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КУРС АНГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫКА
ДЛЯ МЕЖДУНАРОДНИКОВ
И РЕГИОНОВЕДОВ
УРОВЕНЬ – БАКАЛАВРИАТ
КОМПЕТЕНТНОСТНЫЙ ПОДХОД
1 год обучения
Авторы:
Е.Б.Ястребова,
О.А.Кравцова,
Л.Г.Владыкина
Slide 1. Introducing and Greeting
People (1).
Formal
A: Ms. Blake,'let me intro'duce Mr. Jones. ||
'may I intro'duce Mr. Jones. ||
Ms. Blake: 'How do you
do? ||
Mr. Jones: 'How do you
do? || 'Pleased to meet you.
OR
A: 'Let me intro duce myself. || I am 'John Thompson. ||
B: 'How do you
do? || I am 'Kate
Martin. ||
A: 'How do you
do?
Slide 2. Introducing and Greeting
People (2).
Neutral
A:
Jane, 'meet 'Tanya
Smith. ||
B: He llo, Tanya. || 'Nice/'pleased to meet
you.
Informal
A:
B:
Hi, I am
Hi, I am
Jack. ||
Sasha.
Slide 3. Unit 1. How Are You?
neutral = inquiry about one’s health
informal = How are things? (Как дела?)
How are you doing? (Как поживаете?)
1.
A: 'How
B: I am
COMPARE:
are
you? ||
fine,
thank you. || And
2. A: 'How are
things?
B: 'Fine,
thanks. || 'What about
A:
Fine./'Not
too bad.
you?
you?
Slide 4. Пожалуйста:
please, thank you, etc.
Situation 1. (At the table): You are offered something.
Your answer: Yes, ●please. Or
Thank you.
'No,
thank you.
Situation 2. (At the table, etc): You are asked to pass
something.
Your answer: Here you
are. (American :
There
you are).
Situation 3. Somebody says “thank you” for your service,
etc. Your answer: You are
welcome.
'Don’t
mention it.
'That’s al
right.
My
pleasure.'Not at
all.
Slide 5. Saying Hello and Good-bye.
Formal:
Good
morning/ Morning. Good 'after
noon.Good evening/ Evening. Good- bye.
Neutral:
He
llo, Jack/everybody. Good
night.
Good
luck. 'Have a nice/good
day (evening,
week-end, trip, etc.)
Informal:
Hi, Jane! See you (later). 'Take
care. Bye bye. Bye.
Slide 6. General (Yes/No) Questions I
Structure
Auxiliary
Verb
Subject
+
Do
Was
'Have
you
'Moscow
your 'family
BUT:
Are
you
+
'speak
'founded
been
Verb
…?
French?
in 1147?
to London?
a student?
Slide 7.General (Yes/No) Questions II
Intonation pattern: examples
Are you a
Yes, I
am.
Are you a
No, I am
student?
high school student?
not.
Slide 8. Unit 2.
Special (Wh-) Questions.
Structure
Question
Word
Auxiliary
+
'When
'Why
'Which places
Verb
was
do
did
+
Subject
Moscow
Aust'ralians
you
+
Verb
…?
founded?
speak English?
visit there?
Slide 9. Unit 2.
Questions in which who/what is
used as the subject.
Structure
Who/
What
'Who
'What
+
Verb
…
?
discovered Aust ralia?
is to the north of the USA?
Slide 10. WAYS TO SPEAK ABOUT
THE PAST.
The Basics
PAST SIMPLE
I read a book
yesterday.
Вчера я читал Факт
книгу.
PAST
CONTINUOUS
I was reading
a book when
you called.
Когда ты
позвонил, я
читал книгу.
PAST
PERFECT
I realized I
had read the
book before.
Предшествован
Я понял, что
ие
уже читал эту
книгу.
PAST
PERFECT
CONTINUOUS
I had been
reading the
book for two
days when he
asked me to
return it.
Я читал книгу Процесс +
два дня, когда Предшествован
он попросил
ие
вернуть ее.
Процесс
Slide 11. PAST SIMPLE.
Законченное
действие или
состояние
Первый роман С. Моэма S. Maugham’s first novel
появился в 1897 году.
appeared in 1897.
Она проработала в этой She worked for the
company for twenty years.
компании двадцать лет.
Ряд
последовательных
действий
Регулярные или
повторявшиеся
действия
В конце XIX
века Великобритания
имела много колоний.
In the late 19th century,
Great Britain had a lot of
colonies.
Они закончили завтрак
и встали из-за стола.
They finished breakfast
and rose from the table.
Он ездил в Париж
двенадцать раз в год.
He travelled to Paris
twelve times a year.
Slide 12. Unit 3.
Making small talk (1).
Conversation starters.
Talking about the weather:
'Isn’t it a 'lovely
day?
'Beautiful
day,
isn’t it?
What 'lovely/'nice
weather,
isn’t it?
It 'looks like it’s 'going to
rain/
snow.
I 'hear they’re 'fore'casting
thunderstorms/
showers all weekend.
Slide 13. Unit 3.
Making small talk (2).
Talking about current events:
Have you 'heard the
news today/did you 'hear
the
news today?
Have you 'heard/did you 'hear about the
blackout/the
floods…?
