quick, flexible and comprehensive access to business information
becoming more and more important?
What demands are made on information systems in this respect?
What does a data warehouse look like?
What are the aims of a data warehouse?
What are the differences between a data warehouse and an OLTP system?
Lesson: SAP Business Information Warehouse : This lesson does not have a
demonstration. When going through the slides, it is important to tackle the
following questions:
•
•
•
•
•
How is theSAP BW architecture structured ?
How are source systems and the data basis structured?
How are OLAP tools structured?
How is SAP BW integrated into the business framework world?
How is SAP BW integrated into the Enterprise Portal?
Unit Overview
This unit firstly looks at the fundamentals behind data warehousing as well as
the business demands for the implementation of a data warehousing solution.
In the second step, the SAP Business Information Warehouse (SAP BW)
architecture is introduced and its position within the SAP landscape is
examined, as well as its openness vis-a-vis external systems.
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© 2004 SAP AG. All rights reserved.
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Unit 2: Overview of SAP Business Information Warehouse
SAPBI
Unit Objectives
After completing this unit, you will be able to:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
discuss the basic concepts of data warehousing
explain the terms Online Transaction Procesing (OLTP) and Online
Analytical Processing (OLAP) and be able to distinguish between them
describe the fundamental structures of SAP BW.
describe the architecture of SAP BW and mention its advantages.
outline the different SAP OLAP tools
explain the different options available to load data into SAP BW.
explain how SAP BW is positioned as a component of mySAP.com.
Unit Contents
Lesson: Fundamentals .............................................................. 11
Lesson: SAP Business Information Warehouse ................................ 19
10
© 2004 SAP AG. All rights reserved.
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SAPBI
Lesson:
8
Lesson: Fundamentals
Fundamentals
Lesson Duration: 20 Minutes
Lesson Overview
Introduction to the topic of data warehousing: Motivation and fundamental
principles behind it, introduction to the methodology (data modeling).
Lesson Objectives
After completing this lesson, you will be able to:
•
•
discuss the basic concepts of data warehousing
explain the terms Online Transaction Procesing (OLTP) and Online
Analytical Processing (OLAP) and be able to distinguish between them
Give a general overview of the demands made by an organization for data
warehousing solutions. In doing so, consider the following questions:
•
•
•
•
•
Why is quick, flexible and comprehensive access to business information
becoming more and more important?
What demands are made on information systems in this respect?
What does a data warehouse look like?
What are the aims of a data warehouse?
What are the differences between a data warehouse and an OLTP system?
Business Example
Your organization is intrerested in SAP’s data warehousing solution, the SAP
Business Information Warehouse. Your task is to judge the extent to which SAP
data warehousing meets the data warehousing concepts that were mentioned
previously.
Business Trends
Until now, the goal behind the implementation of classic data processing
systems has primarily been the acceleration, cost reduction, and automation
of processes in individual business areas. In this way, enormous information
potential has sprung up in enterprises over the last few decades.
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Unit 2: Overview of SAP Business Information Warehouse
SAPBI
In parallel, ever increasing globalization and, at the same time, the increasing
decentralization of organizations, has created the need to be able to recognize
market trends and to have information about competitors at the ready to
react swiftly to changes in market conditions. Developments in the internet
age have made information the decisive factor in maintaining an advantage
over one’s competitors.
To gain that competitive edge, decision-makers in modern, globally operating
enterprises rely ever more frequently on the effective use of this information,
information that is unfortunately often spread across the most varied of areas
in the business environment. This is precisely the challenge that modern
data warehouses attempt to meet. Extensive solutions are required to cover
the entire process from the retrieval of source data to its analysis. Metadata,
dimension- and aggregation- data are treated differently in this process.
Consequences for Information Systems
As a result, information systems need to meet the following demands made
by decision-makers:
•
•
•
•
•
Immediate, single-point access to all relevant information regardless of
source
Coverage of all business processes: Cross-system and cross-process
analyses are becoming increasingly important.
High quality of information: Not only in terms of data content, but also
in terms of the ability to evaluate data flexibly.
High-quality decision-making support: The data warehouse must be
developed and structured on the basis of the requirements of operative
and strategic management. Only then is it possible to support decisions
fully.
Short implementation time with less resources: As well being quick to
implement, a data warehouse must enable simple and quick access to
relevant data, avoiding the labor-intensive preparation of heterogenous
data.
In heterogeneous system landscapes, a particular challenge lies in the
extraction and preparation of consolidated transaction data and master data
from mySAP.com components and source systems from other providers. The
increasing demand for high-quality business information means that in
addition to an integrated data-collection process, detailed data analysis and
multimedia presentation options are also required. The demand for data
warehouse solutions that incorporate all of these features is immense. The
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© 2004 SAP AG. All rights reserved.
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SAPBI
Lesson: Fundamentals
following discusses the significant requirements placed on an up-to-date data
warehouse in order to gather decision criteria for the efficiency of such a
solution.
The transaction-orientated OLTP and the analysis-orienatated OLAP
environment must be considered as a single entity. The data for the business
processes produces a multitude of information that can not easily be used for
targeted analysis. Therefore, the data is firstly cleansed, then technically and
semantically prepared (homogenized), due to the variety of its sources. From
the analyses of this data comes knowledge. This helps the organization define
its business strategy and supports the business processes derived from it. The
following graphic illustrates this cycle:
Figure 3: Distinction: Operative/Inoperative Environment
Data Warehouse Definitions
Due to continuous innovation in data processing possibilities, more and more
information is stored in a more and more detailed form. As a result, there is the
need to both reduce and structure this data so it can be analyzed meaningfully.
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Unit 2: Overview of SAP Business Information Warehouse
SAPBI
A data warehouse can help to organize the data here. A data warehouse
brings together all operative data sources (these are mostly heterogenous and
have different degrees of detail) in order to provide this data in a scalable form
to the whole organization. This data can then be used for future requirements.
A data warehouse has the following properties:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Read only access: End users have read-only access, meaning that the
data is primarily loaded into the data warehouse via the Extraction,
Transformation and Loading (ELT) process.
Cross-organizational focus: Data sources from the entire organization
(production, sales and distribution, controlling) and possibly external
sources too make up the basis of the system.
Data warehouse data is stored persistently over a particular time period.
Historization: Data is stored by time on a long-term basis.
Designed for efficient query processing: The technical environment and
data structures are optimized for answering business questions - not
transaction processing.
Analysis tool: Users can use comprehensive analysis tools to access data.
These tools offer a user-friendly interface which simplifies query creation.
A data warehouse is a copy of transaction data, specially restructured for queries and
analyses, in: R. Kimball: The Data Warehouse Toolkit, 1996, page 310.
Data Warehouse Objectives
A modern data warehouse must meet the following requirements:
Standardized structuring and display of all business information: Decision
makers urgently need reliable information from the production, purchasing,
sales and distribution, finance, and human resources departments. They
require an up-to-date and comprehensive picture of each individual business
area and of the business as a whole. This results in high demands being put
on the data collection process from the underlying data sources. An important
aspect here is that the data is defined uniquely across the entire organization,
in order to avoid errors arising through varied definitions in different sources.
Simple access to business information via a single point of entry:
Information must be combined homogenously and consistently at a central
point, from which it can be called up centrally. For this reason, modern data
warehouses require a separate database. This database enables a stand-alone
application environment to provide the required services.
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SAPBI
Lesson: Fundamentals
Highly-developed reporting for analysis with self service for all areas:
In terms of presentation, efficient analysis and meaningful multimedia
visualization techniques are essential. The system must be able to cope with
the information needs of the most varied of user groups.
Quick and cost-efficient implementation: When implementing the data
warehouse, an influential cost factor is its integration into an OLTP system and
the straight-forward loading of heterogenous data. Alongside the Metadata
Repository, Business Content also has an important role here.
High performance environment. Data modeling from heterogenous sources:
Data analyses can be carried out via a data warehouse, without integrating
heterogenous sources online using time-consuming read processes. This data
can be loaded in separate batch jobs at performance-friendly times.
Relieving OLTP systems: In the past, OLTP systems were strongly overloaded
by having to store data and analyze it at the same time. A separate data
warehouse server now allows you to carry out data analysis elsewhere.
Distinction between a Data Warehouse and an OLTP
System
OLTP environments are fundamentally different to OLAP environments:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Level of detail: The OLTP layer stores data with a very high level of detail,
whereas data in the data warehouse is compressed for high-performance
access (aggregation).
History: Archiving data in the OLTP area means it is stored with minimal
history. The data warehouse area requires comprehensive historical data.
Changeability: Frequent data changes is a feature of the operative area,
while the data is "frozen“ after a certain point for analysis.
Integration: In contrast to the OLTP environment, requests for
comprehensive, integrated information is very high for analysis.
Normalization: Due to the reduction in data redundancy, normalization
is very high for operative use. Data staging and lower performance are
the reasons why one finds less normalization in the data warehouse.
An OLAP environment is optimized for read access. Operative
applications also need to carry out additional functions performantly,
including change, insert and delete.
The basic differences between OLTP systems and OLAP systems are listed
once again in the following table:
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© 2004 SAP AG. All rights reserved.
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Unit 2: Overview of SAP Business Information Warehouse
SAPBI
Figure 4: Comparison: OLTP systems/OLAP systems
From the above, you can see that there are fundamentally different demands
on an OLTP system compared with a data warehouse system. It is therefore
most advantageous to technically separate all aggregated reporting-related
demands made on the Business Information Warehouse from the OLTP
system.
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SAPBI
Lesson: Fundamentals
Facilitated Discussion
This lesson gives participants an overview of the data warehouse and data
modeling.
In the discussion, bring together the most important aspects once more. You
can use the following questions as a guide:
Discussion Questions
Use the following questions to engage the participants in the discussion.Feel
free to use your own additional questions.
1.
2.
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What are the typical characteristics of a data warehouse?
Discuss any questions raised by participants.
© 2004 SAP AG. All rights reserved.
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Unit 2: Overview of SAP Business Information Warehouse
SAPBI
Lesson Summary
You should now be able to:
•
discuss the basic concepts of data warehousing
•
explain the terms Online Transaction Procesing (OLTP) and Online
Analytical Processing (OLAP) and be able to distinguish between them
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SAPBI
Lesson:
15
Lesson: SAP Business Information Warehouse
SAP Business Information Warehouse
Lesson Duration: 40 Minutes
Lesson Overview
This lesson deals with the fundamental structures of the SAP Business
Information Warehouse (SAP BW). It also looks at how SAP BW is embedded in
the SAP landscape and its openness vis-a-vis external systems and databases.
Lesson Objectives
After completing this lesson, you will be able to:
•
•
•
•
•
describe the fundamental structures of SAP BW.
describe the architecture of SAP BW and mention its advantages.
outline the different SAP OLAP tools
explain the different options available to load data into SAP BW.
explain how SAP BW is positioned as a component of mySAP.com.
This lesson does not have a demonstration:
When going through the slides, it is important to tackle the following
questions:
•
•
•
•
•
How is the SAP BW architecture structured ?
How are source systems and the data basis structured?
How are OLAP tools structured?
How is SAP BW integrated into the business framework?
How is SAP BW integrated into the Enterprise Portal?
Business Example
You plan to implement SAP BW as your central data warehouse. You need a
comprehensive overview of the structures and important terms in the SAP
BW system in order to be able to use the avaialble functions. You can use this
information to integrate SAP BW into your data processing world.
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Unit 2: Overview of SAP Business Information Warehouse
SAPBI
SAP Business Information Warehouse: Introduction
The SAP Business Information Warehouse (SAP BW) enables you to analyze data
from operative SAP applications and from other business applications and
external data sources such as databases, online services, and the Internet.
SAP BW, which is pre-configured for core areas and processes, allows you to
examine the relationships in all areas of your organization.
The following needs were taken into account when designing SAP BW:
•
•
•
•
•
•
A data warehousing system with optimized data structures for reporting
and analysis
A separate system
OLAP engine and tools
Based on a comprehensive data warehouse architecture
Automated data warehouse management
Preconfigured with SAP global business know-how
Against this background, SAP decided to create its own data warehousing
solution that classifies reporting tasks as a self-contained business component.
To circumvent the numerous disadvantages associated with reporting in the
ERP system (see the Fundamentals lesson), data storage, management and
reporting takes place on a separate server, the SAP BW server.
SAP BW enables Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) for the staging of
information from large amounts of operative and historical data. OLAP
technology permits multi-dimensional analyses according to various business
perspectives. The SAP BW server, which is preconfigured for core areas
and processes, allows you to examine the relationships in all areas of your
organization. SAP BW provides targeted information to companies, divided
into roles. This information helps your employees to carry out their tasks.
With the Business Explorer (BEx), SAP BW provides you with a flexible
reporting and analysis tool to support strategic analyses and decision making
processes within your organization. These tools include query, reporting and
OLAP functions. Employees with access authorization can analyze historical
and current data at differing levels of detail and from different perspectices.
They can use the Web or Microsoft Excel to do so.
SAP BW Architecture
In principle, SAP BW architecture can be divided into three layers:
20
© 2004 SAP AG. All rights reserved.
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Lesson: SAP Business Information Warehouse
Figure 5: SAP BW Architecture
The graphic shows a physical and logical division between data staging in the
source systems, data storage and management, and analysis.
The following section looks at the three functional layers within the SAP BW
architecture in greater detail.
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Unit 2: Overview of SAP Business Information Warehouse
SAPBI
Source Systems
A source system is a system that provides the SAP BW system with data. SAP
BW distinguishes between four kinds of source systems:
•
my SAP.com components: SAP BW is fully integrated into the new
mySAP.com world. It functions as a central data warehousing tool.
