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USH.2.1 Identify the factors necessary for
industrialization
USH.2.1 Describe economic developments that
transformed the United States into a major
industrial power.
USH.2.2 Identify key ideas, movements, and
inventions and explain their impact on rural
communities and urban communities in the
United States
USH 2.3-2.7; and many more
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The process of social and economic change that
transforms a human group from a pre-industrial
society into an industrial one.
Developed country means an industrialized
country
Developing country means a traditional country;
trying to change to an industrialized country
Fundamental changes:
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Daily lives are change: family, work, etc.
Politics change
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“Gilded Age”
4 main changes/factors:
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Technology
Innovation
Resources
Organization
Not every American was happy with the change
Every aspect of American culture and politics were
changed
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Moving from rural to urban
Farm living to city living
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Social Darwinism:
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Herbert Spenser:
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“survival of the fittest”
Do not intervene with poverty
William Graham Sumner:
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Applied Social Darwinism
Wrote: “What the Social Classes owe to Each
other” (1883)
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He says they owe nothing to each other
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Social Darwinism
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Andrew Carnegie:
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Came from poor Scottish to America
Wrote “Gospel of Wealth”
Owned 2/3 of steel (named U.S. Steel)
Gave $350 million away
Built many libraries for children
Horatio Alger:
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Books on how to change from poverty to rich
successful people
“From Farm Boy to Senator”
“Ragged Dick”
Andrew Carnegie
U.S. Steel Company
Owner
Horatio Alger
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Protestant Work Ethic
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Hard working is morally good
Wealth is morally good
Poverty is morally wrong
Everything determined by you
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Elisha Otis
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Alexander Graham Bell
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Telephone (1876)
Thomas Edison (1847-1931)
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Safety Elevator (1852)
Electricity-light bulb (1880)
Granville Woods
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African American inventor
Steam Boiler Furnace (1884)
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Guglielmo Marconi
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Wireless telegraph (1896)
1850s: English Henry Bessemer
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Developed Bessemer Process:
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Process of purifying iron, resulting in strong, but
lightweight steel
America quickly adopts the process
1890-U.S. outproducing Great Britain with steel
manufacturing.
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Suspension Bridges created from the creation of
steel
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Brooklyn Bridge (1883 completed)
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1st suspension bridge suspended by steel cables
Transportation innovations
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George Westinghouse created air brakes for trains
in 1869
Gustavus Swift developed refrigerated cars for
carrying food on trains in 1887
1883-three transcontinental railroad lines were
created
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Gilded Age Presidents
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Rutherford B. Hayes:
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James Garfield
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Put down a railroad strike in 1877 by killing 70
workers with the federal army
July 2-shot in arm
Sept.-died from infection
Handed out many jobs
Chester Arthur
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Fair to both political parties
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Gilded Age Presidents
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Grover Cleveland
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Benjamin Harrison
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Vetoed almost everything that came across his
desk
Cheated the election
Lost popular vote but won electorial vote-2nd to
occur
Grover Cleveland
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Only President to run two separate terms
Blamed for the 1893 Depression
Labor Party was his biggest supporter (Populist)
President
Benjamin
Harrison
William Henry
Harrison’s son
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Congress
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Created Veterans Benefits
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1st time vets received benefits
Given to only white and black union vets
Tariffs:
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Tax imports
Protect American industry
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Meat packed with much harmful additives inside
package
Upton Sinclair: The Jungle
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Spoke on meat packing
Conditions of the work
Meat was dropped on the floor, sneezed on,
coughed on, and still went through
Pg 220
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Urban places overcrowded
Most families live with more than one family in a
tenements
1879: windows had to be in every room
Trash was thrown out of the window in the street
Work 12, 14, or even 16 hrs. a day
Apartments (tenements) had no plumbing and no
sewage
Water shortage
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Factory work became a very popular way to earn
money
Sweatshops are factories that are hot, dark, and
dirty workhouses with workers working 12 hr
shifts.
Factory work was very dangerous and locked in
No OSHA
Workers were killed regularly
Workers had very few breaks
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Knights of Labor founded 1869 by Uriah Stephens
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Recruited African Americans regularly
1881: Terence V. Powderly became leader of the
Knights
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Said that everyone are welcome except Chinese
They oppose wage labor
American Federal of Labor (AFL) founded 1886 by
Samuel Gompers
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Only let skilled workers in
They had strikes, but no political reforms
Knights of Labor
American Federal
of Labor
Symbol
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Push Factors:
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Religious persecution for Russians and Eastern
European Jews
Wanted to have a new start
Land reform and low prices forced many farmers
off their land in Mexico, Poland, and China
Pull Factors:
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Plentiful land offered
Jobs needed
Political Freedom
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East Coast:
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Ellis Island
Before 1880: European immigrants that could
assimilate into American culture easily
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Germans
Scandinavians
Irish
After 1880: European immigrants having a harder
time assimilating mostly because they were
poverty
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Jews, Slaves (Polish, Bulgarians, etc), and Italians
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West Coast
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Angel Island
All come after 1880
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Chinese
Mexicans
Japanese
Etc.
Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882-1943 told them no
more Chinese come into America
Most of the Chinese workers worked on the
transcontinental railroad
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European Immigrants:
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Irish were considered the European Blacks
Italians were lynched and killed
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New Orleans (1891)
Jews were never really liked by anyone
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Leo Frank (1913)
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Asian Immigrants:
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Chinese were told by the Supreme Court that they
were not of the Caucasian race
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Indians thought that they were of the right race
and was told no
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In re ah Yup 1876
U.S. vs. Bhagat Singh Thind 1923
Japanese believed they were of the Caucasian race
and did not gain citizenship
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Owaza vs. U.S. 1922
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Amusement Parks
Outdoor activities
Musical dramas
Movie theaters
Sports: Baseball, horse racing, bike racing, boxing,
football, etc.
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Rose out of a falling economy (deflation)
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Ex: corn falls 43%
Wheat falls 50%
Farmers organize
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The Grange (1867) by Oliver H. Kelley
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“Patron of Husbandry”
Created by people who raise livestock and
agriculture
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Farmers organize
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Farmer's Alliances (1876) started in Texas
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Active in 48 states when started
Wanted to get the government to work with them
Populist Party (1892): “People's Party”
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Wanted to build a new federal government from
the ground up
Omaha Platform: adopted views in July 1892
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Unlimited coinage of silver
Graduated income tax
Government ownership of railroad and
telegraph companies
Bank regulations
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William McKinley vs. William Jennings Bryan
Populist party gave Bryan their support
“Cross of Gold” speech
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“You shall not press down upon the brow of labor
this crown of thorns, you shall not crucify man
upon a cross of gold.”
Bryan went all out on election: first tour of the
nation as a presidential candidate, speak directly
to people, and many other things.
William McKinley won election with 271 electoral
votes while Bryan had only 176
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