I 'hear they have 'opened a 'new exhi bition hall
at the Tretyakov Gallery.
I 'read in the
paper today they are 'going to
'build a 'new
shopping mall.
'What do you 'think about the 'new 'Stephen
Spielberg film?
Slide 14. Unit 3.
Making small talk (3).
At a social event:
Are you en joying yourself?
'Pretty 'nice
place,
isn’t it?
Have you 'tried their
sushi? It’s de licious!
Have you 'known the 'Browns long?
This 'dress 'suits you 'very well. Can I 'ask
'where you
got it?
How 'long have you been 'coming to this con
vention (conference, workshop, etc.)?
Slide 15. Unit 3.
Making small talk (4).
Exit lines:
That’s my bus/ train/etc. Must be
going.
They’ve just an'nounced my
flight. Must be
going.
There are a 'few 'people here I 'haven’t 'said
he llo to
yet.
I have to 'say he llo to some people.
Can I 'get you a/another
drink?
I 'skipped
lunch today so I 'need to 'go to the
buffet ([‘bVfeI]).
Ex
cuse me for a
moment, I 'need to have a quick
'word with Mr.
Smith.
Will you ex
cuse me for a
moment?
Slide 16. Unit 3. Извините: sorry,
excuse me, I beg your pardon.
Situation 1. Извините, виноват(а).
Formal: I 'beg your
pardon
Neutral: I am sorry.I am very/ awfully sorry. Ex cuse me.
Informal: I am
sorry.
Sorry.
Situation 2. Извините, что вы сказали?
Formal: I beg your
pardon/
Pardon?
Neutral : I am
sorry? Ex
cuse me? (Am.E)
Informal:
Sorry?
Situation 3. Извините, не могли бы Вы … (attracting
attention).
Formal: Could I just
trouble you for a moment?
Neutral : Ex
cuse me. I am
sorry.
Informal. Sorry.
Slide 17. Unit 3.
Intonation and Stress (1).
A statement is normally pronounced with the falling tone
on the Tonic. The Tonic is the syllable of the greatest
stress.
e.g. 'Most 'capitals are cosmo
politan cities.
Note: such words as articles, one syllable prepositions,
auxiliaries, modal verbs, most pronouns, etc. are NOT
normally stressed.
e.g. I 'don’t 'know any French, but my English is good.
The rhythm of an English sentence is such that stressed
and unstressed syllables alternate.
e.g.There are 'many 'ethnic 'groups in London.
Slide 18. Unit 3.
Intonation and Stress (2).
The Tonic is usually the last stressed word in a
sentence, but the speaker can put emphasis on
a different word to change the meaning.
COMPARE:
1. He 'went to Cali'fornia to 'get sup plies.
2. He 'went to Cali fornia to get supplies.
OR
1. I
knew you would help me. (you did)
2. I 'thought you would
help me. (you did not)
Slide 19. Unit 3.
Intonation and Stress (3).
Read the poem:
And 'crossing the 'Channel one 'cannot say
much ||
For the
French or the
Spanish, the Danish
or
Dutch ;
The 'Germans are
Germans ,the 'Russians are
red
And the 'Greeks and I'talians eat
garlic in bed
The 'English are moral, the 'English are
good
And
clever and modest and ımisunder
stood…
Slide 20. Unit 3.
Stating One’s Opinion.
Useful phrases:
I think …
It’s my opinion that …
I’m fairly certain…
I feel …
I believe …
I’m pretty sure that …
State your opinion using a phrase from above. Decide
which word is the Tonic.
e.g. I think 'Moscow is a
nice city to live in. OR I believe 'Moscow
is a
difficult city to live in.
1. Moscow is a nice/difficult city to live in.
2. People in the county/small towns/large cities are much friendlier than ….
3. English people are cold and reserved/polite and friendly.
4. Young Europeans are more/less independent than young Russians.
5. University students have a lot more/less freedom than schoolchildren.
Slide 21. Unit 3.
Tag Questions: Asking for
Opinion/Information.
Tag questions are little questions at the end of
a sentence.
e.g. You are from Moscow, aren’t you?
If the speaker is not sure of the truth of the
statement, he/she makes they are asking a
question using the rising tone at the end.
e.g. You 'didn’t 'take my
book,
did you? || – 'No, I
didn’t. – 'Yes, I
did.
The 'Dutch can 'win the World
Cup,
can’t they? || –
'Yes, they
can. – 'No, they can’t.
Aust'ralia is a 'member of the
Commonwealth,
isn’t
it? || – 'Yes, it
is.
Slide 22. Unit 3.
Tag Questions: Making a Statement.
If the speaker makes a statement he/she
believes to be true and expects an agreement,
the falling tone is used at the end.
e.g. You are
students,
aren’t you? || –
'Yes, we
are.
'Traffic on' Monday mornings is
awful,
isn’t
it? || – 'Yes, it
is.
'People
haven’t landed on Mars yet,
have
they? || – 'No, they
haven’t.
Slide 23. Unit 4.
Asking for information: Indirect
Questions.
Opening
Phrase
+
Do you 'know
Question
Word
when
+
Subject
+
Verb
…?
'Great 'Britain be'came an
empire?
I’d 'like to 'know if/whether 'Russia
had 'links with
England in the
16th century.
