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Institutional self-organization of
Russian society:
vector of evolution
Svetlana Kirdina, Doctor of Sociology
Institute of Economics, Russian Academy of Sciences
Main ideas
The goal - quantification analysis of the
development trends in the evolution of the
Russian society.
 The subject of analysis - the institutions
being formed in the society.
 The method - the empirical research on
the corpus of federal laws and acts in
modern Russia

ESA 8th Conference, Glasgow,
September 3-6, 2007
2
Self-organization of society?
Karl Marx said ”people create their own
history themselves”. That is people
organize the society according to their
understanding, views and potentials.
 Emil Durkheim postulated that societies
are “realities with the nature, which is
imposed to us, which can change like all
natural phenomena according to their own
(managed by themselves) laws”.

ESA 8th Conference, Glasgow,
September 3-6, 2007
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Our approach




the societies are considered as self-organized
evolutionary structures. Their goal is the
reproduction of social life in the environment.
Self-organization mechanism is reflected in
institutional structures, that is historically formed
by people constant rules of social interrelations.
One of the manifestations of such selforganization mechanism, that is institutions
structure, are enacted laws.
Quantification analysis of enacted laws allow us
to estimate the vector of institutional changes.
ESA 8th Conference, Glasgow,
September 3-6, 2007
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Two main source of information


The State Duma (Parliament) of the
Russian Federation open database of the
introduced acts and bills enacted from
1994 up to nowadays (2006).
The special data base Consultant+ with
law passing dates and the final texts of
federal laws.
ESA 8th Conference, Glasgow,
September 3-6, 2007
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Distribution of federal laws
according to spheres of regulation
1.
Economy and finance (segments of economy, state
regulation, implementation of new economic forms, structural
reforming, state property, bonds, stock-shares, taxes, collections,
labor regulation, wages and salaries etc.);
2. Politics and state structure (administrative, territorial and
state structure, political parties, deputies of all levels of legislation
powers, non-government and not-for-profit organizations, public
unions, elections, administrative governance, federal, regional and
municipal executive power bodies, judicial system, prosecutors
office, citizens’ appeals, decision making procedures, RF
Constitution, RF President, citizens’ rights and freedoms, state
symbols, mass-media etc.);
3.
Codes (Criminal code, Civil code, Criminal-procedural code,
Administrative code, Arbitrary code etc.);
4. Other laws (international agreements ratifications, territorial
naming, ecology, military service etc.)
ESA 8th Conference, Glasgow,
September 3-6, 2007
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The methodological pitfalls
 Federal acts are only a part of legal environment along with


orders of the Russian government , federal programs and
regional legislation as well. Nevertheless the federal acts
analysis enable us to evaluate the main vector of institutional
changes on macro-level.
“Laws are not always stayed within”. However they express
consensus of main political and economic forces in the
regulated area. That is why the enacted laws are the indicators
of actual social behavior of main actors.
A period of analysis from 1994 up to 2006 is not enough to
grasp long-term effects of changing legislation influence on the
parameters of social and economic growth. Nevertheless in the
transition countries changes are performed much faster.
ESA 8th Conference, Glasgow,
September 3-6, 2007
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Some results of the preliminary
legislation analysis (1)

There is a difference in the terms of laws
enaction introduced by different actors. As
a rule, the laws introduced by the
President are enacted faster than others.
The laws introduced by the deputies or
regional legislative bodies are discussed
longer in the State Duma before they are
enacted. This tendency has become more
vivid since 2002 (Table 1)
ESA 8th Conference, Glasgow,
September 3-6, 2007
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Table 1. The average term of enacting of federal laws
initiated by different actors from bill to act, days
Average a
year
President
Government
Deputies and
FC members
Regional
bodies
Courts
1996
198
169
212
193
253
X
1997
247
210
203
346
302
453
1998
307
253
270
371
389
173
1999
339
282
251
446
294
337
2000
353
322
345
319
539
504
2001
368
316
345
392
568
410
2002
360
240
254
451
484
818
2003
317
229
297
361
495
X
2004
323
227
313
335
475
240
2005
314
207
413
233
418
226
2006
257
73
197
257
582
341
Average a period
314
218
286
341
436
269
ESA 8th Conference, Glasgow,
September 3-6, 2007
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Some results of the preliminary
legislation analysis (2)
The average term from bill to act is
decreasing permanently since 2001 (368
days in average) up to 2006 (314 days)
 The reduction of time-frame of law
enactions implicitly shows that the political
consensus between legislative and
executive branches is being formed in the
Russia Federation

ESA 8th Conference, Glasgow,
September 3-6, 2007
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Some results of the preliminary
legislation analysis (3)
At present legislation changes have
modernizing rather than revolutionary
character. It is evident from the proportion
of new laws and amended existing laws:
In 1990th the law on implementation on
new forms of economical political life were
adopted more often. However their
percentage is decreasing after 2000
(Table 2).
ESA 8th Conference, Glasgow,
September 3-6, 2007
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Table 2. The share of new federal laws in total
number of enacted new laws and amendments, %
Average a
year
President
Government
Deputies and FC
members
Regional
bodies
Courts
1995
94,1
100
100
88,9
100
X
1996
68,5
95,4
71,0
51,1
100
X
1997
62,1
84,0
69,4
26,1
33,3
50
1998
63,3
91,7
72,0
46,5
25,0
66,7
1999
52,7
86,4
64,1
35,9
30,0
50,0
2000
57,9
82,6
70,4
14,3
57,1
X
2001
44,9
80,0
56,5
22,2
0
100,0
2002
49,5
82,3
52,9
20,9
33,3
100,0
2003
36,8
62,1
42,8
13,0
58,3
X
2004
32,4
77,8
46,6
12,2
18,7
20,0
2005
29,1
65,4
47,4
2,3
22,7
x
2006
27,8
88,5
41,3
8,2
2,9
40,0
Average a period
51,6
83,0
61,2
28,5
40,1
47,4
ESA 8th Conference, Glasgow,
September 3-6, 2007
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Conclusion about the vector of
institutional self-organization



It is directed to the stabilization as well as to
unification and mutual understanding of
legislation and executive branches.
Characteristics of this stabilization are, on the
one hand, faster laws enaction from bills to acts,
and, on the other hand, the changed proportion
between new laws and amended existing laws.
The sign of unification and mutual understanding
between the President (executive power) and the
State Duma (legislative power) is the faster
approval of laws introduced by the RF President.
ESA 8th Conference, Glasgow,
September 3-6, 2007
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Sociological survey results show
that there are similar tendencies in
civil society. Permanently high rating
of the Russian President indicates it
(source:http://www.levada.ru/prezident.html):
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
Approve of
the President, %
69,3
73,2
75,4
76,8
74,4
68,8
75,6
81,3
Disapprove of
the President, %
21,3
19,9
18,1
21,2
23,2
28,5
22,4
17,6
ESA 8th Conference, Glasgow,
September 3-6, 2007
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Many thanks to Kirilyuk Igor and Tolmacheva Irina for their help
in my analysis.
Thank you for your attention!
www.kirdina.ru
[email protected]
ESA 8th Conference, Glasgow,
September 3-6, 2007
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