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какое время писал Д. Чосер?
 На каком диалекте писал Д. Чосер?
 В чем заключается ценность
Кентерберийских рассказов (с точки
зрения истории английского языка)?
 О чем это произведение?
Middle English
Internal means of enriching the
 Suffixation
- er (it was used to form nouns both
from originally OE words and
borrowed ones): leader, worker,
traveler, hunter, gardener
 - ing: meeting, fighting
man: craftsman, gentleman
 - y (from - iʒ): angry, happy, hearty
 - ful, - less: doubtful, doubtless,
 -en: happen, loosen, blacken
 Prefixes
 Mis
-, un -, be - : betray, belong, unbind,
 New way of word-building: from
homonymous forms of nouns and verbs:
chance, call, smile
 Compounding: penknife, bonfire,
breakfast, afternoon.
Scandinavian borrowings
 The
consequences of various borrowing
were different:
 1 . A new word was added to the
vocabulary (because there was no
synonym in English): law, fellow (fē +laga
– ‘имущество’ и ‘складывать’)
2. The English synonym was replaced by
the borrowing:
 niman - taken
 clypian - callen
 ēāʒþyrel (‘глаз’ ‘отверстие’) - wundoʒe
«глаз ветра» vindauga
3. Both the English and the corresponding
Scandinavian words are preserved but
they become different in meaning:
 heaven - sky
 starve - die
 4.
Etymological doublets (words
originating from the same source in
Common Germanic):
 shirt - skirt
 shatter - scatter
 raise - rear
5. Doublets that were the same in meaning
but slightly different phonetically:
give, get (from Sc. gefa, geta, cf. OE Ʒiefan, Ʒietan)
6. There may be a shift of meaning: dream
– in OE had the meaning of ‘joy, pleasure’,
bread – ‘a piece’.
French borrowings
 The
words borrowed from French are
found in many areas:
 Government and Administration:
govern, government, administer, crown,
state, empire, royal, majesty, treaty,
statute, parliament, tax, rebel, traitor,
treason, exile, chancellor, treasurer, major,
noble, peer, prince, princess, duke, squire,
peasant, slave, servant, vassal.
justice, equity, plaintiff, judge,
advocate, attorney, petition, inquest,
felon, evidence, sue, accuse arrest,
blame, libel, slander, felony, adultery,
property, estate, heir, executor.
 Law:
army, navy, peace, enemy,
arms, battle, spy, combat, siege,
defence, ambush, soldier, guard, mail,
buckler, banner, lance, besiege, defend,
 Military:
theology, sermon, confession,
clergy, clergy, cardinal, friar, crucifix,
miter, censer lectern, abbey, convent,
creator, savior, virgin, faith, heresy,
schism, solemn, divine, devout, preach,
pray, adore, confess.
 Religion:
habit, gown, robe, garment,
attire, cape, coat, collar, petticoat, train,
lace, embroidery, pleat, buckle, button,
tassel, plume, satin, taffeta, fur, sable,
blue, brown, vermilion, russet, tawny,
jewel, ornament, broach, ivory,
turquoise, topaz, garnet, ruby, pearl,
 Clothing:
feast, repast, collation, mess,
appetite, tart, sole, perch, sturgeon,
sardine, venison, beef, veal, mutton,
port, bacon, toast, cream, sugar, salad,
raisin, jelly, spice, clove, thyme.
 Food:
 Art,
Learning, Medicine: painting,
sculpture, music, beauty, color, image,
cathedral, palace, mansion, chamber,
ceiling, porch, column, poet, prose,
romance, paper, pen, volume, chapter,
study, logic, geometry, grammar, noun,
gender, physician, malady, pain, gout,
plague, pulse, remedy, poison.
Turns of phrase: by heart, on the point of,
without doubt, have mercy on, come to
a head, take pity on.
 Productive
affixes from French: pre-,
super-, inter-, sub-, dis-, -ance, -ence, ant, -ment, -tion.
Borrowings from French had
several effects on English:
 Native
words were replaced:
 OE aeðele – F. noble;
 OE aeðeling – F. nobleman;
 OE here – F. army;
 OE campa – F. warrior;
 OE sibb – F. peace;
 OE leod – F. people;
 OE stow - Fr. place.
English and French words were retained with
a differentiation in meaning:
– cordial;
 ox – beef;
 sheep – mutton;
 swine – pork;
 calf – veal;
 house – mansion.
 hearty
Latin Borrowings
 In
a sense the French words were Latin
borrowings since French developed from
Vulgar Latin--as did all the Romance
 The borrowings that came directly from
Latin tended to be more learned in
character – e.g., allegory, index, magnify,
mechanical, private, secular, zenith.
 It
has been pointed out that as a result of
Middle English borrowing from French and
Latin, Modern English has synonyms on
three levels: popular (English), literary
(French), and learned (Latin), as in rise –
mount – ascend; ask – question –
interrogate; fire – flame – conflagration;
holy – sacred – consecrated.
Norman French vs. Parisian French
 Norman
French (northern dialect of
French) dominated for 200 years (Norman
loans into English)
 Paris becomes the center of France
 Parisian French became the prestigious
dialect (Parisian loans)
Norman French
Sound [w]
Parisian French
No sound [w], it was
replaced by g(u)
William = Guillaume
war (werre) =guerre
Questions ME Verb
Variant 1
1. How did the system of strong verbs change
during ME?
2. How did the infinitive forms develop?
 Variant 2
1. What are the three sources that the
appearance of the Gerund can be traced to?
2. What was the marker of the third Pers. Sg. In
ME? Which form was it later replaced by?
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