Predefined extraction structures and programs are delivered by SAP.
These allow source data from mySAP.com components to be loaded
directly into the SAP BW system.
Complex organizational structures in which data from individual
systems is collected, create a need for a system architecture consisting of
several BW systems. These temporarily store data in the detailed form of
an organizational unit, before they can then be transferred to a central
SAP BW for carrying out comprehensive reporting.
•
•
•
Non-SAP systems: A big advantage of SAP BW lies in the fact that is
has an open architecture vis-a-vis external OLTP providers and other
legacy systems. Particularly in a heterogenous system landscape, it is
thus possible to use SAP BW as a consolidated data basis for reporting
that covers the entire organization. SAP delivers various tools which
allow these interfaces to be implemented quickly and efficiently. These
are looked at next.
Data providers: As well being able to obtain data from a variety of
available systems, SAP BW can also be supplied with target-orientated
data from providers. For example, the organizations AC Nielsen US or
Dun & Bradstreet provide market research data, which can be loaded
into SAP BW for benchmarking and then measured against your own
operative data. The interface for the transfer of data supplied by the data
providers is already available in SAP BW. This means the data import
can run smoothly.
Databases: SAP BW allows data to be loaded from external relational
database systems. A DataSource is generated based on the external table
structure, enabling table content to be loaded quickly and consistently
into SAP BW.
SAP BW Server
The central administration area on the SAP BW server not only features
a ’Staging Engine’, which controls the data loading process, as well as
processing and preparing its data, it also features SAP BW databases which
store master, transaction and metadata.
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Lesson: SAP Business Information Warehouse
The Administrator Workbench is reponsible for organization within SAP
BW. In other words, the control, monitoring and maintenance of all data
procurement processes. You can use the Administrator Workbench to manage
and control all relevant SAP BW objects and processes. As well as defining all
relevant information objects, you can also use the Administrator Workbench to
plan load processes using a scheduler, and monitor them using a monitor tool.
However, before the data is in a suitable form to be stored, it must be prepared
by the Extraction, Transformation and Load (ETL) process.
SAP BW OLAP
The Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) processor allows you to carry out
multi-dimensional analyses of SAP BW data sets. It also provides the OLAP
tools with data via the BAPI, XML/A or ODBO (OLE DB for OLAP) interfaces.
In principle, the OLAP area can be divided into three components:
•
•
•
BEx Analyzer ( Microsoft Excel based)
BEx Web Application
BEx Mobile Intelligence
You can use these tools to carry out both Microsoft Excel and Web-based
analyses across several dimensions (such as time, place, product, and so on)
simultaneously. The following section looks at the OLAP tools in greater
detail.
Extraction, Transformation and Loading
Depending on the source systems and the type of data basis, the process of
loading data into the SAP BW is technically supported in different ways. In the
conception phase, the system firstly needs to detect the different data sources
in order to be able to transform the data with the suitable tool afterwards.
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Unit 2: Overview of SAP Business Information Warehouse
SAPBI
Figure 6: ETL: Extraction, Transformation and Loading
Data Basis
Additional heterogenous data can be loaded alongside the original mySAP.com
components that provide data via extractors:
•
•
•
Flat files: A flat file in ASCII or CSV format can automatically be read
by the SAP BW standard.
Data providers: Providers such as Dun & Bradstreet and AC Nielsen US
provide data which already has an import-friendly format.
XML: XML data can also be processed in SAP BW.
Data Staging Tools
•
•
24
DB Connect: Allows relational databases to be accessed directly. Here,
SAP DB MultiConnect is used to create a connection to the database
management system (DBMS) in the external database. By importing
metadata and original data, the necessary structures can be generated in
SAP BW, and the data can be loaded without problem.
ETL tools (for example, DataStage): In heterogenous system landscapes,
an important requirement is that the different data structures and content
are consolidated before being loaded into SAP BW. You can use an ETL
tool such as Ascential DataStage to load data from heterogenous systems,
such as Siebel and Peoplesoft, transform this data into a single format
and then load it via a Business Programming Interface into SAP BW.
© 2004 SAP AG. All rights reserved.
17-08-2004
SAPBI
Lesson: SAP Business Information Warehouse
Interfaces
•
•
•
•
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BW Service Application Programming Interface (SAPI): A SAPI is
an SAP-internal component that is delivered as of Basis release 3.1i.
Communication between mySAP.com components and SAP BW takes
place via this SAPI.
BAPI: Like the SAPI, a BAPI is also used for the structured
communication between SAP BW and external systems. Both data
providers and ETL tools use this interface.
FILE: SAP automatically supports automatic import of files in CSV or
ASCII format for flat files as standard.
Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP): The SOAP RFC Service is used to
read XML data and to store it in a delta queue in SAP BW. The data can
then be processed further with a corresponding DataSource and SAPI.
© 2004 SAP AG. All rights reserved.
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Unit 2: Overview of SAP Business Information Warehouse
SAPBI
Facilitated Discussion
Revision
Discussion Questions
Use the following questions to engage the participants in the discussion.Feel
free to use your own additional questions.
Discuss any questions raised by the participants.
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Lesson: SAP Business Information Warehouse
Lesson Summary
You should now be able to:
•
describe the fundamental structures of SAP BW.
•
describe the architecture of SAP BW and mention its advantages.
•
outline the different SAP OLAP tools
•
explain the different options available to load data into SAP BW.
•
explain how SAP BW is positioned as a component of mySAP.com.
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© 2004 SAP AG. All rights reserved.
27
Unit Summary
SAPBI
Unit Summary
You should now be able to:
•
discuss the basic concepts of data warehousing
•
explain the terms Online Transaction Procesing (OLTP) and Online
Analytical Processing (OLAP) and be able to distinguish between them
•
describe the fundamental structures of SAP BW.
•
describe the architecture of SAP BW and mention its advantages.
•
outline the different SAP OLAP tools
•
explain the different options available to load data into SAP BW.
•
explain how SAP BW is positioned as a component of mySAP.com.
28
© 2004 SAP AG. All rights reserved.
17-08-2004
Unit 3
Warehouse Management
25
The unit introduces the Administrator Workbench (AWB) and BW objects
and their terminology
Unit Overview
The unit introduces and the management tool for a SAP BW system: the
Administrator Workbench (AWB) and the SAP BW meta objects.
Unit Objectives
After completing this unit, you will be able to:
•
•
•
•
•
•
List the different elements that make up the AWB initial screen
List the tasks of the AWB
Give an overview of the function areas in the AWB
Describe the different SAP BW objects
Explain the relationships between SAP BW objects
Use the SAP BW terminology correctly
Unit Contents
Lesson: Administrator Workbench (AWB) ........................................ 30
Demonstration: Metadata Repository......................................... 34
Lesson: SAP BW Objects and Terminology ...................................... 38
Exercise 1: Using the Metadata Repository ................................. 45
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Unit 3: Warehouse Management
Lesson:
26
SAPBI
Administrator Workbench (AWB)
Lesson Duration: 30 Minutes
Lesson Overview
This lesson covers the main tasks and how they are carried out in the different
functional areas of the Administrator Workbench (AWB).
Lesson Objectives
After completing this lesson, you will be able to:
•
•
•
List the different elements that make up the AWB initial screen
List the tasks of the AWB
Give an overview of the function areas in the AWB
The aim of this lesson is to give course participants an initial overview of
the main tasks that are carried out in the AWB and introduce them to the
individual function areas of the AWB.
At the end of this section, there is a small demonstration of the Metadata
Repository.
Business Example
In your BW project team, you have been given the task of defining meta objects
in the SAP BW system. You would like to get an overview of the AWB tool.
Overview: Administrator Workbench (AWB)
The AWB is the primary administration, controlling, and monitoring tool in
SAP BW. AWB is the data warehouse manager of the SAP BW system. You use
AWB to manage, control, and monitor all the objects and processes in the SAP
BW system. The AWB is where you create meta objects. It is also the place
where you use the scheduler to plan data uploads and where you track them
using the monitor. Assistants enable you to analyze the data-loading processes
closely. The assistants also help you to quickly identify the cause of any errors.
30
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Lesson: Administrator Workbench (AWB)
Figure 7: The Central Tool in SAP BW: AWB
You perform tasks in AWB in the following function areas:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
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Modeling
Monitoring
Reporting Agent
Transport Connection
Documents
Business Content
Translation
Metadata Repository
© 2004 SAP AG. All rights reserved.
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Unit 3: Warehouse Management
SAPBI
Figure 8: Initial Screen: Administrator Workbench → Modeling
Modeling
The Modeling function area is used to create and maintain (meta) objects
that are relevant to the data staging process in the SAP BW system. These
objects display in a tree structure where the objects are ordered according to
hierarchical criteria. You use context menus to access the relevant maintenance
dialogs and functions belonging to each of the objects in the object tree.
You access the Modeling function area by calling transaction RSA1.
Monitoring
The Monitoring function area enables you to monitor and control data-loading
processes and any additional data processing in the SAP BW system.
You access the Monitoring function area by calling transaction RSMON.
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Lesson: Administrator Workbench (AWB)
Reporting Agent
The Reporting Agent is a tool that you use to schedule and execute reporting
functions in the background, such as evaluating exceptions, printing queries,
and pre-calculating Web templates. (The BW315 and TBW20 courses contain
detailed information about the Reporting Agent.)
You access the Reporting Agent function area by choosing the Reporting Agent
option in the AWB navigation dialog box.
Transport Connection
You use the Transport Connection to collect objects that have recently been
created or modified in the SAP BW system. You use the Change and Transport
Organizer (CTO) to transport these objects into other SAP BW systems. (For
example, from the quality assurance system into the productive system.)
You access the Transport Connection function area, by choosing the Transport
Connection option in the AWB navigation dialog box. (The BW360 (BW
Performance & Administration) course contains detailed information on this
function area.
Documents
The Documents function enables you to add, search, and create links between
documents in various formats, versions, and languages for SAP BW objects.
The BW305 (BW Reporting & Analysis) course and the online documentation
contain detailed information on the distribution of SAP BW documentation.
You access the Documents function area by choosing the Documents option in
the AWB navigation dialog box.
Business Content
Business Content provides pre-configured information models based on
metadata. Business Content provides the users in a company with the
information they need to properly perform their tasks. (Refer to the Business
Content unit for more information on Business Content.)
You access the Business Content function area by calling transaction RSORBCT.
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Unit 3: Warehouse Management
SAPBI
Translation
In the Translation function area, you can translate the short and long texts
belonging to SAP BW objects.
To access the Translation function area, choose the Translation option in the
AWB navigation dialog box.
Metadata Repository
All SAP BW meta objects and their links are managed centrally in the
HTML-based SAP BW Metadata Repository. In the integrated Metadata
Repository browser, a search function enables you to quickly access the
meta objects. Other features include exchanging metadata between different
systems, exporting HTML pages, and displaying graphics for the objects.
To access the Metadata Repository function area, call transaction RSOR.
Demonstration: Metadata Repository
Purpose
Use the Customer Cube T_SDDEMO4 BasicCube to navigate in the Metadata
Repository. This BasicCube corresponds to the InfoCube that the course
participants will use for creating a query in the Query Designer lesson.
System Data
System:
See this week’s mail
Client:
800
User ID:
Training
Password:
See this week’s mail
Set up instructions:
No other settings are necessary.
1. Use transaction RSOR to access the Metadata Repository.
34
2.
Select the InfoCube symbol from the list of objects that have been
activated in the system. (Select InfoCube → Double-click)
3.
Find the T_SDDEMO4 InfoCube in the list. Select Customer Cube
T_SDDEMO4 and double-click on it.
4.
Show the Network display of the data flow for InfoCube T06A00. (Select and
double-click on Network display of the data flow).
© 2004 SAP AG. All rights reserved.
17-08-2004
SAPBI
Lesson: Administrator Workbench (AWB)
5.
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Return to the previous screen. (blue arrow)
© 2004 SAP AG. All rights reserved.
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Unit 3: Warehouse Management
SAPBI
Facilitated Discussion
Revision
Discussion Questions
Use the following questions to engage the participants in the discussion.Feel
free to use your own additional questions.
What are the main tasks of the AWB and what are the function areas into
which these tasks are divided?
36
© 2004 SAP AG. All rights reserved.
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SAPBI
Lesson: Administrator Workbench (AWB)
Lesson Summary
You should now be able to:
•
List the different elements that make up the AWB initial screen
•
List the tasks of the AWB
•
Give an overview of the function areas in the AWB
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© 2004 SAP AG. All rights reserved.
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Unit 3: Warehouse Management
Lesson:
32
SAPBI
SAP BW Objects and Terminology
Lesson Duration: 30 Minutes
Lesson Overview
In this lesson you will get an overview of SAP BW objects and their
relationship to each other.
Lesson Objectives
After completing this lesson, you will be able to:
•
•
•
Describe the different SAP BW objects
Explain the relationships between SAP BW objects
Use the SAP BW terminology correctly
In this lesson the students should get an overview of the SAP BW meta objects.
Business Example
You need a good overview of the structures and important terms in SAP BW in
order to be able to use the available functions. Use this overview to reinforce
the BW functions in the following scenarios, and to develop solutions.
Terminology and Objects in SAP BW
Now, an introduction to the important terms that are used in SAP BWwill
allow you to obtain an overview of terminology. This overview will be
consolidated for the individual topical areas in the corresponding units of
SAP BW courses.
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© 2004 SAP AG. All rights reserved.
