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Helthy diet – myths and reality
Dr. Shalimova Oksana
Orel State Agrarian University (RUSSIA)
The plan of lecture
Why do We need a good food?
Molecular nutrition
◦ Briefly about carbohydrates
 Damage to refined sugar
◦ Proteins
 Not produce amino acids
Quality of animal and vegetable proteins
◦ The fats
 Essential fatty acids
◦ Vitamins
◦ Minerals
The main dietary guidelines
◦ The ideal diet
"Rubai" of Omar Khayyam
Oh, if, taking the verses sofa
 Yes, in a jug of wine and putting his bread
in his pocket,
 I spend with you a day in the ruins,
 - I would have envied anyone Sultan.
Why do We need a good food?
1 - all of the cells and tissues of the body
are formed from the foods we eat.
 2 - the food is a source of energy
necessary for the functioning of the
 3 - the food is the main part of the
environment with which we interact.
 4 - the food was set up in order to enjoy
it, to be an integral part of the joy of life,
and our senses allow us to appreciate the
quality and taste of the product.
Our organism need as many
calories as you need to active life.
Individual basal metabolic rate depends
on the sex, size, and weight. Our physical
activity has a significant impact on the
amount of calories we need. On average,
women need 2000 calories, and men 2700 calories. Heavy manual labor may
require not less than 4000 calories.
Expended all this energy we get from
Molecular nutrition
If your have an ideal weight 70 kg, your
body contains about 40 kg of water and
15 kg of fat. In addition, your body
contains 15 kg of proteins, carbohydrates
and derived organic compounds, plus
bone minerals such as calcium and
Briefly about carbohydrates
Carbohydrates - a conglomerate of five
simple sugars, of which the most
important is glucose.
 For the assimilation of monosaccharides
(glucose, fructose and galactose) digestion
is required. Table sugar and maltose
(disaccharides) are digested into simple
sugars in minutes.
Damage to refined sugar
Depletion of vitamin B in the organism.
 Diseases of the teeth.
 Inhibition of the immune system.
 Increased the amount of fat in the blood.
 Promotion of hypoglycemia and possible
onset of diabetes.
 Gastric irritation that occurs when the
stomach contains more than 10% sugar.
 Constipation.
Every cell of the organism is composed of
many different proteins. Proteins make up
about three-fourths of the solids of the
body. Our ogganism contains more than
2000 needed for the vital functions of
enzymes, consisting entirely of protein.
Not produce amino acids
Nine of the twenty-two amino acids we
get from the foods we eat, and the others
are synthesized by the organism. These
nine amino acids that the body can not
produce are called essential amino acids.
These include: lysine, methionine,
histidine, leucine, isoleucine, phenylalanine,
tryptophan, threonine, valine.
Our body breaks down daily about
300 g of protein
Almost 100% failure of the protein deficit
is also due to a high content of protein in
plant foods. If we eliminate from the diet
of meat, poultry, milk products, fish and
eggs, consuming 2000 calories from a
variety of unrefined products, we can
provide high quality standard
recommended dietary protein.
Quality of animal protein is better
than the quality of vegetable
This is another myth associated with food.
Simple logic dictates that the animals get their
protein from plant sources, where the
selection of amino acids perfectly balanced and
meets the requirements of animals.
 When we eat eggs, milk and meat products, we
have a second-rate protein, which contains the
essential amino acids necessary for us, yet we
deprive them of a balanced mix. If this
relationship is broken, it can be a factor in the
emergence of atherosclerosis and heart
Fat in the fire
Fats are found in great abundance - in seeds, nuts,
grains, fruits, and other plant sources. Most of the
fat consumed is produced from animal products
containing highly concentrated fat calories.
 Except for the olives, avocados and nuts, the fat
content in most plant products is relatively low. In
animal food content of fat is high. Lean beef
typically contains at least 50% of calories derived
from fat, and beef first grade, more than 80%.
Butter and sour cream - it's almost 100%-s media
fatkalory. If our body will get fat from vegetable
sources, it will help to change it fatkalory
Essential fatty acids
Essential fatty acids must be ingested from food,
because the organism can not synthesize them.
Linoleic and linolenic acid - the only known fatty
acids, which are essential for normal human
 Unrefined polyunsaturated fats are a perfect
source for the essential needs of the organism
and for healthy cell membranes. Essential fatty
acids play an important role in the transport and
metabolism of fats. In combination with
cholesterol or proteins may contribute to the
production of cellular energy in the mitochondria.
Vitamins - it's essential nutrients. Thousands of
enzymatic reactions in the body's cells depend on
one or more specific vitamins.
 Vitamins A, D, E and K - fat soluble and can be stored
in the organism for a longer period than the watersoluble vitamins. Fat-soluble vitamins are absorbed
along with dietary fats.
 Vitamins C and B-group (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin,
folic acid, pantothenic acid, biotin, and vitamin B12) is water-soluble substances, and persist in the
organism for long. Most of the vitamins of the group
out of the body in the urine. Pure vegetarians may
need special supplements of these nutrients.
For normal functioning of our organism needs a
sufficient amount of minerals. Those in our body has
The best source of dietary minerals - is our food.
Unlike vitamins, minerals during heating are not
Some of them are needed by the body in very large
quantities. These include calcium, potassium,
magnesium, chlorine, sodium and phosphorus.
Other minerals needed by the body in small amounts.
Vital importance in human nutrition have the
following elements: chromium, fluoride, copper, cobalt,
iodine, vanadium, manganese, selenium, molybdenum
and zinc.
The main dietary guidelines
The first idea - eat quality food, and let it be
as close as possible to the natural mind. Try
to keep most of the nutrients coming into
your body from unrefined, raw products.
 The second basic principle is the regularity
of supply.
 The third idea - do not drink water during
 Avoid stimulating foods and beverages.
 Remember the simple principle - too many
products, no matter how useful, can harm us.
The ideal diet
The ideal diet excludes all refined products. It should
avoid use of refined proteins, such as gluten and
protein meat. Rare use of refined products will not
cause harm, but the ideal goal is to have the food in
the form in which it is given to us by nature, adding
 Primacy of meat as a carrier of essential nutrients
was a myth. Current scientific research confirms the
absolute nutritional vegetarian diet. Milk products and
eggs are not so necessary, and they can even cause
serious illness. With the exception of vitamin B12,
plant foods - vegetables, fruits, grains, legumes, seeds
and nuts - contains everything you need to develop a
healthy body and maintain its effective functioning.
What to do?
Each week, consume a greater variety of
fruits, vegetables, cereals and legumes. Every
meal should include a limited number of
products. Potatoes can be eaten every day.
Try to keep the breakfast was most
enjoyable, and dinner - the easiest.
Do not eat between meals. Eat at intervals
of approximately 5 hours. If you have a
problem with being overweight, try to eat
only 2 times a day, doing without supper.
you for attention!
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