Slide 24. Unit 5.
Suggesting, Requesting, Instructing.
I 'wonder if it is 'possible to use your
laptop?
Formal
Would you 'mind if I 'used your
Do you 'think I could 'use your dictionary?*
Do you 'mind if I 'use your
phone?
Could you
help us?
I 'don’t sup'pose you’ll be 'able to
help us? /
I sup 'pose you 'won’t be 'able to
help us?
'Will you 'wait for him in the
lobby?
'Why don’t you 'wait for him in the
lobby?
'Is it all 'right if I 'use your
Can I 'use your
phone?
phone?
Neutral
dictionary?
Informal
Slide 25. Unit 5.
Конечно: Certainly vs Of course.
Situation 1.
A: Can you give me his address?
B: Certainly!/ Of course I can.
Situation 2.
A: Is 10 Downing Street the Prime Minister’s address?
B: It certainly is. NOT: Of course, it is.
OR
A: Do you speak German?
B: Yes, I do.
“Of course” is not an appropriate answer if you are asked
for information. “Of course” in this case implies that the
answer is so evident that you shouldn’t have asked about it!
Slide 26. Unit 5.
Asking for Opinion.
You can ask someone’s opinion in
the following way:
Question
Word
'When
'Why
'Who
+
do you
think
do you think
do you think
do you think
+
Subject
they
the 'Dean
+
Verb
…?
will 'start winning?
said it?
will win the match?
Slide 27. Unit 5.
Asking and answering negative
questions.
1. 'Don’t you 'like the
concert?
'Yes, I
do.(= нет, нравится)
'No, I
don’t. (= да, не нравится)
2. You 'didn’t
know the man,
did you?
'Yes, I
did. (= нет, знал)
'No, I
didn’t. (да, не знал)
3. I sup'pose he 'hasn’t
bought the tickets?
'Yes, he
has. (= нет, купил)
'No, he
hasn’t. (= да, не купил)
Slide 28. Unit 6.
Asking about one’s plans.
Are you 'going to the
party tomorrow?
(implying that a decision would be welcome)
Will you 'take 'part in
….?
(requesting/insisting)
Will you be at the party tomorrow?
Will I 'see you at the party tomorrow?
Slide 29. Unit 6.
Giving and Accepting Compliments.
Compliment formula 1
Noun
Phrase
+
Your'dress
Your 'hair
Is/looks
is
'looks
+
(really)
'really
+ Adjective
beautiful.
great!
Slide 30. Unit 6.
Giving and Accepting Compliments.
Compliment formula 2
I
I
I
+
(really)
'really
+
'like
love
like/love
+
Noun
Phrase
your hairstyle.
your new apartment.
Slide 31. Unit 6.
Giving and Accepting Compliments.
Compliment formula 3
Pronoun
+
That’s
That’s
is
+
(really)
a 'really
a 'great
AND:
You 'handled it
marvelously!
You ('really) 'did a 'good
job.
You 'did
great!
'Nice
game.
+
Adjective
'nice
'looking
+
Noun
Phrase
carpet.
car.
Slide 32. Unit 6.
Compliment Response Formulas.
1. adding extra information
I bought it at Marks and Spencer
2. playing it down
I’ve had this dress for years.
Thank you/Thanks
+
3. shifting credit
Ann did a lot to help me with it.
4. asking a question
Do you really think so?
5. returning a compliment
A:Your presentation was really good.
B: Thank you. So was yours!
Slide 33. Unit 6.
Giving and Accepting Congratulations.
Occasion
Congratulations
Response
Birthday
Congratulations!
Thank you!/Thanks
a lot!/
Happy birthday! / Many happy
returns! / All the best. /Lots of good Thanks.
wishes.
Wedding
(Many) congratulations to you both Thank you!
(you and your bride/groom)./
Nice of you to say
We/I wish you every happiness /all so.
the best for the future/I hope you’ll
be very very happy together.
Getting a new
Congratulations! I hope it goes
job
well for you in your new job.
Graduating from Congratulations! That was well
college/etc.
deserved!
Thank you.
Thank you.
Slide 33a. Unit 6.
Giving and Accepting Congratulations.
Occasion
Congratulations
Response
New Year
Happy New Year! / A very Happy
New Year to you all/everyone!
All the best for a happy and
healthy New Year!
Health and happiness in New
Year!
Happy New Year to
you too! / All the
very best to you,
too.
Christmas
Merry Christmas!
Have a happy white Christmas!
Thank you. Merry
Christmas to you,
too!
Thanksgiving Happy Thanksgiving!
Have a happy Thanksgiving!
Thank you! Have a
happy Thanksgiving,
too.
Slide 34. Unit 7.
Agreeing and Disagreeing.
Useful phrases to agree and disagree with
someone’s opinions
Agreeing strongly
Agreeing
partly
Disagreeing
Disagreeing
strongly
That’s ('very)
true.
I ag ree with you
there.
Yes, I know
e'xactly what you
mean.
You are 'absolutely
right.
Yes,
but
'don’t you
'think …
I ag ree
with you,
but…
I am a'fraid I
'don’t quite
ag ree with
you.
I 'don’t think
so.
I 'don’t see
it quite like
that.
'That’s just
'not
true!