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SAPBI
Lesson: SAP BW Objects and Terminology
Figure 9: InfoObjects
InfoObject
Business analysis-objects (customers, sales volumes, and so on) are called
InfoObjects in SAP BW. They are the smallest logically grouped units in
SAP BW. These InfoObjects can be divided into characteristics and key
figures. Characteristics can be further divided into units, time characteristics,
and technical characteristics (for example, request ID). Key figures are
all data fields that are used to store values or quantities (sales volumes,
kilowatt-hours, costs, and so on). Characteristics describe the affiliation of key
figures. For example, costs belong to a cost center, whereby the cost center is
a characteristic.
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Unit 3: Warehouse Management
SAPBI
Figure 10: InfoObject Usage in SAP BW
InfoProvider
InfoProvider is the super-ordinate term for an object that you can use to create
reports in Business Explorer (BEx). InfoProviders are objects or views that are
relevant to reporting.
InfoProviders include various database metaobjects that deliver data for
query definitions. The type of data procurement differs depending on the
InfoProvider used. However, the type of data procurement has no influence
on reporting. InfoProviders deliver data that can be analyzed using a query.
40
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17-08-2004
SAPBI
Lesson: SAP BW Objects and Terminology
Figure 11: Overview: InfoProvider in SAP BW
There are two types of data stores. Physical stores include:
•
•
•
(Basic-)InfoCubes
ODS Objects
InfoObjects
Logical views of physical data stores include:
•
•
•
•
InfoSets
RemoteCubes
Virtual InfoCubes
MultiProviders
The previous figure gives an overview of SAP BW reportable objects, divided
into data targets that contain physical data, and InfoProviders that only
contain logical views. From the BEx view, only InfoProviders are accessed.
The way in which the data is modeled is inconsequential to the BEx toolset.
Operational Data Store (ODS)
An ODS, a data store, stores data at the basic level (document level). It is
normally used to resolve and consolidate datasets. These datasets are often
from various data sources and/or source systems.
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Unit 3: Warehouse Management
SAPBI
Figure 12: Data Flow
InfoSource
An InfoSource is a quantity of information that logically belongs together and
that has been summarized into a single unit. InfoSources contain transaction
data (this data is stored in InfoCubes) and master data (attributes, texts, and
hierarchies - this data is stored in separate tables).InfoSources describe all
the information that is available for a business process or a type of business
process (for example, cost center accounting).
DataSource
DataSources are responsible for extracting and staging data from source
systems. The DataSources subdivide the data that is provided by a source
system into self-contained business areas.
42
© 2004 SAP AG. All rights reserved.
17-08-2004
SAPBI
Lesson: SAP BW Objects and Terminology
Facilitated Discussion
Describing the SAP BW metaobjects and their relationship
Discussion Questions
Use the following questions to engage the participants in the discussion.Feel
free to use your own additional questions.
What different functions does the AWB have?
What kind of InfoProviders are used in SAP BW and for what issues do you
need them?
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© 2004 SAP AG. All rights reserved.
43
Unit 3: Warehouse Management
44
© 2004 SAP AG. All rights reserved.
SAPBI
17-08-2004
SAPBI
37
Lesson: SAP BW Objects and Terminology
Exercise 1: Using the Metadata Repository
Exercise Duration: 20 Minutes
Exercise Objectives
After completing this exercise, you will be able to:
•
Use the metadata repository as a source of information for determining
links with other objects and for determining object versions
Business Example
You are implementing SAP BW in your company, or already using BW. Your
company has considerable demand for reporting. In order to gather more
information about the relationship between SAP BW meta objects you want to
investigate a data flow from a source system to a Basic InfoCube
System Data
System:
Client:
User ID:
Password:
Set up instructions:
Assigned system
800
Assigned user ID
Assigned password
No set up is necessary.
Task:
Obtain an overview of the Customer Cube InfoCube. Look at the list of
characteristics and key figures for this InfoCube. Display the network display
for the data flow, and obtain an overview of the queries that are structured
on this InfoCube.
1.
Log on to the BW server.
Choose SAP Menu
Call the Administrator Workbench using the menu path Modeling →
Administrator Workbench: Modeling.
Open the Metadata Repository, and look for the InfoCube Customer
Cube(T_SDDEMO4) in the Activated Objects → Local objects.
2.
Look at the list of characteristics and key figures for this InfoCube.
Use the network data flow to obtain an overview of the data flow from
the source system to this InfoCube.
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© 2004 SAP AG. All rights reserved.
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Unit 3: Warehouse Management
SAPBI
Solution 1: Using the Metadata Repository
Task:
Obtain an overview of the Customer Cube InfoCube. Look at the list of
characteristics and key figures for this InfoCube. Display the network display
for the data flow, and obtain an overview of the queries that are structured
on this InfoCube.
1.
Log on to the BW server.
Choose SAP Menu
Call the Administrator Workbench using the menu path Modeling →
Administrator Workbench: Modeling.
Open the Metadata Repository, and look for the InfoCube Customer
Cube(T_SDDEMO4) in the Activated Objects → Local objects.
a)
Log on to the BW system and take the following path in the SAP
Easy Access menu:
Choose SAP Menu
.
Modeling → Administrator Workbench: Modeling.
When you reach the Administrator Workbench, go to the Metadata
Repository using the buttons on the left side of the screen.
b)
c)
d)
When you reach the metadata repository, choose Activated Objects →
Local Objects.
You obtain a list of object types. Select the InfoCube object type.
All InfoCubes delivered in Business Content are listed alphabetically.
Scroll down, find, and select the Customer Cube (technical name:
T_SDDEMO4).
2.
Look at the list of characteristics and key figures for this InfoCube.
Continued on next page
46
© 2004 SAP AG. All rights reserved.
17-08-2004
SAPBI
Lesson: SAP BW Objects and Terminology
Use the network data flow to obtain an overview of the data flow from
the source system to this InfoCube.
a)
b)
c)
17-08-2004
Scroll down. The characteristics and key figures of the InfoCube are
listed in tabular form, as are the objects that receive data from the
InfoCube, and the objects that pass data to the InfoCube.
Under the heading Graphical display, choose Network display of the
data flow.
From left to right you now should not see the whole data flow to
this InfoCube Customer Cube.
© 2004 SAP AG. All rights reserved.
47
Unit 3: Warehouse Management
SAPBI
Lesson Summary
You should now be able to:
•
Describe the different SAP BW objects
•
Explain the relationships between SAP BW objects
•
Use the SAP BW terminology correctly
48
© 2004 SAP AG. All rights reserved.
17-08-2004
SAPBI
Unit Summary
Unit Summary
You should now be able to:
•
List the different elements that make up the AWB initial screen
•
List the tasks of the AWB
•
Give an overview of the function areas in the AWB
•
Describe the different SAP BW objects
•
Explain the relationships between SAP BW objects
•
Use the SAP BW terminology correctly
17-08-2004
© 2004 SAP AG. All rights reserved.
49
Unit Summary
50
SAPBI
© 2004 SAP AG. All rights reserved.
17-08-2004
Unit 4
Extraction Management
43
The focus on this unit is an overview of the various concepts behind data
extraction both from SAP and non-SAP source systems in to SAP BW.
Unit Overview
This unit focusses on a data extraction overview. Both extraction scenarios,
the extraction from SAP and non-SAP systems are covered. The second lesson
deals with third party extraction transformation and loading (ETL) tools.
Unit Objectives
After completing this unit, you will be able to:
•
•
•
Describe the data flow during its extraction into SAP BW
Describe concepts behind data extraction by giving examples of ways
in which data is extracted from source systems
describe the functions of ETL tools and their scope of application
Unit Contents
Lesson: Data Extraction ............................................................ 52
Lesson: Third Party Extraction Tools .............................................. 60
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© 2004 SAP AG. All rights reserved.
51
Unit 4: Extraction Management
Lesson:
44
SAPBI
Data Extraction
Lesson Duration: 20 Minutes
Lesson Overview
This lesson deals with the data extraction process into the SAP BW. It gives you
an overview of the various concepts behind data extraction and exemplifies
the way in which data is extracted from SAP systems and non-SAP systems.
Lesson Objectives
After completing this lesson, you will be able to:
•
•
Describe the data flow during its extraction into SAP BW
Describe concepts behind data extraction by giving examples of ways
in which data is extracted from source systems
This lesson gives an overview (!) concerning data extraction. If you are an
experienced BW instructor you can show the students the transaction SBIW.
Business Example
ABC Corp. is one of the market leaders in the consumer durable industry. To
meet its growing technical and business needs, the company has installed
the SAP R/3 Enterprise and BW system for the automation of their business
transactions. The company wants to extract data from the SAP R/3 Enterprise
into the BW system for their planning and reporting functions. Therefore, you,
as the BW consultant of the company, need to identify the default DataSources
for generating the sales and profitability reports.
52
© 2004 SAP AG. All rights reserved.
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SAPBI
Lesson: Data Extraction
Data Extraction in general
Figure 13: Data Extraction
Concerning data extraction you generally distinguish two areas of source
systems. These are SAP source systems and non-SAP source systems. From
these source systems masterdata are loaded in InfoObjects and transactional
data is either loaded into an ODS object or in a Basic InfoCube. The
relationship between the the objects is described as follows:
Before the extraction of data from source systems you should identify the
amount of data that is to be loaded into the SAP BW system. The amount
will be determined by the update mode. The update mode itself will be
determined by the DataSource.
There are two update modes in SAPBW:
•
•
Full-Update
Delta-Update
If data is extracted with the update mode Full then all existing data of the data
source(!) will be extracted.
A data extraction with the update mode Delta results in the fact that only data
will be loaded that have changed or have been newly created since the last
data extraction.
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© 2004 SAP AG. All rights reserved.
53
Unit 4: Extraction Management
SAPBI
Extraction from an SAP system
Refer to BW350 if students have more detailed questions about extraction
from SAP source system
Figure 14: Extraction from an SAP sytem
There are two main sorts of DataSources for extraction of SAP systems:
•
•
Application-specific
Application-independent DataSources
There are two groups of apllication-specific DataSources:
•
•
BW-content DataSources
Customer-specific DataSources
For the BW-content data sources, SAP delivers application-specific
DataSources that model the logic of the underlying business process. This
occurs in the form of required dields, structures and data-providing programs,
known as extractors. Business Content DataSources can be enhanced by
customers. This means, that the DataSources can be adjusted according to the
underlying business process of the customer.
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© 2004 SAP AG. All rights reserved.
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SAPBI
Lesson: Data Extraction
Customer-specific DataSources in an application-specific area also model the
logic of the underlying business process. It is not possible for SAP to deliver
predefined business processes for such applications as processes vary from
customer to customer. Therefore SAP provides tools with which customers
can model their business processes by developing DataSources on their own.
The application-independent DataSources are also called generic DataSources.
Generic DataSources are not bound by an individual application, but can be
set up to encompass cross-application or individually defined processes. SAP
also delivers a tool with which generic DataSources can be developed.
Data Staging from Non-SAP Source Systems
Refer to BW340 for more detailed information about data extraction from
non-SAP-source systems.
Figure 15: Data Staging from Non-SAP Source Systems
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Unit 4: Extraction Management
SAPBI
The interfaces for non SAP Data Extraction are:
•
•
•
•
BAPI (transaction BAPI), such as non SAP Systems
DBConnect
XML
Flatfile
Flat Files in the Data Flow
The transfer structure in BW must match technically the fields on the flat
file. For ASCII files this means field lengths and types must match. For CSV
files the types must match but the field lengths of the data can be shorter
than the field lengths of the transfer structure (except date fields).In some
cases (Flexible DataSources), the order of the transfer structure fields does not
matter. For DIRECT (MD), the key must be first, and then the sequence of the
remaining fields does not matter as long as it matches the transfer structure
definition. For text and hierarchies, the order is fixed for the transfer structure.
Flat Files can be used to load all kinds of data to BW. This includes text, master
data attributes, hierarchies, and transaction data.
Master data attributes and text can be loaded with two options. The first
option utilizes a flexible InfoSource with both transfer rules and update rules.
This option allows for, but does not require, the use of a Master Data ODS,
as an intermediate layer before the InfoObject itself. The second option for
master data staging is called Direct staging and utilizes only transfer rules.
DB Connect
DB connect is a different tool as compared to DB link. DB link was a
predecessor that allowed access from BW running on Oracle to a legacy
system running also on Oracle. DB Connect can link from any BW running
any DB to any supported DB platform that the legacy system is running on.
XML Upload
Open integration using XML interfaces is in line with OMG standards.
OMG.com is a group of companies (SAP, Compaq, Sun, and others), that
define vendor-neutral software standards for cross company/platform
communication and interoperability. In line with the standards being
developed by this group, BW 3.0 includes features such as metadata exchange
via XML, incorporating both upload and transfer of metadata. BW 3.0 also
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Lesson: Data Extraction
includes data transfer of transaction and master data using XML. This enables
both data import in XML format and Internet data import using the HTTP
protocol.
Note: This is not for mass data loading, but for a few or individual
documents. In 3.0 in general, there is an emphasis on openness; for
example, standalone tools are replacing Excel for future development.
XML is the first step to achieve this openness.
Non SAP Sourcesystems
ETL with DataStage - SAP has entered into a partnership with Ascential
software. DataStage is now the preferred tool for extracting non-SAP data into
BW. The preferred method for extracting SAP R/3 Enterprise data into BW is
still the Service API, even though Ascential does offer a Load Pack for BW.
BW is open to many third party reporting tools Such as Crystal /Business
Objects/Cognos, as well as many other ETL tools. When a third party is
certified, they have been tested to some degree by SAP. This is not a guarantee
that they can replace all the functions of the SAP products they replace, just
some of them. Let the buyer beware.
