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Purpose of
1. Explain and secure destination of transmission
2. Tell about structure and principle of the transmission
3. Talk about transmissions types and the elements that it
1. Objectives
2. Problem question
3. Key words
4. About transmission system
Types of transmissions:
5. Mechanic transmission
6. Hydraulic transmission
7. Electrical transmission
Elements of transmission:
8. Clutch
9. Gearbox
11. Movie about transmission
12.Control question
Problem question
How can we make transmission system simplest and cheaper,
but in a same time save it’s reliability ?
Transmission - one of the most important elements of the car,
and therefore the most difficult. When we talk about
complexity, it is involuntarily reminded of reliability, because
the fewer parts the lower the chance of breakage. Therefore,
designers of cars trying to minimize the number of parts to
simplify and reduce the cost of construction.
Key words
Axis – вісь
Gear – зубчате колесо
Shaft – вал
Clutch – зчеплення
Bearings – підшипник
Friction – тертя
Engine – двигун
Wheel – колесо
The transmission is designed to transfer torque from
the engine to the drive wheels, as well as changes in
its magnitude and direction.
Types of transmissions:
 - Mechanical - the most common and have high efficiency, using the
vast number of vehicles. Schematic diagram of the mechanical
transmission is shown in Figure 1.1
1 – Engine, 2 – Gearbox, 3 – Differetial, 4 – Cardan shaft
Figure 1.1: Schematic diagram of a mechanical transmission.
Advantages: high efficiency (about 95%), compact size and low weight,
reliable in operation, the relative ease of manufacture and use.
Disadvantages of mechanical transmissions: disparity of change ratios,
reducing the use of engine power.
 - Hydraulic - established a special technique in which a small range.
Capable of transmitting huge torque, but has a lower efficiency.
Schematic diagram of the hydraulic transmission is shown in Figure
Figure 1.2 - Scheme of hydraulic transmission
Advantages: Freedom layout hydrounits transmission in a car due to
the connection of pipelines and flexible hoses , and the ability to easily
branch power by dividing the hydraulic flow .
Disadvantages: low efficiency ( about 70 %) and the difficulty of repair
and maintenance.
 - Electrical - used in hybrid cars and rigid dumper . Characterized by a
smooth , easy adjustment of torque and its uniform distribution on
several drive wheels or axises. Schematic diagram of the electrical
transmission is shown in Figure 1.3
1 – Engine, 2 – Generator, 3 - control unit, 4 - power cable, 5 – electrical
engine, 6 – wheel.
Figure 1.3 Scheme of electric transmission
Advantages: Electric transmission provides comfortable changing the
frequency and direction of rotation of the output, smooth pick-up from
their seats, and power distribution to multiple driving wheels / axles;
primary engine can be located anywhere in the vehicle, regardless of the
location of the drivers.
The transmission consists of the following
 Clutch - temporarily disconnected from the ICE powertrain
elements with subsequent smooth connection by friction forces .
The principle of operation of a transfer clutch torque between the
two wheels through the power of friction by pressing them
 Figure 1.2.1-Schematic diagram of coupling
 Gearbox - designed to transmit torque from the ICE to the drive
wheels of change in its speed and direction .
Thus the change in speed is done by changing the diameter of the
famous and leading wheels. In order to be able to turn off the
previous transmission and the next turn gears that are mounted on
the secondary shaft is not hard, and the bearings.
Differential - designed to transmit torque from the transmission
to the driving cardan axis and allows them to rotate at different
Control questions
1) What is a function of transmission ?
2) What is efficiency of mechanical transmission ?
3) What is a function of clutch ?
4) How much shafts has gearbox of car ?
5) What is a function of differential ?
Thank you for watching !
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