'Oh, 'come on!
(infml)
Slide 34a. Unit 7.
Agreeing and Disagreeing.
Useful phrases to agree and disagree with
facts
Agreeing
strongly
Agreeing
partly
You are
I ag'ree 'up to
'absolutely right. a
point,
I 'quite ag
ree. but 'that’s 'not
the 'whole
That’s
right.
picture.
Right.
Yes.
E
xactly
Disagreeing
I am af'raid
not.
'Not quite.
That’s 'not the' whole
picture.
Slide 35. Unit 7. Я тоже: So do I/
Neither do I.
Situation 1.
1) A: I
hate large parties!
B: 'So do I.
2) A: I can 'speak 'English
fluently.
B: 'So can
I.
Situation 2.
1) A: I wouldn’t 'like to 'join the
army.
B: 'Neither would
I.
2) A: I have 'never been to the 'Middle
East.
B: 'Neither have I.
Slide 36. Unit 7.
Showing Interest.
Useful words to show interest:
Right.
Aha!
OK.
Really?
Yes?
Another way of saying Really? is to repeat the auxiliary
verb the other speaker has used.
e.g.
A: I was the 'last to 'leave the
party.
B:
Were you?
A: I 'didn’t return 'home until 'four in the
morning!
B: Didn’t you?
Slide 37. Unit 8.
Using Fillers.
Formal
So to speak
If I may ..
Neutral
Actually,
Well,
In a sense,
I mean
You know
Informal
Sort of…
Like…
Er…
e.g.
A: Do you think we should throw a party for our girls on the 8th
of March? After all, it is their day. Or flowers might be a better
idea?
B: Well, I am not really sure. I mean if it is a surprise party we
may find they have planned something else for the day.
Slide 38. Unit 8.
Using Hedges.
Hedges are used to protect the speaker from the risk of
seeming to be wrong,impolite, etc. They can also act as
fillers.
The most common hedges are:
Generally speaking,
If I may say so,
Personally
Correct me if I am wrong, ….
To be honest
Sorry to interrupt but ….
I think/ I guess/ I believe/ I feel.
If you know what I mean.
e.g.
A: Strictly speaking, I haven’t got much experience of learning a foreign
language but I think that attending a summer language school will do you a
world of good. In an English-speaking environment, your English will
definitely improve.
B: Correct me if I am wrong, but you did go to a summer school in
Brighton last year but it wasn’t much help. Was it?
Slide 39. Unit 9.
Expressing Conviction.
Useful phrases:
Formal
Less Formal
I am convinced that …
I strongly/firmly believe
that …
I firmly believe that …
I honestly feel that …
I’m a strong/firm
believer in …
Without a doubt …
I do think/believe that…
I really do feel/believe
that …
My view is that ….
Definitely!
Slide 40. Unit 9.
Expressing Conviction.
Examples of Use:
1. I am con'vinced that 'fast 'food 'poses a
'danger to 'human
health.
2. I 'firmly be'lieve that we are 'not a lone in
this vast universe ...
3. I 'honestly 'feel that I've 'spent 'more 'time in
my car this month than I 'have 'sitting on my
sofa.
4. I am 'positive that 'change is
good. ...
5. - Are you 'going to 'watch the
game tonight?
- Wi'thout a doubt!
6. I 'really 'feel 'mothers should 'stay at 'home with
their 'young
children.
Slide 41. Unit 9.
Complaining.
Useful phrases:
I am 'sorry to 'have to
say this, but …
I’ve 'got a 'bit of a
problem here, you
see…
Look,
I am 'sorry to trouble you, but …
I 'wonder if you could
help me… (e.g.,
there are no towels in my room)
I 'don't 'want to 'make it
of ficial, but...
I 'don't 'want to 'take it any
further/to of
ficial channels, but….
Slide 42. Unit 9.
Making and Accepting an Apology.
Useful phrases:
I am ('ever so) sorry. Oh, 'that’s al right,
'don’t
worry.
Oh, 'that’s al right,
I am ('most) 'awfully
these
'things
happen.
sorry.
Oh,
'never
mind,it
I 'can’t 'say how sorry
'really
'doesn’t
matter.
I am.
I just 'don’t 'know
'what to
say. I’m 'so
sorry.
Slide 43. Unit 10.
Being Enthusiastic.
Useful words and phrases:
Lovely!
Oh, 'that’s lovely!
Great!
'That’s great!
Fan tastic!
Oh, 'that’s fan tastic!
Marvellous!
How marvellous!
Wonderful!
How
wonderful!
Ter rific! (infml.)
e.g.
A: Mary has 'finally 'won in a
lottery!
B: Oh,
great!/ 'That’s fan
tastic!/How
wonderful!
Slide 44. Unit 10.
Being Sympathetic.
Useful phrases:
LESS SERIOUS NEWS
'Oh,
no!
'What a pity!
'What a shame!
'Poor
you!
VERY SAD NEWS
'How awful!
'How
terrible!
That 'must have been
awful!
I am 'really 'sorry to
hear that.
e.g.
I. A: I have 'failed in Maths. B: 'What a
pity!/ 'Oh,
no!
II. A: Their 'airplane 'crashed when landing.
B: Oh, 'how
terrible/ awful.