Note: Participants should note the different operating systems,
databases, software packages, and file formats that DataStage has
extractors for in the standard package. Ask them what systems and
DB platforms they have.
SAP BW provides several Business Application Programming Interfaces
(BAPI), which can be used by companies that supply SAP customers
complementary software solutions. The BAPIs are available on the frontend
side as well as on the backend side of the SAP BW Server. The solutions
enrich the capabilities of the BW system in both directions. To guarantee that
business users get cost-effective and rapid access to business information, BW
is tightly integrated with these products and technologies.
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Unit 4: Extraction Management
SAPBI
Facilitated Discussion
Understanding the principles of extraction
Discussion Questions
Use the following questions to engage the participants in the discussion.Feel
free to use your own additional questions.
Discuss the topics with the students and refer to BW340 and BW350 if more
detailed questions occur.
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Lesson: Data Extraction
Lesson Summary
You should now be able to:
•
Describe the data flow during its extraction into SAP BW
•
Describe concepts behind data extraction by giving examples of ways
in which data is extracted from source systems
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Unit 4: Extraction Management
Lesson:
51
SAPBI
Third Party Extraction Tools
Lesson Duration: 20 Minutes
Lesson Overview
This lesson covers the tasks and functions of third-party extraction tools as
well as the procedure for connecting an ETL (Extraction, Transformation,
Load) tool to SAP BW.
Lesson Objectives
After completing this lesson, you will be able to:
•
describe the functions of ETL tools and their scope of application
In this lesson, participants are to gain an overview of third-party extraction
tools and their tasks.
Business Example
In your organization, you are faced with the need to transfer large volumes
of data from non-SAP source systems into SAP BW. These datasets originate
from different system platforms and have different data formats. Before
being able to update the data into SAP BW, complex transformations need to
be carried out to configure the data to BW structures. Your task is to gather
information about a third-party ETL tool to SAP BW , which can then be used
in the data provision process.
ETL: A Definition
By ETL, we mean the following process:
•
•
•
The extraction of data from a source system,
The transformation of this data
Loading of this data into the SAP BW system.
An ETL tool is one that supports this process.
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Lesson: Third Party Extraction Tools
Figure 16: Extraction, Transformation and Load Tools (ETL Tools)
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Unit 4: Extraction Management
SAPBI
Functions of ETL Tools
ETL tools are supplied by third-parties. They allow you to load master data
and transaction data from non-SAP systems into the SAP BW system. ETL
tools usually have the following functions for this purpose:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Connecting different platforms: ETL tools allow you to connect
database systems (Native or ODBC; Open Database Connectivity),
different file systems or XML data sources. Some third-parties also
provide specialized LoadPackages which you can use to extract data
from eBusiness applications (such as Siebel, i2, for example).
Preparing transformations: ETL tools enable functions for processing
strings and for carrying out complex calculations. Different data sources
can also be integrated. To do this, the system also reads data from other
sources during the extraction process (look-up). You can sort data
according to particular criteria and transfer erroneous records into a file.
You can also aggregate the data. Some tools are also able to normalize
data.
Designing ETL processes: You can use ETL tools to model data
provision processes (usually supported graphically). To do so, use the
transformations described above and use the connection to different
data sources.
Executing ETL processes: Most ETL tools have a transformation engine
which executes the ETL processes you have defined. You can schedule
jobs and monitor them.
Administration of ETL processes: You can use the administration
components to manage users and authorizations and maintain metadata
(for example, table structures).
Connecting to the SAP BW system: The ETL tools for certified partners
can be integrated with the BW system. Integration not only involves the
actual data upload, but also the exchange of metadata (transfer structure,
for example).
The detailed functions of the ETL tools vary according to the provider.
ETL Tools: Scope of Application
ETL tools are especially useful when you want to transfer a large volume of
data from non-SAP systems into SAP BW and where the data comes from
heterogenous sources and complex transformations are required for the data
transfer. Without ETL tools, you would have to create your own program,
a time-consuming process.
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Lesson: Third Party Extraction Tools
Advantages of Using ETL Tools (Versus Programming)
Investigating advantages of ETL Tools
•
•
•
Graphical modeling and comprehensive functions simplify and accelerate
the development of extraction processes from non-SAP systems.
The extraction processes are documented uniquely and are thus easier
to maintain.
You can use the ETL tool as a central administration tool for extracting
data from external systems, since the data from different external systems
is integrated in a homogenous environment.
Provider Overview
Various third-party providers have certification for the connection to SAP
BW. You can get an overview of the certified ETL tools in the SAP Service
Marketplace http://service.sap.com/bw, in the Partner → Certified Software
Partners area.
Go to the service marketplace and show the students the site above at
http://service. sap.com/bw Partner → Certified Software Partners, as it is subject
to change.
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Unit 4: Extraction Management
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Facilitated Discussion
This lesson aims to give participants an overview of third-party extraction
tools.
In the discussion, bring together the most important aspects once more. You
can use the following questions as a guide:
Discussion Questions
Use the following questions to engage the participants in the discussion.Feel
free to use your own additional questions.
What tasks do third-party extraction tools have?
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Lesson: Third Party Extraction Tools
Lesson Summary
You should now be able to:
•
describe the functions of ETL tools and their scope of application
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Unit Summary
SAPBI
Unit Summary
You should now be able to:
•
Describe the data flow during its extraction into SAP BW
•
Describe concepts behind data extraction by giving examples of ways
in which data is extracted from source systems
•
describe the functions of ETL tools and their scope of application
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Unit 5
Reporting & Analysis
57
The participants are to obtain an overview of the functions of the BEx Browser.
Point out that the BEx Browser also provides a simple, separate interface (user
menu) that end users can use to execute reports, transactions, and documents.
If a portal is being used as an interface, the BEx Browser is not needed.
Explain the structure and content of the BEx QueryDesigner in the second
unit and show how Drag&Drop makes it easy to use. Show and explain
the different directories for the rows, columns, and then filter and free
characteristics, step-by-step.
Explain the usage of the BEx Web Application Designer, explain the
relationship between the central objects in web reporting: web application,
web template and web item. If there is enough time left, show the option for
arranging web items via Drag&Drop in a Web Template.
Unit Overview
This unit deals with with the reporting components of SAP BW: the
components of the Business Explorer (BEx)
•
•
•
BEx Browser
BEx Query Designer
BEx Web Application Designer
In the first lesson of the unit you become familiar with the options of the
Business Explorer Browser (BEx Browser).
The second lesson gives an overview of the BEx Query Designer tool and the
individual objects that you require to create a query definition - the basis
of every report.
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Unit 5: Reporting & Analysis
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The third lesson describes the Business Explorer Web Application Designer
(BEx Web Application Designer). You can use this tool to create templates (the
basis of a Web application) using a Wizard (step-by-step process) or using
Drag&Drop in the integrated editor.
Unit Objectives
After completing this unit, you will be able to:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Start your reports from the Business Explorer Browser
Organize your workbooks and links with the BEx Browser and set up
access to individual roles
Outline the functions of the BEx Browser on the Web
Describe the functions of the BEx Query Designer
Define your own queries and modify these when necessary
Publish reports for analysis in the BEx Analyzer and on the Web
Explain the meaning of the different work areas in the Web Application
Designer (Web items, template, and properties)
Open and move the work areas
Make general settings for a Web template
Unit Contents
Lesson: BEx Browser ............................................................... 69
Lesson: BEx Query Designer ...................................................... 79
Demonstration: Calling the Query Designer ................................. 81
Demonstration: Working with the “Open” Dialog ............................ 83
Demonstration: Query: Basic Functions ..................................... 91
Demonstration: Changing a Query............................................ 94
Demonstration: Setting the Filter .............................................. 97
Exercise 2: Query Designer................................................... 101
Lesson: BEx Web Application Designer ......................................... 109
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Lesson:
59
Lesson: BEx Browser
BEx Browser
Lesson Duration: 30 Minutes
Lesson Overview
This lesson teaches you about the options provided by the Business Explorer
Browser (BEx Browser).
Lesson Objectives
After completing this lesson, you will be able to:
•
•
•
Start your reports from the Business Explorer Browser
Organize your workbooks and links with the BEx Browser and set up
access to individual roles
Outline the functions of the BEx Browser on the Web
The participants are to obtain an overview of the functions of the BEx Browser.
Point out that the BEx Browser also provides a simple, separate interface (user
menu) that end users can use to execute reports, transactions and documents.
If a portal is being used as an interface, the BEx Browser is not needed.
Business Example
Employees of a company can also start their reports, transactions, and
documents from the BEx Browser. They can administer the interface and the
content of their BEx Browser display. It is also planned that the BEx Browser
will be implemented on the Web in the future. Analyze your options.
BEx Browser: Overview
The BEx Browser allows you to access all documents types of the BW that are
assigned to your role or stored in your favorites. You can select and open
documents assigned to you in the BEx Browser, and you can store and manage
new documents there.
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Unit 5: Reporting & Analysis
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Figure 17: BEx Browser: Overview
You can work with the following document types in the BEx Browser:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
BW workbooks
Documents stored in the BDS
Links (references to the file system, shortcuts)
Links to Internet pages (URLs)
SAP transaction calls
Web applications and Web templates
Crystal Reports
The BEx Browser displays all of the user’s roles and favorites.
Hint: The term role (from release 2.0B) was called activity group in
2.0A and channel in 1.2B.
Users can maintain their favorites directly in the BEx Browser, or in the SAP
Easy Access menu.
Caution: Note that the role display in the SAP Easy Access menu can
be switched on and off.
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Lesson: BEx Browser
Working with the BEx Browser
You can select and organize documents in the BEx Browser.
You can define the spatial (location on screen) and graphical (color and
symbols) display of all folders and their content. You can maintain your
favorites and add new folders and objects to them. These favorites also appear
in your user-specific access menu (SAP Easy Access user menu).
Figure 18: Working with the BEx Browser
The BEx Browser provides the following functions:
•
Add new folders or documents
–
•
17-08-2004
Select the right-hand area of the BEx Browser (storage area), and
choose New from the context menu that you call up using the right
mouse button. You can then create new objects (folders, workbooks,
internet addresses, SAP transactions, documents and links).
Arrange documents spatially
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Unit 5: Reporting & Analysis
–
•
Select a document and use Drag&Drop to move it to the required
position. You can also assign a document to a folder using
Drag&Drop. The document symbol then adapts itself to match
the color of the folder. You can also determine the sequence of
documents in the folders using Drag&Drop.
Assign folders spatially
–
•
SAPBI
Select a folder and use Drag&Drop to move it to the required
position.
Change the graphical display of folders
–
Select a folder, and use the right mouse button to reach the context
menu. Then choose Choose symbol and color. Choose a folder symbol
and/or the color of the object symbols.
Hint: You can replace the folder symbols with
company-specific images, and you can also use your own
logo.
•
Copy folders or documents
–
•
Create a link
–
•
You can create links (shortcuts) to any files on your PC. You can
also store BEx Browser objects as links on your Windows Desktop
(using Drag&Drop):
Store documents
–
72
You can copy individual documents or entire folders with all
subordinate documents into other roles, or copy tasks for favorites
and roles. Select the folder or document in question and use
Drag&Drop to move it to the tree structure in the left-hand side of
the BEx Browser. If there are other hierarchy levels, the tree structure
automatically opens up at the place where you have moved the
folder or object to. If it is not possible to copy a folder or object into
one of the folders in the tree structure, this is indicated by a change
in the symbol. This can happen if you have no authorization to copy
an object to a particular folder.
You can manage any kind of file in the BEx Browser. These files are
then stored in the Business Documents Service. To do this, choose
New → Document after calling up the context menu in the right-hand
© 2004 SAP AG. All rights reserved.
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Lesson: BEx Browser
section of the BEx Browser. Select the required document. The
document is then loaded into the BW system and you can access it
from the BEx Browser.
BEx Browser Administration
The administration of the BEx Browser has changed completely for Release
2.0. Existing channels and favorites that were maintained in the InfoCatalog
before Release 2.0A can be converted to the new technology using the reports
provided in BW Customizing.
Figure 19: BEx Browser Administration
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Unit 5: Reporting & Analysis
SAPBI
The following division of tasks is valid for the administration of contents
displayed in the BEx Browser from Release 2.0.
•
•
•
You can select and organize documents in the BEx Browser. You can
define the spatial (location on screen) and graphical (color and symbols)
display of all folders and their content. You can maintain your favorites
and insert new folders of objects into your favorites (similar to the
functions of the SAP Easy Access menu).
Role maintenance (activity group maintenance) is the basis of the
administration of roles and tasks displayed in the BEx Browser. You
can use role maintenance (TRANSACTION PFCG) to create new roles
(activity groups), assign users to these roles, and maintain authorizations.
You can also generate links to transactions and Internet pages (URLs)
and create new folders. You can only maintain the spatial (position on
screen) and graphical (colors and symbols) representation of folders and
their content in the BEx Browser.
All users can maintain their own favorites in the SAP Easy Access menu
(TRANSACTION SESS). They can insert frequently used transactions or
create new folders in their favorites. You can only maintain the spatial
(position on screen) and graphical (colors and symbols) representation of
folders and their content in the BEx Browser.
Hint: If you want to display your roles in the user menu (SAP
Easy Access) as in the tree structure of the BEx Browser, make the
following setting: in the initial access menu (SAP Easy Access),
choose User Menu. Choose Extras → Settings → Show first level.
The names of the roles to which you are assigned now also
display in your user menu.
BEx Browser on the Web
You can use the BEx Browser on the Web to display the contents of the BEx
Browser (roles, tasks, and favorites) in a Web browser. This means that you
can still use the BEx Browser on the Web even if you do not have a frontend
installed.
