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Taroyan Margarita
 History
of the monetary system
 Importance
 Bank
and value of the dollar
regulation in the United States
 Monetary
 International
 In
1792 Congress of USA was given the power to
create and establish a national monetary system. At
that time, Congress passed the Coinage Act and made
the dollar the nations primary monetary unit.
 The
precondition was a sharp rise in population and a
big increase in trade and commerce.
 The
Coinage Act of 1792 was based on the use of gold
and silver reserves but because of the scarcity of the
precious metals at the time, adjustments in value
occurred frequently.
After gold was discovered in California, revision of the
coinage laws and the mint ratio of gold and silver coins
One Cent - 1/100 of a Dollar, also called a Penny
Five Cents - 5/100 of a Dollar, also called a Nickel
Ten Cents - 10/100 of a Dollar, also called a Dime
Twenty Five Cents - 25/100 of a Dollar (aka 1/4, or Quarter Dollar)
Fifty Cents - 50/100 of a Dollar (aka 1/2, or Half Dollar)
One Dollar - 100/100, 1 full Dollar (Susan B. Anthony type)
One Dollar - 100/100, 1 full Dollar (Sacagawea type)
 In
1913, the Federal Reserve Act was passed authorizing
the establishment of regional Federal Reserve Banks
(Federal Reserve System) that issue money to member
banks by drawing on their own deposits or by borrowing
commercial paper if their deposit balances with the
Federal Reserve are insufficient.
The presidentially appointed Board of Governors (or Federal
Reserve Board), an independent federal government agency
located in Washington, D.C.
 The Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC), composed
of the seven members of the Federal Reserve Board and five of
the twelve Federal Reserve Bank presidents, which oversees
open market operations, the principal tool of U.S. monetary
 Twelve regional Federal Reserve Banks located in major
cities throughout the nation, which divide the nation into
twelve Federal Reserve districts. The Federal Reserve Banks
act as fiscal agents for the U.S. Treasury, and each has its own
nine-member board of directors.
 Numerous other private U.S. member banks,
which own required amounts of non-transferable
stock in their regional Federal Reserve Banks.
 Various advisory councils.
is highly fragmented compared with other G10 countries,
where most countries have only one bank regulator. In the
U.S., banking is regulated at both the federal and state level.
Depending on the type of charter a banking organization has
and on its organizational structure, it may be subject to
numerous federal and state banking regulations.
 Within the Federal Reserve Board are 12 districts centered
around 12 regional Federal Reserve Banks,
each of which carries out the
Federal Reserve Board's
regulatory responsibilities in its
respective district.
The Federal Reserve controls the three tools of monetary
policy-open market operations, the discount rate, and reserve
requirements. The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve
System is responsible for the discount rate and reserve
requirements, and the Federal Open Market Committee is
responsible for open market operations. Using the three tools,
the Federal Reserve influences the demand for, and supply of,
balances that depository institutions hold at Federal Reserve
Banks and in this way alters the federal funds rate. The
federal funds rate is the interest rate at which depository
institutions lend balances at the Federal Reserve to other
depository institutions overnight.
 Changes in the federal funds rate trigger a chain of events that
affect other short-term interest rates, foreign exchange rates,
long-term interest rates, the amount of money and credit,
and, ultimately, a range of economic variables, including
employment, output, and prices of goods and services.
 The
Federal Reserve System (also known as the
Federal Reserve, and informally as the Fed) is the
central banking system of the United States.
 It was created on December 23, 1913, with the
enactment of the Federal Reserve Act, largely in
response to a series of financial panics, particularly a
severe panic in 1907.
 Over time, the roles and responsibilities of the Federal
Reserve System have expanded, and its structure has
 Events such as the Great Depression in the 1930s
were major factors leading to changes in the system.
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