Slide 46. Unit 11.
Changing the Subject.
Useful phrases
Talking of…
That reminds me…
Oh, before I forget…
By the way….
e.g.
A: I 'watched a rather 'interesting programme on T
V the other
day. They 'talked about the
dec'lining
birth rate…
B: 'Talking of T V, I 'bought a 'new flat-'screen
'T V yesterday.
C:
Oh,
it 'must have 'cost you a
fortune!
B: 'Not
really, 'though it was quite
expensive.
D: Oh, 'that re minds me. 'That
restaurant
'John 'chose for his
wedding celebration.
That’s what I ● call ex ●pensive.
Slide 47. Unit 11.
Interrupting and Returning to the
Topic.
Useful phrases:
(1) Interrupting
(2) Returning to the
topic
Ex'cuse me for inter
rupting, but …
'Can I
add
something?
'Could I just 'come in
here?
'Could I
ask
something?
Sorry
but ….
'Any
way…
In
any case…
To 'get 'back to 'what I
was saying…
'Where
was I?
To re 'turn to…
Going 'back to what I
was
saying…
Slide 48. Unit 11.
Making Yourself Clear.
Useful phrases:
What I (really) mean is …
What I am saying is …
What I meant was …
What I am trying to say is …
Sorry, let me explain …
Don’t misunderstand me …
Don’t get me wrong, what I meant to say was …
e.g.
A: Com'puters are 'turning us into
addicts.
B: 'What/'How do you
mean?
A: 'What I
mean/am 'trying to
say is that 'many 'people
'stay 'glued to their P
Cs in'stead of 'going 'out with
friends….
Slide 49. Unit 12.
Talking of Likes and Dislikes.
Useful phrases (neutral):
I (really) like
I (really) love
I (really) adore
I (‘d) prefer
It’s my all-time favourite.
I am (well) into (infml)
I am mad about (infml)
I am a fan of
I don’t like/love
I dislike
I hate
I can’t stand
… is rubbish
e.g.
1. I adore Mariah Carey! I hate how she dresses sometimes, though.
But I have been a fan of hers since I was little!
2. I am well into salsa this year.
3. Elton John really really hates photographers.
4. Now I'd prefer Richard Gere to Harrison Ford.
Slide 50. Unit 12.
Talking of Likes and Dislikes: Giving
a reason.
Useful phrases:
He, She, They, It + is/are/was/were
+
really (really, really) good
great/amazing/fantastic/superb
e.g.
1. She [Anna Netrebko] is fantastic. Her
beautiful soprano voice is a joy to listen to.
2. Johnny Depp is by far the best actor ever.
He plays so many different characters ...
Slide 51.
PAST CONTINUOUS.
Действие в
развитии в
определенн
ый момент
или период
в прошлом
В одиннадцать часов я At eleven o’clock, I
работал в саду.
was working in the
garden.
Когда я окончил школу, When I left school,*
they were still
всё ещё спорили о
arguing about
том, следует ли
whether they should
разрешить
allow calculators in
пользоваться
exams.
калькулятором на
* The particular экзаменах.
time or period of time in the past when a
certain action was in progress can be indicated in the
sentence with the help of another action expressed in the
Past Simple.
Slide 52.
PAST PERFECT vs PAST SIMPLE.
Uses
Past Perfect
Past Simple
Makes a
sequence of
events clear
Describes the earlier action.
When we reached the airport,
the plane had taken off.
(The plane took off before our
arrival.)
Describes past events in the
order they happened.
When we reached the airport,
the plane took off.
(The plane took off
immediately after we reached
the airport.)
In time
clauses after
when, after,
as soon as
Shows that the second action
took place only after the first
one was completed.
After he had given the police
his name and address, he
was allowed to go.
Describes past events in the
order they happened.
Soon after he returned to
Japan, he began to write a
mathematical textbook for
advanced learners.
Slide 53.
PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS.
Действие, которое
продолжалось в течение
некоторого времени
вплоть до
определенного момента
Они шли более
часа, когда
начался дождь.
They had been
walking for over an
hour when it began
to rain.
Глаза у нее
покраснели, он
понял, что она
плакала.
Her eyes were red,
he could tell that
she had been
crying.
в прошлом
Действие, которое
продолжалось в течение
некоторого времени и
закончилось незадолго до
определенного момента
в прошлом.
Slide 54.
PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS vs
PAST CONTINUOUS.
The Past Perfect
Continuous shows that
the action had been going
on for some time before a
particular past moment.
The Past Continuous
emphasizes
that
the
action was in progress at
that past moment.
His shoes were full of She couldn’t answer the
mud. It was clear
phone because she was
that he had been digging digging in the garden.
in the garden.
Slide 55. COMPARISON OF
ADJECTIVES.
Basic patterns
Degree
Positive
Pattern
as … as
not as/so …
as
Comparative -er/more …
than
less … than
Superlative
the –est/most
… of/in/ever
the least …
of/in/ever
Examples
Revolution is as old as humanity.
He is not so tall as his brother.
Their old place was smaller than my flat.
Business is more exciting than any game.
TV advertising is less effective than it was
two years ago.
Locating specific information is the easiest
of all the reading strategies.
Canterbury is one of the most attractive
towns in Great Britain.
What is the least popular pop group?