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Lesson: BEx Browser
Figure 20: BEx Browser on the Web
From the BEx Browser on the Web, you can call HTML pages and Web
applications that were created using the BEx Web Application Designer and
that contain one or more tables, charts, or maps. You can also call other
intranet and Internet pages. You can look for objects in the Browser.
Hint: You need to release the function module for Web-based
reporting in order to use the BEx Browser on the Web. For information
on the necessary settings, see TRANSACTION SPRO. Then choose
SAP Reference IMG → BW Customizing Implementation Guide → Business
Information Warehouse → Reporting-relevant Settings → Web-Based
Settings.
Caution: These settings are only relevant if you have used the BEx
Browser on the Web in BW 2.x and want to continue to use it in the
old form for BW 3.x. You have to release the appropriate function
modules. In BW 3.x, you can include an overview of roles and favorites
directly in a Web report as a Web item menu. If you only want to use
the new function, you do not need to make these settings. The new
function offers the same options as the old version.
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Unit 5: Reporting & Analysis
SAPBI
If you want to show the students the BEx Browser in the web embedded in a
frameset call the following web template:
Description: SAPBI BEx Browser Web
Technical name: T_SAPBI_BEX_BROWSER_WEB
in your role menu SAPBI → Web Templates.
You can not reposition folders and objects using Drag&Drop. You can not
maintain your own BW favorites in the BEx Browser on the Web. In contrast
to the BEx Browser on the frontend, URLs that are not assigned to a folder
are still shown in the tree structure.
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Lesson: BEx Browser
Facilitated Discussion
Usage of BEx Browser
Discussion Questions
Use the following questions to engage the participants in the discussion.Feel
free to use your own additional questions.
What kind of BW-users do work with the BEx Browser?
Do the BEx Browser and the BEx Browser Web have the same functionality?
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Unit 5: Reporting & Analysis
SAPBI
Lesson Summary
You should now be able to:
•
Start your reports from the Business Explorer Browser
•
Organize your workbooks and links with the BEx Browser and set up
access to individual roles
•
Outline the functions of the BEx Browser on the Web
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Lesson:
68
Lesson: BEx Query Designer
BEx Query Designer
Lesson Duration: 45 Minutes
Lesson Overview
This lesson presents the BEx Query Designer as an independent tool for
defining queries in the SAP Business Information Warehouse.
Lesson Objectives
After completing this lesson, you will be able to:
•
•
•
Describe the functions of the BEx Query Designer
Define your own queries and modify these when necessary
Publish reports for analysis in the BEx Analyzer and on the Web
The demonstrations in this lesson refer to the InfoProvider Customer Cube
(T_SDDEMO4).
This lesson deals with using the BEx Query Designer for creating simple
reports.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Demonstrate the different ways of calling up the BEx Query Designer.
Using the query GR00 SAPBI First Query, show the Select Query dialog
box with the History, Favorites, and Roles.
Give a brief overview of the Query Designer toolbar.
Define a simple query.
Show the participants the search function. Find the query that you
defined.
Change the query. Show the local definition and the global definition.
Demonstrate the data filters. Demonstrate the global filter and how to
restrict (filter) characteristics in the query.
Show how to execute the query in the Web browser with the standard
template.
Business Example
You use SAP BW to define reports that enable standardized navigation
functions in analyses, independent of the source operational system.
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Unit 5: Reporting & Analysis
SAPBI
You want to define simple reports, execute these, and make changes to the
report definition.
Accessing Reports
All reports can be accessed via roles. Within these roles you can find both BEx
workbooks (excel-based) and BEx web applications (web-based). Underneath
these both media types of presenting the reports to users there is the query
definition. It contains the structure of the reports. On this level a query
designers defines what kind of characteristics and key figures should appear
in a report. The important point here is that the query definition does not
contain any data.
The data comes from the InfoProviders. Without specifying an InfoProvider
you cannot create a query definition. And the relationship between a query
definition and a InfoProvider is a n:1 relation. Many query definitions can be
based on one InfoProvider.
Figure 21: Reporting Architecture
Calling the BEx Query Designer
Using the SAP BW reporting functions, you evaluate a dataset from an
InfoProvider according to various characteristics and key figures. To do this,
you define a query for your chosen InfoProvider in the BEx Query Designer.
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Lesson: BEx Query Designer
By selecting and combining the InfoObjects in a query, you determine the way
in which data from the chosen InfoProvider is evaluated.
You have various options for calling up the Query Designer:
•
•
•
•
From the BEx Analyzer open dialog box
As a separate program using Start → Programs → Business Explorer →
Query Designer
Using the Web Application Designer (see the BEx Web Application Designer
unit)
With Crystal Reports (Crystal Reports >=8.5 including CR add-ons for
SAP)
Demonstration: Calling the Query Designer
Purpose
Demonstrate the various options for opening the Query Designer.
System Data
System:
Assigned system
Client:
800
User ID:
Assigned user ID
Password:
Assigned password
Set up instructions:
None required
1. Using the BEx Analyzer:
Call the BEx Analyzer, either from the transaction /RRMX, or the
menu path Start → Programs → Business Explorer → Analyzer. From the
Analyzer toolbar, choose Open and then Queries. Then choose the symbol
for creating a new query.
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Unit 5: Reporting & Analysis
2.
SAPBI
Using Start → Programs → Business Explorer → Query Designer: Follow the
path, then choose the symbol for creating a new query.
Hint: Make sure that the students understand the different
publishing functionalities. With the sceond variant of the BEx
Query Designer you can only publish the query definition it in
a web browser. Nevertheless you can open it as a temporary
workbook with the BEx Analyzer afterwards, but not directly
from the designer.
The Open Dialog Box
If you choose to access the Query Designer from the BEx Analyzer, the SAP
BEx: Choose Query dialog box is called before the Query Designer opens.
Figure 22: SAP BEx: Choose Query
This dialog box is context sensitive, which means that it offers different
choices depending on the type of object selected:
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Lesson: BEx Query Designer
Object Type:
Dialog Box Available:
Workbooks:
History, Favorites, Roles
Queries:
History, Favorites, Roles, InfoAreas
Stored Query Views:
History, Favorites, Roles, InfoAreas
Exceptions:
History, InfoAreas
Within the relevant dialog box, you have the option of creating a new query
or of finding and selecting an existing query. You can then change or execute
the query.
Demonstration: Working with the “Open” Dialog
Purpose
Show the various options in SAP BEx: Choose Query.
System Data
System:
Assigned system
Client:
800
User ID:
Assigned user ID
Password:
Assigned password
Set up instructions:
None required
1. Find the following query in the different areas (Roles, InfoArea, History):
GR00 SAPBI First Query (T_SAPBIQ00)
2.
3.
Show the various ways of finding the query.
Briefly point out the functions of the toolbar.
Functions of the BEx Query Designer
The following figure gives an overview of the BEx Query Designer functions
that you can call from the Query Designer toolbar. The functions are described
within the context of query definition.
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Unit 5: Reporting & Analysis
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Figure 23: Functions of the Query Designer Toolbar
Quit and Use Query : With this function, you leave the Query Designer
and use the query you have defined.
Exit Query : Choose Exit Query if you want to leave the Query Designer.
Your entries are not saved.
Display Query on the Web : Using this function, you can display the query in
a default view on the Web, once you have saved your query definition.
New Query : Choose this function if you want to create a query. The BEx
Open dialog box appears and you can select the InfoProvider here that
contains the data that you want to evaluate in the query.
Open Query : This function takes you directly to the BEx Open dialog box.
You can choose from queries in your History, Favorites, Roles, or from the
InfoAreas.
Save Query : You use this function to save a modified query under its
current name. If the query does not yet have a technical name, the system
automatically offers the function Save Query As....
Save Query As... : You use this function to save a query under a new technical
name. You can save the query in your favorites or in a role.
Delete Query : You use this function to delete the query. You can only delete
the query if it is not being used in workbooks, Web templates, Crystal Reports,
or Reporting Agent settings.
Exception : You use this function to define exceptions for a query.
Note: Exceptions are deviations from normal key figure values, as
defined by you, and are highlighted in color in the query view.
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Using the small arrow next to the exceptions symbol, you can change or create
exceptions. For more information, see the Exceptions and Conditions unit.
Condition: You use this function to define conditions for a query. Using
the small arrow next to the conditions symbol, you can change or create
conditions.
Note: For each characteristic, you can give limit conditions to the key
figure values in order to determine, for example, all sales revenues
above or below a specified threshold value. The chosen characteristics
are displayed in the query with restricted key figures.
Define Cells : This function is only available for queries with two structures.
You can define formulas and selection conditions for cells explicitly. In
this way, you control the values of cells that appear at the intersections of
structural components. This function enables you to access individual cells in
queries or to assign special values to these.
For more detailed information, refer to the BW305 class.
Query Properties : Choose this function if you want to change the description
of the query or define the settings for the result position, display options,
numeric display, zero display and key date of the query.
For more information on this topic, refer to the BW305 class.
Check Query : Using this function, you can check a new or saved query for
errors before you save it.
Query Where-Used List : Using this function, you can find out in which
objects (Workbooks, Web templates, Crystal Reports, or Reporting Agent
settings) the query is used.
Display <-> Change : Using this function, you can switch between the display
and change modes.
Change Query (Global Definition) : You choose this function if you are in the
Local Query Definition and want to switch to the Global Definition.
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Table Display : You can create a query for tabular reporting, as well as for
Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) reporting, by activating or deactivating
the Table Display mode in the query definition when defining a query. This
function is only available for queries with one structure. You can only have
queries with two structures in the multi-dimensional display. They are not
suitable for OLAP reporting.
Technical Name : Using this function, you can show/hide the technical names
of the query components.
Context Menu : This function enables you to display the current context
menu without using the right mouse button (for example, for use with a touch
screen).
Help : This function takes you to the SAP BW online documentation. The BEx
Query Designer section automatically displays there in the BEx documentation.
Using the small arrow next to the help symbol, under the About... entry, you
can see the version of the Query Designer, with the support package number
and the revision level.
Creating a Query
This section describes the most important functions required for creating,
saving and modifying a query.
To define a new query, start the Query Designer and choose New Query .
In the New Query: Select InfoProvider dialog box, select the required
InfoProvider. The following example uses the InfoProvider Customer Cube
(T_SDDEMO4) under InfoAreas → BW Training → BW Customer Training →
SAPBI.
Once you have selected the InfoProvider, the Query Designer displays as
shown in the following graphic.
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Figure 24: Query Designer: New Query
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The Query Designer is divided into six subareas:
1.
Directory tree of the selected InfoProvider.
Once you have selected the required InfoProvider, all available objects
(dimensions, key figures, structures) display in the directory tree in the
left screen area of the Query Designer.
In this example, you can see the directory tree for the InfoProvider
InfoCube Customer Cube T_SDDEMO2.
2.
Columns
You define the columns of your report in this area.
3.
Rows
You define the rows of your report in this area.
4.
Free Characteristics
You transfer those characteristics into the free characteristics area that
do not display in the initial view of the results when you execute the
query in the BEx Analyzer or on the Web. You can then integrate these
characteristics into the results through navigation steps. You can also use
free characteristics for selecting filter values in the report.
5.
Filter
The characteristics displayed in the filter appear neither in the drilldown
nor as free characteristics in the query analysis. These characteristics are
only used as global filters on the InfoCube data.
6.
Preview (displayed in gray on the screen)
This area gives a preview of the query results area.
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To create a query, you can expand or collapse the InfoProvider directories by
choosing the plus or minus symbol. By expanding the key figure node in the
InfoProvider tree, for example, you can display a list of all the key figures
for the InfoProvider.
•
Use Drag&Drop to transfer the characteristics, key figures, and structures
of the InfoProvider into the Filter, Rows, Columns, or Free Characteristics
areas of the Query Designer.
Note: You can also transfer these characteristics using the
keyboard and the clipboard. Choose CTRL+C to copy and
CTRL+V to paste.
You can also include characteristic attributes and variables in the query
definition in this way.
•
•
You can use the right mouse button to call all of the functions that are
in the current context menu. To do this, first select the required query
component, then select a menu entry from the context menu.
By double-clicking on an element in the query designer, you call a
dialog box that offers the default function for that element. For example,
if you double-click on a characteristic, the dialog box for restricting
characteristics appears.
The following graphic shows the Query Designer with a query definition.
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Figure 25: Defined Query
The following definitions were made:
•
•
•
•
•
The characteristic Cal. Year/Month (0CALMONTH) was chosen as a global
filter and restricted to the months January to April 2001.
The characteristic Country was selected as a free characteristic.
The key figures Incoming Orders Quantity and Incoming Orders EUR were
placed in the columns.
The Sold-to Party characteristic, with addresses and account groups, was
included in the rows. The material was also included in the rows. This
was restricted to a range of materials.
The preview area shows how the report is structured.
Once you have defined a query, choose Save Query or Save Query As... .
If you have not yet saved the query, you must enter a query description and a
unique technical name. You can also choose where you want to save the query
(in your roles or in your favorites folder). You can use Save Query As... to save
existing queries under a different name.
You can also execute a query immediately. To do this, choose Quit and Use
Query .
If you have not yet saved the query, you must enter a query description and a
technical name.
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Once you have saved the query, you have the following options:
•
•
•
•
You can execute the query in the BEx Analyzer and include it in a
workbook. To do this, choose Quit and Use Query .
You can display the query on the Web in a default view. To do this,
choose Display Query on the Web .
You can use the query in the Web Application Designer as a data provider
for Web items.