Slide 56. PARTICIPLE (- ING OR
- ED) ADJECTIVES.
Verb + ing
Verb + ed
describes what
somebody or
something is like
(active meaning)
Lily’s doctor has just
given her some
frightening news. (= the
news frightened her)
describes how
someone feels
(passive meaning)
The frightened children
were silent and pale. (=
the
children
were
frightened)
Slide 57. Modifiers used with
comparatives.
Comparatives can be modified, that is made stronger or weaker with the
help of certain words and phrases. The most commonly used modifiers are
given in the table below.
Style
Neutral
Modifiers
much / far
a little
Informal
a lot
a bit
Examples
much/far
more
successful
a little more
successful
Russian
намного
успешнее
(более
успешный)
немного
успешнее
(более
успешный)
a lot more гораздо
успешнее
successful
чуть успешнее
a bit more
Slide 58. WAYS TO SPEAK ABOUT
THE PRESENT.
The Basics
PRESENT
SIMPLE
PRESENT
CONTINUOUS
PRESENT
PERFECT
PRESENT
PERFECT
CONTINUOUS
She always/usually/
sometimes does the
dishes after dinner.
Она всегда/
обычно/иногдa
моет посуду
после обеда.
Регулярное /
постоянное
действие / cостояние
She is doing the dishes at Она сейчас моет Действие в развитии
the moment.
посуду.
She has already/just
done the dishes.
Она уже/только
что помыла
посуду.
Действие в прошлом
(точное время не
указано)
She has been washing
the dishes for fifteen
minutes/ since 2 o’clock.
Она моет посуду
пятнадцать
минут/с двух
часов.
Действие,
продолжавшееся в
течение некоторого
времени до момента
речи
Slide 59. PRESENT SIMPLE.
Повторяющееся/
регулярное
действие
Я плаваю в озере каждое I swim in the lake every
утро.
morning.
Постоянное
действие/
состояние
Мой брат Генри живет
В Йорке.
Они ездят в Италию раз
They go to Italy once a
в год.
year.
Он никогда меня не
He never listens to what I
слушает.
say.
Он ненавидит ходить
по магазинам в субботу
My brother Henry lives in
York.
He hates shopping on a
Saturday.
Slide 60. PRESENT CONTINUOUS.
Действие в
развитии в момент
речи
Я не знаю, о
чем ты
говоришь.
I don’t know what
you are speaking
about.
Действие в
развитии в
настоящий период
времени
Что ты
What are you
делаешь в
doing in
Вашингтоне? Washington?
Note: The Present Continuous can be used with the time expressions
always, constantly and forever to show that the speaker is annoyed.
Remember that when no emotional colouring is implied, the Present
Simple is used for repeated actions.
Compare: Little Billy always tells lies to his mother, but she never believes
him. (neutral)
He is always telling lies. (annoyance)
Slide 61.
PRESENT PERFECT vs PAST
SIMPLE.
Present Perfect
Past Simple
Describes an action at an
indefinite time in the past and
shows the connection between
past and present.
Describes an action at the exact
time in the past
and has no connection with
present.
Tom has caught a cold. He is sneezing
and coughing.
I have just seen him.
Jack has been to France several times
since he joined the sailing club.
Tom caught a cold three weeks ago
and had to stay in bed for a couple of
days.
I saw him yesterday.
Jack went to France last year.
Slide 62.
PRESENT PERFECT vs PRESENT
SIMPLE.
The Present Perfect is used to say
how long the situation has continued up
to now.
The Present Simple is never used in
this meaning.
e.g.I have always liked English
people.
BUT: I like English people.
Slide 63.
PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS.
Длительное действие,
которое началось в
прошлом и
продолжается вплоть
до настоящего
момента
—Сколько
времени идёт
дождь?
— Он идёт уже
два часа.
Я звоню по этому
номеру всё утро,
но он всё время
занят.
—How long has it been
raining?
Длительное действие,
которое продолжалось
какое-то время и
имеет видимый
результат в момент
речи
— Ну и
беспорядок!
— Я искал своё
водительское
удостоверение.
— What a mess!
— I've been looking for
my driving licence.
—It has been raining for
two hours already.
I have been ringing that
number all morning but
it's always engaged.
Slide 64.
PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS
vs PRESENT PERFECT.
Present Perfect Continuous
RECENT ACTIVITY
I've been watching a lot of soap operas (lately).
The guests have been arriving since 5 o'clock
(probably unfinished activity).
Have you been sunbathing? You're like a
tomato!
NO DIFFERENCE IN MEANING
With such verbs as live, sit, stand, study,
wait, work etc.
Most families in Swindon have been living
there for one year/ for some generations.
__________________________________
Present Perfect
ACTIVITY AT AN INDEFINITE TIME
IN THE PAST
I've watched a lot of soap operas (at an
indefinite time before now).
Ted and Edna have just arrived (completed
action).
You look great! You've lost at least ten kilos.
Most families in Swindon have lived there
for one year/ for some generations.
With state verbs be, like, own, belong, etc.
The castle has always belonged to our
family.
Slide 65. A lot of – many – much.
Countables
Uncountables
Examples
Positive
a lot (of)/ lots
of,
a great number
of, a great
many, plenty of
a lot of/lots of,
a great deal of,
plenty of
There were a lot of cars at the
farm.