You can use the query in the tabular display in Crystal Reports as a data
source for formatted reports.
The individual steps for creating a query and the various options for defining
a query are described in more detail in the following section.
Demonstration: Query: Basic Functions
Purpose
Use a simple query to demonstrate the basic functions.
System Data
System:
Assigned system
Client:
800
User ID:
Assigned user ID
Password:
Assigned password
Set up instructions:
None required
1. Open the Query Designer and choose the Customer Cube InfoProvider.
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2.
Expand the key figure node in the InfoProvider tree to show how you
can display a list of all the key figures for the InfoProvider.
3.
Move a few key figures into the columns.
4.
In the same way, display the list of all available characteristics and move
the characteristics into the rows.
5.
Point out the changes to the query results area.
6.
Save the query with the technical name T_SAPBIQT## and the
description GR## SAPBI Second Query.
7.
Use the Display <-> Change function to show how to switch between the
display and change modes.
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8.
Choose Technical Name and comment on the display. Deactivate the
technical names.
9.
Then show the Context Menu and the Help functions.
10. Execute the query by choosing Quit and Use Query.
Finding a Query
In order to find a query for which you already know a part of the description
or other information, choose Find
.
In the Search for Queries dialog box, enter the technical name or description
of the query. If necessary, you can restrict the search to additional criteria.
Choose Find
•
•
92
.
If you are in the BEx Analyzer and have called the search function from
the Choose Query dialog box, the query result displays as an Analyzer
report.
If you are using the search function from the Query Designer, the query
definition displays.
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Lesson: BEx Query Designer
Figure 26: Finding a Query
Changing a Query
As a rule, report requirements are not final at the start of the conversion phase.
Many new requirements often arise once users have discovered the range of
options in the Query Designer. Therefore, reports are often subject to change.
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Depending on your current position in the Query Designer or Analyzer, you
have different options for changing a query:
•
•
If you have called the Query Designer, in the SAP BEx Query: Choose
Query, select a query. You can either select a query using the technical
name or the query description. The queries are also listed under InfoArea
under the relevant InfoProvider (which you used to define the query).
You have two options for changing the query definition from a report
in the Analyzer:
–
Choose Change Query (Global Definition).
By doing this, you can change the query definition.
–
Choose Change Query (Local View).
Changes made to the query here correspond to navigation in the
report and are not saved in the query definition.
Note: If you are in the Change Query (Local View) mode, you
can switch directly to the global definition by choosing
Change Query (Global Definition) .
Demonstration: Changing a Query
Purpose
Show the participants the search function. Demonstrate the various ways of
reaching the change mode.
System Data
System:
Assigned system
Client:
800
User ID:
Assigned user ID
Password:
Assigned password
Set up instructions:
None required
1. Find the query T_SAPBIQT## (GR## SAPBI Second Query), which you
have already created. Open the query.
2.
94
Show the local and global change mode and the option of switching from
the local view to the global definition.
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Lesson: BEx Query Designer
Filtering Data in the Query Definition
It is often necessary to restrict (filter) characteristics to specific characteristic
values in your reports. For example, if you are interested in the sales volume
of a particular branch of a worldwide corporate group, but the InfoProvider
contains the sales volume for the entire organization, you can restrict the
query definition to the relevant branch, so that only the key figure for this
branch appear in the report.
You can restrict (filter) the characteristic values of a characteristic in the Rows,
Columns, Free characteristics, and Filter areas of the Query Designer.
There are two ways of restricting characteristics:
1.
2.
By selecting a characteristic from the InfoProvider of the characteristic
(in the tree structure in the left part of the screen) and double-clicking
on the Values icon, the selection menu for fixed values displays. You can
select single values or values from a value area. The fixed values selected
appear in the directory tree under Values. You can use Drag&Drop to
include these in your query definition.
You can also restrict a characteristic that you have already included in
the definition. Call the context menu for the characteristic and choose
Restrict. The Selection for ... dialog box appears.
The following figure shows the selection dialog box for the Material
characteristic.
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Figure 27: Selection Dialog Box for Filtering/Restricting a Characteristic
You can find all of the characteristic values available for the chosen
characteristic in the left screen area. The right screen area contains the
characteristic values that you want to use to restrict the characteristic.
To select a characteristic value, highlight the relevant value in the left screen
area. You can select single or multiple characteristic values. Using the Input
field in the lower left area of the selection dialog box, you can find specific
characteristic values by entering their description or technical name. The
found values are then automatically highlighted.
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You can then use Drag&Drop to move the highlighted values into the right
screen area. Alternatively, you can transfer the selected values using the
arrow. If you want to remove the restriction, simply reverse the procedure.
Hint:
•
•
A restriction on a free characteristic affects the entire query, even
if the free characteristic is not in the drilldown.
Characteristics in the global filter appear neither in the drilldown
nor as free characteristics in the analysis. You cannot navigate
in the analysis using the characteristic values in the filter.
These characteristics are only used to filter the data from the
InfoProvider.
Demonstration: Setting the Filter
Purpose
Show the various filter options.
System Data
System:
Assigned system
Client:
800
User ID:
Assigned user ID
Password:
Assigned password
Set up instructions:
None required
1. Open the query T_SAPBIQT## (GR## SAPBI Second Query).
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2.
Include a time characteristic (for example, fiscal year) in the filter, and
restrict this to a few characteristic values. Use a value area with the
limitation, for example, greater than or equal to.
3.
Restrict one of the free characteristics to a few characteristic values. Show
that this restriction affects the data selection for the entire query.
4.
Demonstrate the search function within the selection dialog box.
5.
Use the filter you have set to explain the difference between the
functions in the different Query Designer windows (especially the free
characteristics and filter) once again.
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Including Text Elements in BEx Analyzer Reports
You have the option of displaying different text elements as additional
information in a query (for example, the author, last changed by, InfoProvider,
etc.). These text elements are referred to as the header information of the query.
•
•
and Display Text Elements.
Choose Layout
You can either display all or individual (General, Filters, Variables) text
elements.
The text elements are displayed between the filter cells and the results area.
You can move or delete individual text elements by moving or deleting the
corresponding cells using Microsoft Excel menu functions.
Explanation of the Text Elements
Author:
User who defined the query.
Last Changed by:
User who last changed the query definition. Navigation steps are not
recorded as changes to the definition.
InfoProvider:
InfoProvider whose data is evaluated in the query.
Query Technical Name:
Technical name that you entered when you saved the query.
Key Date:
Contains the date for which the time-dependent master data is selected.
You create a key date either in the query definition (in Query Properties)
or provide the value using a variable (for more information, see the
Query Properties unit). If no key date has been defined, the system date is
taken as the key date.
Changed At:
Date and time at which the query definition was last changed.
Status of Data:
Time at which the data from the last request was posted to the
InfoProvider. This can be evaluated for reporting.
Note: For MultiProviders, the current InfoPackages are
determined from the individual BasicCubes and from there, the
one with the oldest date is referred to for the status of the data.
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Current User:
User who currently has the query open or who has inserted it into a
workbook.
Last Refreshed:
Data and time at which the query data was last refreshed. This is the time
when you displayed the text elements (the system has to refresh the
query in order to display the text elements).
Variables, Filter Values, Conditions, Exceptions:
Depending on the current query definition, additional text elements
(variables, filter values, conditions, and exceptions) may also display.
Text Elements
Figure 28: Inserting Text Elements
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Unit 5: Reporting & Analysis
•
•
•
•
SAPBI
Show how to insert text elements in the BEx Analyzer.
Point out that there is a Web item for displaying texts in a Web
application. This is described in the BEx Web Application Designer unit.
Point out the filter value display from the global filter.
Briefly explain the meaning of the key date for time-dependent master
data and refer the participants to the Query Properties unit.
Publishing the Query on the Web
To publish the query on the Web, save it and choose Display Query on the Web
. The query displays in a standard Web template. You can change the Web
template, if required.
The BW system alway uses the Standard Web Template. Customers can
change that in the IMG if they want to. TASPRO. Choose SAP Reference IMG
→ Business Information Warehouse → Reporting-relevant Settings → Web-Based
Settings → Determine Standard Web Template.
Figure 29: Web Query
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85
Lesson: BEx Query Designer
Exercise 2: Query Designer
Exercise Duration: 20 Minutes
Exercise Objectives
After completing this exercise, you will be able to:
•
Use the BEx Query Designer to create your own queries
•
Change existing queries
•
Open queries in the BEx Analyzer and in a Web browser
Business Example
In order to evaluate the data from an InfoProvider, you require queries that
are tailored to your individual requirements. You have been given the task
of creating these query definitions.
System Data
System:
Client:
User ID:
Password:
Set up instructions:
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Assigned system
800
Assigned user ID
Assigned password
None required
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Task:
In order to use the search function to select queries that they created
themselves, the participants have to enter their own user names as a search
restriction, since they are working on the WTS. On local installations, users
can search using the restriction Created: By Me.
You are interested in finding out the incoming order values and the incoming
order quantities of your customers for specific materials between January and
April 2001. You want to enable the users of your report to select by specific
countries. Create a new query with the following layout:
01.2001 ...
Cal.
Year/Month 04.2001
Country
Sold-to
Party
1000
2000
1.
Material
Incoming Orders Order
Entry
Quantity
Standard
Keyboard
10,000
142
Professional
Keyboard
15,000
156
Result
25,000
298
Carbo
GmbH
20,000
332
Becker
Berlin
Create a new query using the Customer Cube T_SDDEMO4 InfoProvider
in the SAPBI InfoArea with the characteristic Sold-to party (0SOLDTO)
in the rows.
Use the basic key figures Incoming Orders (T_INCORDV) and Order Entry
Quantity (0INCORDQTY) in the columns.
2.
Save the query in your role under:
SAPBI in the Exercise folder with the name:
Description: GR## SAPBI Customer Query 1.
Continued on next page
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Lesson: BEx Query Designer
Technical name: T_SAPBIQ##.
Execute the query, view the results, then close the query results (not
BEx Analyzer).
3.
In the next step, you want to change the query definition. Find the query
you created (GR## SAPBI Customer Query 1) using the search function.
Try out the various criteria for restricting the search. (For example, search
for all queries created by your user, or all query definitions defined
today.) Include the material in the report in order to display the incoming
orders for each material for the customers. You also want to filter the data
globally to only report data for the months 01.2001 to 04.2001.
4.
Enable the users of your report to select data related to specific countries.
Then save and execute the query.
Change the local view of the query to remove the material from the
drilldown and to include the country in the drilldown before sold-to
party to list the sold-to parties by country.
Then change the global definition to restrict the country in the free
characteristics to Norway, for example. Execute the report and make a
note of which sold-to parties are listed in your report.
5.
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Now publish your query on the Web.
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Solution 2: Query Designer
Task:
In order to use the search function to select queries that they created
themselves, the participants have to enter their own user names as a search
restriction, since they are working on the WTS. On local installations, users
can search using the restriction Created: By Me.
You are interested in finding out the incoming order values and the incoming
order quantities of your customers for specific materials between January and
April 2001. You want to enable the users of your report to select by specific
countries. Create a new query with the following layout:
01.2001 ...
Cal.
Year/Month 04.2001
Country
Sold-to
Party
1000
2000
1.
Material
Incoming Orders Order
Entry
Quantity
Standard
Keyboard
10,000
142
Professional
Keyboard
15,000
156
Result
25,000
298
Carbo
GmbH
20,000
332
Becker
Berlin
Create a new query using the Customer Cube T_SDDEMO4 InfoProvider
in the SAPBI InfoArea with the characteristic Sold-to party (0SOLDTO)
in the rows.
Continued on next page
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Lesson: BEx Query Designer
Use the basic key figures Incoming Orders (T_INCORDV) and Order Entry
Quantity (0INCORDQTY) in the columns.
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
2.
To open the BEx Analyzer, choose SAP Menu → Business Explorer →
Analyzer .
Microsoft Excel will be launched in a separate window. In that
window, from the BEx toolbar, choose Open → Queries.
Choose InfoArea BW Training → BW Customer Training → SAPBI to
find the Customer Cube T_SDDEMO4 InfoProvider.
Select that InfoProvider and choose New.
From the Customer dimension, transfer the Sold-to Party (0SOLD_TO)
into the Rows using Drag&Drop.
From the Key Figures folder, transfer Incoming Orders (T_INCORDV)
and Order Entry Quantity (0INCORDQTY) into the Columns using
Drag&Drop.
Save the query in your role under:
SAPBI in the Exercise folder with the name:
Description: GR## SAPBI Customer Query 1.
Technical name: T_SAPBIQ##.
Execute the query, view the results, then close the query results (not
BEx Analyzer).
a)
b)
To save the query, choose Save Query
Choose Roles → SAPBI → Exercise and enter the following
description:
Description: GR## SAPBI Customer Query 1.
Technical name: T_SAPBIQ##.
c)
d)
e)
3.
Choose Save.
Execute the query as a report in the BEx Analyzer by choosing Quit
and Use Query.
View the results, then close the report results without saving them.
Leave the BEx Analyzer open for the next exercise step.
In the next step, you want to change the query definition. Find the query
you created (GR## SAPBI Customer Query 1) using the search function.
Try out the various criteria for restricting the search. (For example, search
for all queries created by your user, or all query definitions defined
Continued on next page
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Unit 5: Reporting & Analysis
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today.) Include the material in the report in order to display the incoming
orders for each material for the customers. You also want to filter the data
globally to only report data for the months 01.2001 to 04.2001.
a)
Choose Open → Queries .
Choose Find
b)
.
Test the various search restrictions. For example, search for:
•
The queries that you defined. Choose
Created: → By User.
Enter your user: SAPBI-##
•
Queries that fall within a specific time interval.
Choose Time Interval: → Today.
•
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)
i)
4.
The technical name of your query. As the Search String:, enter
T_SAPBIQ##
Select the query GR## SAPBI Customer Query 1 from the selection list
.
and choose Change
In the Query Designer, move Material (0MATERIAL) (from the
Material dimension) into the Rows, under the Sold-to party.
Choose Cal. year / month (0CALMONTH) characteristic (from the
Time (T_SDDEM42T) dimension), and place it into the Filter using
Drag&Drop.
From the context menu for Cal year / month, choose Restrict .
In the selection screen, choose Value Range then Between.
Select 01.2001 and 04.2001, and transfer the selection using the
Arrow button.
Choose OK.
Enable the users of your report to select data related to specific countries.
Then save and execute the query.
Change the local view of the query to remove the material from the
drilldown and to include the country in the drilldown before sold-to
party to list the sold-to parties by country.
Continued on next page
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Lesson: BEx Query Designer
Then change the global definition to restrict the country in the free
characteristics to Norway, for example. Execute the report and make a
note of which sold-to parties are listed in your report.
a)
b)
From the Customer dimension, transfer the Country
(0SOLD_TO__COUNTRY) into the Free Characteristics area using
Drag&Drop.
Save the query and then execute it.
c)
Choose Change Query
.
Choose Change Query (Local View).
d)
e)
f)
Use Drag&Drop to transfer Material into the Free Characteristics and
Country from the free characteristics into the Rows.
In the Rows, drag Sold-to Party below Country.
Choose Quit and Use Query to view the results.
g)
Choose Change Query
.
Choose Change Query (Global Definition).
h)
i)
5.
Now publish your query on the Web.
a)
b)
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From the context menu for Country, choose Restrict. In the selection
screen, choose Single Values. Select Norway and adopt the selection
using the Arrow button. Choose OK.
Choose Quit and Use Query to save and execute the query. Only those
sold-to parties for the country in the filter are listed. Restricting the
free characteristics effects the entire query.
From the BEx toolbar, choose Tools → Launch in Web browser →
Query (default view).
When prompted, log on with your assigned user ID and password.
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Lesson Summary
You should now be able to:
•
Describe the functions of the BEx Query Designer
•
Define your own queries and modify these when necessary
•
Publish reports for analysis in the BEx Analyzer and on the Web
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Lesson:
93
Lesson: BEx Web Application Designer
BEx Web Application Designer
Lesson Duration: 40 Minutes
Lesson Overview
This lesson gives an overview of the Web framework of the Web Application
Designer and the general settings for Web templates.
Lesson Objectives
After completing this lesson, you will be able to:
•
•
•
Explain the meaning of the different work areas in the Web Application
Designer (Web items, template, and properties)
Open and move the work areas
Make general settings for a Web template
In this lesson, the participants are introduced to the basic functions of the Web
Application Designer. They learn how to set up the work areas according to
their requirements and how to define general settings for Web templates.
Describe the meaning of the Web Application Designer as one of the tools of
the Business Explorer. If necessary, discuss with the participants which areas
in an enterprise use Web applications and the target groups at which they are
aimed. Describe the options for using Web applications (access from a Web
browser, portal, mobile device).
Explain the difference and the relation between Web item, Web application,
and Web template:
•
•
•
A Web item is an element that refers to data from a data provider (query
or stored query view), available in different forms (for example, in the
form of a table, a chart, a ticker, a map).
A Web template is an HTML document, in which you determine the
structure of a Web application and which contains placeholders for the
individual Web items, data providers and command URLs.
A Web application is the HTML page executed in the Web browser.
Business Example
Your enterprise needs to display query results on the Web using SAP BW.
Your task is to include queries and query views in Web templates. The results
need to be available not only in tabular form for reporting, but also in different
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charts, on maps, in a ticker, and so on. In order to create this kind of Web
application, you need a basic knowledge of the structure and functions of the
Web Application Designer.
BEx Web Application Designer
A default template exists in SAP BW for reports that are presented in a Web
browser. A navigation block is available in the filter area of the report. You
can use this function to change the way that data is displayed. Data appears in
the results area in the form of a table. In addition, a toolbar is available that
offers you various options such as displaying data in the form of a graph.
The BEx Web Application Designer is a desktop application for generating your
own Web Applications, different from the default model described above.
You are able to generate your own Web templates incorporating, for example,
various tables, graphics or maps.
You will find detailled information on the components and functionality of the
Business Explorers (BEx) in the Online documentation at http://help.sap.com
SAP NetWeaver → Release ’04→ English → Information Integration→ SAP
Business Intelligence → BI Suite → BEx Web → Web Application Design: BEx Web
Application Designer.
Figure 30: Web Application Designer
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Lesson: BEx Web Application Designer
Web Application
The Web Application is the Web page executed in the browser. The starting
point for this forms the Web template.
Web Template
Web Templates allow you to design the layout of your Web applications on
an individual basis. You determine the structure of the Web Application in
a Web Template. This will be the case if you want to display data in a way
that differs from the standard SAP template. For example, where you want to
allow your end-users to navigate, not using a generic navigation block, but using
checkboxes or a dropdown box. Furthermore, you want the data to be presented
not in the form of a table, but as a bar chart.
Web Items
Figure 31: Drag&Drop in WAD
Web Items serve to present the data that is to be evaluated in various ways
(tables, graphics, maps, ticker,, and so on), and offer various ways of accessing
it (generic navigation block, radio buttons, checkboxes, Alert Monitor, role menu,
and so on). They are dragged into an editor provided for this purpose
using Drag&Drop, modified according to specifications, and stored as a
Web Template.
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Figure 32: Web Application, Web Template and Web Items
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Lesson: BEx Web Application Designer
Facilitated Discussion
Understanding the difference and relationship between Web Application,
Web Template and Web Items
Discussion Questions
Use the following questions to engage the participants in the discussion.Feel
free to use your own additional questions.
What is the difference between above SAP BW web reporting objects?
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Lesson Summary
You should now be able to:
•
Explain the meaning of the different work areas in the Web Application
Designer (Web items, template, and properties)
•
Open and move the work areas
•
Make general settings for a Web template
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Unit Summary
Unit Summary
You should now be able to:
•
Start your reports from the Business Explorer Browser
•
Organize your workbooks and links with the BEx Browser and set up
access to individual roles
•
Outline the functions of the BEx Browser on the Web
•
Describe the functions of the BEx Query Designer
•
Define your own queries and modify these when necessary
•
Publish reports for analysis in the BEx Analyzer and on the Web
•
Explain the meaning of the different work areas in the Web Application
Designer (Web items, template, and properties)
•
Open and move the work areas
•
Make general settings for a Web template
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Unit 6
Business Content
99
In the Business Content unit, participants are given an overview of the
information model as well as the delivered objects. They also become familiar
with technical concepts, such as the activation of Business Content for
example.
Emphasize the advantages provided by Business Content.
If you want to use objects from Business Content in a demonstration, check
the activation status of these objects beforehand.
The second lesson looks at a specialized area of Business Content more closely,
that of BW Statistics.
Unit Overview
In the first lesson of this unit, you get to know the components of Business
Content and its applications.
The second lesson looks at how a sub-area of Business Content (called
Technical Content) and BW Statistics contained within it, can be used to
display detailed performance information in the BW system.
Unit Objectives
After completing this unit, you will be able to:
•
•
•
•
•
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Describe the Business Content components and their advantages.
Describe the role-based and industry-based evolution of Business
Content.
Explain the meaning of DemoContent.
Describe the contents of Technical Content
Explain the uses of Technical Content with examples.
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Unit Contents
Lesson: Business Content (BCT) ................................................. 119
Lesson: Technical Content: BW Statistics....................................... 129
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Lesson:
100
Lesson: Business Content (BCT)
Business Content (BCT)
Lesson Duration: 45 Minutes
Lesson Overview
This lesson gives a general overview of Business Content. First, the
motivation, aim, and structure of Business Content will be explained in order
to give specific information about the contents. Ultimately, the activation of
individual object in Business Content will be explained. The lession concludes
with an introduction to the DemoContents delivered by SAP and the new
features with BW Release 3.0.
Lesson Objectives
After completing this lesson, you will be able to:
•
•
•
Describe the Business Content components and their advantages.
Describe the role-based and industry-based evolution of Business
Content.
Explain the meaning of DemoContent.
This chapter informs participants about the contents of Business Content and
its technical activation. Since the activation of Content takes a large amount of
time, the demo (see explanation in text) should be prepared during the break
and no online activation should be run during the demo.
The new functions for 3.0 are very specific. For more detailed information, see
the online documentation or refer to the BW page at www.service.sap.com/bw.
Business Example
Your company wants to structure their BW according to the analysis of
reporting requests and the creation of the data model. Your task is to now
examine the Business Content to see which standard Content objects can be
used for the data warehouse as well as which additional, customer-specific
settings have to be implemented.
Motivation and Contents of Business Content
With Business Content, SAP offers a predefined information model that helps
to control and optimize the individual process areas both within as well as
outside of the company. It collects and structures information and prepares
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it for further use. In doing so, Business Content is based on an information
model that is preconfigured and based on roles and tasks stemming from
consistent metadata.
Business Content consists of the following objects:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
SAP and non-SAP extractors
DataSources (extraction structures)
InfoObjects
InfoSources
InfoProviders (for example, InfoCubes and ODS objects)
Queries / Workbooks
Templates (⇒ Web-based reporting)
Roles
Business Content can do the following:
•
•
•
Be used without any adjustments
Be adjusted by means of enhancements
Serve as a template for customer-specific objects
Furthermore, sample data, InfoCubes, and reports are provided with SAP BW
that can be used as illustrative material.
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Lesson: Business Content (BCT)
Using Business Content
Business Content has enormous potential for saving costs and time during use.
•
•
•
•
•
All of the technical and content-related prerequisites necessary for
connecting to SAP and non-SAP systems exist and, because of this,
significantly shorten the implementation process.
Business Content is currently enhanced in SAP work groups in close
cooperation with the customers.
InfoCubes for data storage and analyses are already optimized regarding
performance.
Predefined analyses and reports can be used as examples and prototypes
of content in projects. However, they can also be used as actively used
Content. When using prototyping help, the user is already working early
on with the complete SAP BW solution and can correspondingly specify
which information is still missing for the project configuration.
With its professional tools, SAP BW offers a beneficial and reliable
solution that features self-monitoring (technical content), the controlled
release of Content updates (administration of releases and versions), as
well as high quality and consistency.
Technical Business Content Structure
Business Content contains a range of objects that simplify the implementation
of a BW system and speed up the construction of an effective reporting system.
In doing so, Business Content is hierarchically built like the object types in
the Business Information Warehouse. You can make selections on every
level when transferring Business Content. In this way you can generate each
item individually or all items that are dependent on each other -- from roles,
queries, and workbooks for InfoCubes and ODS objects to InfoObjects and
InfoSources.
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Figure 33: Business Content Development
In the example of the “Regional Sales Manger” role, the contents of Business
Content need to be made clear:
Figure 34: Example: Regional Sales Manager
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Lesson: Business Content (BCT)
A regional sales manager needs access to a broad spectrum of information to
enable him or her to make effective decisions. A Business Content role brings
this data together in the form of queries and workbooks containing exactly
the type of information the sales manager needs.
Content-Related Business Content Structure
The contents of Business Content are structured according to applications
as well as industries. These include:
(a) application-specific Content
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Customer Relationship Management
Supplier Relationship Mangement
Supply Chain Management
Product Lifecycle Management
Financials
Human Resources
Exchanges
(b) industry-specific Content
Figure 35: Industry-Specific Content
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Furthermore, industry-specific processes, key figures, and roles are part of
Business Content. For example, these include:
Industry Solutions
Aerospace & Defense
Apparel and Footwear
Automotive
Chemicals
Consumer Products
Distributor Reseller Management
Healthcare
Insurance
Media
PharmaceuticalsOil & Gas
Public Sector
Retail
Real Estate
Other Areas of Business Content
Metadata Repository
By choosing SAP Menu → Modeling → Administrator Workbench: Metadata
Repository , you arrive in the metadata repository. A complete overview of
the Business Content delivered by SAP is displayed here. Furthermore, you
can learn more about this function and which Content objects are activated
in the current system.
Data Flow Graphics
The data source and data flow are of interest when dealing with
cross-application analyses. By using the Data Flow function in the metadata
repository, the data flow can be graphically supported from the data source
all the way to the data target for each object (that was previously selected).
Included in this are roles, InfoCubes, queries, and workbooks.
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Lesson: Business Content (BCT)
DemoContent
With SAP DemoContent, sample data is also delivered in addition to Business
Content metadata. In doing so, complete demonstration scenarios can be
shown quickly from different lines of business, and exposure to the Business
Information Warehouse can be gained.
Since the SAP DemoContent is designed especially for demonstrations,
it is preoccupied with its own namespace. The technical names for all of
the DemoContent objects begin with 0D_. That way they are completely
independent of the Content of the company as they are also not suited for
productive use. However, you can use them as templates for later creation.
SAP DemoContent offers you a demonstration scenario that can be activated
in just a few steps. To transfer a specific object from SAP DemoContent, choose
under the object type InfoCubes → SAP Demo uand select the DemoContent
objects you want to transfer.
The following DemoCubes are delivered:
•
•
•
DemoCube for Purchasing
DemoCube for Profitability Analysis (CO_PA)
DemoCube for Sales
You can find additional information in the SAP BW online documentation.