He’s read a great number of
press reports.
Kids today are under a great deal
of stress.
Negative
many
much
There were not many visitors in
the office.
He doesn’t have much time to
rest.
Interrogative many
much
Do you know many people you
can actually rely on?
Did he do much research for the
commentaries?
Slide 66. A few/few and a little/little.
meaning
positive meaning: ‘some’, ‘not
many/much, but better than
nothing’
negative meaning: ‘not
enough’, ‘not as
many/much as necessary,
or expected’
countables
a few
There were a few books on the
stand.
few
The audience showed few
signs of pleasure.
uncountables
a little
He was having a little rest after the
hard work.
little
She had little knowledge of
the working world.
Notes: 1. The quantifiers few and little are chiefly used in written English.
In an informal style they are normally replaced by not many/much, hardly any,
only a few/ a little.
e.g. There are hardly any girls of Middle Eastern or Asian appearance in
advertisements or magazines. When she woke again, only a little time had
passed.
2. Quite a few in an informal style means ‘a considerable number’.
Slide 67. Comparison of quantifiers.
positive
countables
uncountables
comparative
superlative
many
many books
few
few books
more
more books
fewer
fewer books
the most
the most books
the fewest
the fewest book
much
much time
little
little time
more
more time
less
less time
the most
the most time
the least
the least time
Note: In modern English, there is a tendency to use less and the least with
plural countable nouns both in spoken and written contexts.
The locals feel there are less chances of trouble with Mr. R. heading
the police.
The film I liked best had the least chances of winning the Academy
Award.
Slide 68. Modifiers used with the
comparatives of quantifiers.
modifiers
countables
many/far/a lot
comparatives
more
fewer
We need many/far/a lot more
people to help us.
Far/a lot fewer articles in
magazines are written by
women than men.
more
less
I have much/far/a lot more
experience now.
He’s spending much/far/a lot
less time with his family.
far/a lot
uncountables much/far/a lot
much/far/a lot
examples
Note that far and a lot can be used with the comparatives of
quantifiers of both countable and uncountable nouns.
Slide 69. FUTURE SIMPLE vs BE
GOING TO.
Form
Future Simple
Be going to
Use
Predictions based on the
speaker’s opinion or past
experience.
This form can refer to any
time in the future.
Predictions based on some
evidence in the present
that something will
definitely happen.
It is normally used to
speak about the near
future.
In a few years laptop
computers will be as
common as telephones.
(Aboard a plane) “This is
your captain speaking. I’m
afraid we’re going to be a
bit late. We’re running
into headwinds.”
Examples
Slide 70. FUTURE CONTINUOUS,
FUTURE PERFECT,
FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS.
Future Continuous
Future Perfect
Future Perfect Continuous
Describes an action in
progress at a particular
moment or period of time
in the future.
This time tomorrow we’ll
be walking around San
Francisco!
In a few years’ time many
more employees will be
working from home.
1. Describes an action
which we expect will be
completed by a particular
time in the future.
By the time we come to
the office, they will have
left.
2. Describes a state that
will last for some time by
a particular time in the
future.
Tom and Sally will have
been married for five
years in November.
Describes an action in
progress which will last for
some time by a particular time
in the future.
They will have been having
talks for a week on Monday.
The council will have been
debating for six hours by 5
p.m.
Slide 71. FUTURE SIMPLE,
BE GOING TO, PRESENT CONTINUOUS.
Future Simple
Describes
spontaneous
decisions made at the
moment of speaking.
I think I'll take the
children to the park
on the river.
Be going to
Describes intentions,
i.e. actions which
have already been
decided on by the
time of speaking.
Present Continuous
Describes arrangements
made by the time of
speaking.
Mr. Parker is taking
Mr. Parker is going
Kitty and Amy off to
to take Kitty and Amy Scotland tonight. (He’s
off to Scotland
booked tickets.)
tonight.
Slide 72. PRESENT SIMPLE, PRESENT
CONTINUOUS, FUTURE CONTINUOUS.
Present Simple
Describes future events that
will happen according to the
timetable or plan. (Things
that are NOT under our
control.)
The boat leaves Dublin at 10
a.m. and sails one hundred
and fifty kilometres...
Tomorrow, I take part in four
graduation ceremonies as
Vice Chancellor of the
University of Dundee.
(According to my working
timetable.)
Present Continuous
Describes arrangements
and plans made by the
speaker.
Future Continuous
Can be used as a tactful way
of asking about someone’s
plans or refusing an invitation.
My wife and I are leaving How long will you be staying,
Venice next week.
Mr. Grimes?
Next week I'm taking part I’m sorry I can’t come to the
in a music quiz.
party as I’ll be working
nightshift.
(It’s my personal
decision.)
Note: The Future Continuous can also be used to talk about events that are a result of an
arrangement. There is little difference between this form and the Present Continuous.
CBS announces Dan Rather will be leaving/is leaving CBS News for good.
Slide 73. CLAUSES of TIME and
CONDITION vs OBJECT CLAUSES.
Clauses of Time and
Condition
He’ll start his own
business (WHEN?)
when he returns to
India.
I’ll forgive him (ON
WHAT CONDITION?) if
he convinces me he
meant no harm.