Analytical Applications
Business Content was enhanced for Release 3.0 with regard to analytical
applications:
Analytical applications measure and optimize business processes based on an
integrated data basis. They add existing raw data to a surplus value, because a
treatment option has already been planned across all systems and applications.
They always refer to a process and measure the success of this process.
Analytical applications collect data, transform them into information, add
intelligent algorithms to them, and support the execution of the necessary
steps in the system. Here are some examples of analytical applications from
Business Content for CRM:
•
•
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Optimization of campaigns ⇒ Evaluations of current and past campaigns
Analyses of customer relationships
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Integration of Dun & Bradstreet (D&B)
D&B is one of today’s leading suppliers of external market data. The available
data consists of information about companies and structural information
about corporate groups and groups of businesses (the "family tree" of a
company), and is proven to be a valuable company tool both for marketing as
well as for purchasing. The following are the goals of integrating D&B data:
•
•
•
•
Connecting operating sales data with marketing data
Identifying new, key customers
Determining new markets
Benchmarking within the industrial area
Figure 36: Architecture of market exploration
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Lesson: Business Content (BCT)
Facilitated Discussion
This lesson gives participants an overview of the delivered objects, the
Content model, and its benefits.
In the discussion, bring together the most important aspects once more. You
can use the following questions as a guide:
Discussion Questions
Use the following questions to engage the participants in the discussion.Feel
free to use your own additional questions.
1.
2.
3.
4.
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Which objects are delivered with Business Content?
Can you change Business Content objects?
What advantages does Business Content offer?
How do you activate Business Content?
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Lesson Summary
You should now be able to:
•
Describe the Business Content components and their advantages.
•
Describe the role-based and industry-based evolution of Business
Content.
•
Explain the meaning of DemoContent.
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Lesson:
109
Lesson: Technical Content: BW Statistics
Technical Content: BW Statistics
Lesson Duration: 30 Minutes
Lesson Overview
This lesson begins by looking at the contents of Technical Content and then
explains, by way of an example, how this data can be applied. An example is
also used to illustrate how Technical Content is used with BW Statistics.
Lesson Objectives
After completing this lesson, you will be able to:
•
•
Describe the contents of Technical Content
Explain the uses of Technical Content with examples.
This unit describes the technical structure and motivation of BW Statistics as a
part of Technical Content. It uses several examples to illustrate the ways in
which it can be used.
Business Example
Your organization works productively with BW. You want to get an overview
of how the system is used, the volume of data and the resources consumed.
You also need contant updates on how the system response time changes
over time
Technical Content: Content and Motivation
Technical Content comprises several sub-areas. The following sub-areas are
delivered:
1.
2.
BW Statistics
BW Data Slice
The BW Statistics sub-area is the most important of the two.
BW Statistics
BW Statistics is a tool for the analysis and optimization of Business
Information Warehouse processes. The constant increase in the volume of
data and the change in structure not only comes from the BW’s structure, but
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also from its subsequent use. In addition, there are also the newly created or
ad-hoc queries that change access to data as a whole. This influences not only
the runtime for new data, but also the time needed to execute queries.
BW Statistics provides a tool that enables you to get an overview of the BW
load and analysis processes and to carry out any technical changes to the
system where these are required.
The following objects can be analyzed:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Roles
SAP BW users
Aggregates
Queries
InfoCubes
InfoSources
ODS
DataSources
InfoObjects
A user needs to be able to evaluate data not only from the OLAP processer
area but also from Warehouse Management. BW Statistics provides a range
of options enabling you to:
•
•
•
Get an overview of the use of analysis objects
View system performance and improve it
Improve the selection and use of aggregates and, at the same time, reduce
the effort involved in updating them.
BW Statistics data is stored in the Business Information Warehouse. This
information is provided by a MultiProvider (0BWTC_C10), which is based
on several BW BasisCubes.
The content of the BasisCubes is explained in the following section using
examples:
BW Statistics: Workbook
In addition to the InfoCube 0BWTC_C01 and the InfoObjects belonging to it,
the ’BW Statistics’ workbook (including queries and charts) is also delivered
with Technical Content.
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Lesson: Technical Content: BW Statistics
Figure 37: BW Statistics: Workbook
The overview of the charts and queries (tables) in the Business Information
Warehouse BW Statistics is grouped by subject-oriented aggregates, OLAP
processor (OLAP), and Warehouse Management (WHM).
Reports that cover two subject areas are displayed between the headers.
The gray pushbuttons represent queries (tables) and the blue pushbuttons
represent charts. You use the pushbuttons to call up the query or chart directly.
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Figure 38: BW Statistics: Workbooks - Examples
In this analysis, the total times taken to execute all queries (red area) and the
records that are read in the queries (blue horizontal bars) are broken down
according to calendar day. Both the absolute values and how the number of
records differs over time have changed considerably in the specified time
period. The two Sundays (1.11 and 8.11) stand out in particular. No data is
highlighted because of the low level of usage.
If this kind of chart shows a considerable increase in time compared to the
number of records, it could be an indication that the database BW statistics
(refer to the Adiminstration of InfoCubes) may be obsolete for certain
InfoCubes (meaning the tables in the InfoCubes), the aggregates or index
tables may not be optimally defined. Drilldown in the corresponding table in
the BW Statistics workbook to identify one or more InfoCube(s) involved, and
carry out the necessary technical improvements.
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Lesson: Technical Content: BW Statistics
Facilitated Discussion
Summarize the most important technical elements of BW Statistics in your
discussion.
Discussion Questions
Use the following questions to engage the participants in the discussion.Feel
free to use your own additional questions.
What are the benefits of the Business Content?
How is the Business Content organized/ classified?
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Lesson Summary
You should now be able to:
•
Describe the contents of Technical Content
•
Explain the uses of Technical Content with examples.
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Unit Summary
Unit Summary
You should now be able to:
•
Describe the Business Content components and their advantages.
•
Describe the role-based and industry-based evolution of Business
Content.
•
Explain the meaning of DemoContent.
•
Describe the contents of Technical Content
•
Explain the uses of Technical Content with examples.
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Unit Summary
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Unit 7
Outlook SAP Business Information
Warehouse 3.5
115
Just give a rough overview of the new features. Dońt go into details. In
addition and if more questions occur show the feature list and presentation on
the SAP Service Marketplace http://service.sap.com/bw.
Unit Overview
After getting to know the principles, architecture and objects of a SAPBW
sytsem you are interested in the new features of SAPBW 3.5.
Unit Objectives
After completing this unit, you will be able to:
•
•
•
Name new reporting functionalities
Name new warehouse management features
Name new extraction interfaces
Unit Contents
Lesson: SAP Business Information Warehouse 3.5 ........................... 138
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Unit 7: Outlook SAP Business Information Warehouse 3.5
Lesson:
116
SAPBI
SAP Business Information Warehouse 3.5
Lesson Duration: 10 Minutes
Lesson Overview
In this lesson you get an overview of new features of SAPBW 3.5
Lesson Objectives
After completing this lesson, you will be able to:
•
•
•
Name new reporting functionalities
Name new warehouse management features
Name new extraction interfaces
Just give a rough overview of the new features. Don’t go into details. In
addition and if more questions occur show the feature list and presentation on
the SAP Service Marketplace http://service.sap.com/bw.
Business Example
After getting to know the principles, architecture and objects of a SAPBW
sytsem you are interested in the new features of SAPBW 3.5.
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Lesson: SAP Business Information Warehouse 3.5
Overall Picture SAPBW 3.5
Figure 39: Overall Picture SAPBW3.5
Information Broadcasting via Business Explorer (BEx)
Broadcaster
•
•
•
•
•
•
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Share and disseminate insights to support decision-making processes
Access the complete BI information portfolio via the SAP Enterprise
Portal (SAP EP 6.0)
Single, web-based wizard to broadcast personalized BI information
portfolios to various end-users (pre-calculated for optimized query
response time)
Leverages SAP NetWeaver Knowledge Management features such as
subscription, feedback, discussion, collaboration, rating, enterprise
search, etc.
Offers broadcasting services such as different scheduling options (ad-hoc,
based on data loads, time scheduling), pre-calculation of queries and
workbooks, sending pre-calculated queries and web templates as email
attachments
Based on the Java Repository Manager, all SAP BW metadata,
master data, and transactional documents, as well as pre-calculated
queries/templates for KM Services are enabled.
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Figure 40: Information Boradcasting
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Lesson: SAP Business Information Warehouse 3.5
Universal Data Integration
The new Universal Data Integration significantly extends SAP BW data access
capabilities to diverse data sources.
•
BI Java Connectors
Several hundred of connectors provide access to all data sources that
support JDBC, XMLA, OLE DB for OLAP and SAP Query
•
UDConnect (Universal Data Connect)
Out-of-the-box connectivity for additional data sources that can be
accessed by the BI Java Connectors. UDConnect supports staging and
remote scenarios to this data.
–
•
For instance, extraction from /remote access to a relational database
via JDBC or extraction from /remote access to an OLAP source using
OLE DB for OLAP, and extraction from an OLAP source using XML
for Analysis.
BI Java Software Development Kit (BI Java SDK) for custom-built Java
Applications accessing SAP BW or non-SAP BW data via the BI Java
Connectors
–
–
Easy to use and learn
Based on open and accepted standards for interoperability
Embedded BI - Integration into SAP NetWeaver
Web Application Server:
Integration with new Internet Graphics Server (IGS) and WAS Alert
Framework
•
•
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Connecting BI alert framework to the SAP NetWeaver alert repository to
streamline alert message processing
Platform independence for graphical rendering (charts, maps),
improved usability and new chart designer in BEx Web Application
DesignerInbound Message Processing
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Integration with SAP Exchange Infrastructure (SAP XI) to support real-time
data acquisition
•
•
The data warehouse and/or operational data store is simply another
subscriber to the real-time data being distributed by the Integration
Broker
Data is active, event-driven that’s available to the Business Intelligence
system in “real time”
Reporting on harmonized master data:
Integration with SAP Master Data Management (MDM) helps to improve
the quality of decisions made
•
•
Create consolidated views on customers, vendors and products
Enhance master data with global attributes for company-wide analysis
(i.e. spend analysis)
BI Web Services:
The following BI web services can be accessed via open standards
•
•
XML Data Load, XML for Analysis, XML Query Result Set
Leveraging the Web Application Server 6.40 technology infrastructure
Seamless deployment of BI web applications:
•
•
•
into SAP Enterprise Portal roles for instant information delivery
into SAP Enterprise Portal collaboration rooms
into SAP Enterprise Portal KM folders
–
–
142
Allows to search through BI applications in the context of
unstructured information
Gains improved query response times through cached application
retrieval
© 2004 SAP AG. All rights reserved.
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SAPBI
Lesson: SAP Business Information Warehouse 3.5
Figure 41: PortaI Integration
BI Platform Enhancements
BI Web Services for data acquisition, reporting, and analyisis (XMLA) and BW
Query XML Result Sets as Web Services (enable output of BW Query into
XML for further processing).
The Analysis Process Designer is a graphical tool for modelling multilevel
analyses processes. This includes dataselection, preparation (e.g. filtering,
sorting...) and transformation (e.g. data mining, regression, ...) of selected
data with storage capabilities.
Planning and Simulation (BW-BPS)
With release SAP BW 3.5, SAP will deliver planning through the integrated
capabilities of BW-BPS (formerly known as SEM-BPS). This brings together
planning, budgeting, and forecasting with monitoring, reporting, and analysis,
bundled into one software installation and one support package cycle.
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BW-BPS helps you to plan, budget, and forecast by providing functions such
as:
•
•
•
•
144
Top-down planning and bottom-up contribution with a rich set of
planning functions
A planning framework that lets you create and maintain planning models
An user interface for manual planning and analysis
Tools for process control (i.e. status tracking and monitoring)
© 2004 SAP AG. All rights reserved.
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SAPBI
Lesson: SAP Business Information Warehouse 3.5
Facilitated Discussion
New features SAP BW3.5
Discussion Questions
Use the following questions to engage the participants in the discussion.Feel
free to use your own additional questions.
If there are students who want to get more information about SAPBW 3.5 refer
to SAP Service Marketplace alias /bw
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Lesson Summary
You should now be able to:
•
Name new reporting functionalities
•
Name new warehouse management features
•
Name new extraction interfaces
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Unit Summary
Unit Summary
You should now be able to:
•
Name new reporting functionalities
•
Name new warehouse management features
•
Name new extraction interfaces
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Course Summary
SAPBI
Course Summary
You should now be able to:
•
•
•
•
148
Navigate in the Metadata Repository of SAP BW
Name the various InfoProviders of SAP BW
Use basic functions of the Business Explorer components for reporting
requirements
Gather information about SAP Business Content and describe its
advantages
© 2004 SAP AG. All rights reserved.
17-08-2004
Index
B
(Basic-) InfoCube, 41
BEx Analyzer Reports
Text Elements in BEx
Analyzer Reports, 98
BEx Browser, 69
BEx Browser
administration, 73
BEx Browser functions,
71
BEx Browser on Web, 74
BEx Query Designer
BEx Query Designer
Functions, 83
D
DataSource, 42
I
InfoProvider, 40
Information Integration, 2
InfoSource, 42
O
Operational Data Store
(ODS), 41
Q
Query
Changing a Query, 93
Creating a Query, 86
Search for Queries, 92
S
SAP Business Information
Warehouse (SAP BW), 3
SAP Business Intelligence, 2
SAP NetWeaver, 2
InfoObject, 39
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Index
150
SAPBI
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Feedback
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accuracy and completeness of the materials. If you have any corrections or
suggestions for improvement, please record them in the appropriate place in
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