Object Clauses
I want to give my friends
tickets to the show but
I'm not sure (ABOUT
WHAT?) when they’ll be
able to attend.
I don’t know (WHAT?) if
he’ll cause conflict.
Slide 74. ADVERBS.
The Basics.
Adverbs are normally used to modify verbs (1), adjectives
(2), other adverbs (3) or whole clauses (4):
1. Adv + V
Shakespeare’s later texts occasionally
show signs of carelessness.
2. Adv + Adj London’s awfully expensive for shopping.
3. Adv + Adv We learn extremely slowly to trust each
other rather than be enemies.
4. Adv + Clause
Not surprisingly, only 24 per cent of
the respondents thought that the
company ‘treats employees well’.
Note that the verb BE is always followed by an adjective, NOT an
adverb.
Slide 75. Adverbs with two forms and
differences in meaning (I).
Direct meaning
Figurative meaning
deep (= a long way down)
The boy took a very big breath and dived
deep into the pool.
deeply (= greatly/thoroughly)
Anna was a strong woman, deeply
religious and intelligent.
high (= to a great height)
Peter felt so happy that he jumped high.
highly (= extremely)
He was highly respected both as a
musician and as a man with a gracious
personality.
wide (= opening or spreading as much as
possible)
Mrs. Williams opened the door wide and
stepped aside.
widely (= in a lot of places or by a lot
of people)
He became widely known and respected
as a writer of adventure stories.
Slide 76. Adverbs with two forms and
differences in meaning (II).
direct (= without stopping)
directly (= a) with no one in between
He went direct to Camp Lewis, and soon b)exactly)
from there to France.
I got that directly from someone who is
in a position to know.
The professor looked directly at us.
free (= without paying)
Greek politicians and their
travelled free on the airline.
freely (= as much as you like and in
what-ever way you like)
families We like to believe that people in this
country can speak freely.
hard (= with a lot of effort/a lot)
hardly (= scarcely, almost not)
The students were polite, reserved and You hardly know the depth of her
studied hard to graduate.
character and the strength of her love.
I laughed so hard I had tears in my eyes!
late (= not on time/not early)
John arrived late and missed the train.
lately (= recently)
Have I told you lately that I love you?
Slide 77. Comparison of adverbs.
Adverbs
Positive
Comparative
Superlative
Adverbs
having the
same form as
adjectives
soon
fast
near
sooner
faster
nearer
the soonest
the fastest
the nearest
Two syllable
or compound
adverbs
quietly
slowly
often
more quietly
more slowly*
more often
the most quietly
the most slowly
the most often
badly
well
much/many/a
lot
little
far
worse
better
more
less
farther/further
the worst
the best
the most
the least
the farthest/ furthest
Irregular
adverbs
* The adverbs which in spoken English have the same form as adjectives (cheap, loud, slow, quick) can form their comparatives and
superlatives in two ways:
I walked more slowly, looking at the trees now.
They walked slower, silently, past the library and into the park.
Slide 78. Position of adverbs in
sentences.
Adverbs can go in three different positions in a
sentence:
front position
Sometimes he tells the truth.
mid position
I’ve always been a quick reader.
end position.
He bought the house cheaply.
NB
Certain types of adverbs go mainly in mid position,
i.e. before the main verb but after the verb ‘be’ in
simple tenses; after the first auxiliary verb in
compound tenses.
Slide 79. Mid-position adverbs.
Adverbs of
frequency
always, ever, never, He is often late for classes.
often, rarely,
They never miss a chance to have fun.
seldom
Adverbs of time
already, just, no
longer, now, soon,
still, then
Adverbs of
certainty
certainly, definitely, She will probably need painkillers after
probably
the operation.
The musicians have definitely developed
their own style and sound.
They are still working on the album.
He will no longer have any doubt.
Note:The adverbs of certainty and the adverbs sometimes and still go before a negative
auxiliary. E.g. He probably won’t recognize you.They still haven't found what they're looking
for.
The adverbs of frequency and time OTHER THAN mentioned above can go in all the three
positions. e.g.Occasionally he took her out to lunch.Philip occasionally went to London during the
season. He went there occasionally to visit his brother.
Slide 80. Position of adverbs of
manner.
Adverbs of manner (which describe how
something is done) usually go in end position,
i.e. after the verb they modify or its object.
Tourism is developing fast in the area.
Adverbs ending in –ly (except badly) can also
go in mid position.
Marty got all his plumbing tools out and
arranged them carefully on the floor. (end
position)
He carefully arranged the jacket, so the collar
was right. (mid position)
Slide 81. Passive verb forms.
BE (in the necessary tense form) + DONE
The Internet
This matter
He
The information
was launched
in 1969.
Is being discussed right now in the US
Senate.
a born politician.
has been called
in
the
scientific
will be published
literature.
Notes: 1. The Passive can be used with modal verbs (modal + be + done)
e.g. The work can be divided into a few stages. People’s cultural beliefs
should be respected.
2. Future Continuous Passives (will be being done) and Perfect
Continuous Passives (has/had been being done) are unusual and should be
avoided.
Slide 82. Passives.
The particulars: Prepositional verbs
in the Passive.
accuse of
discriminate against
look for
rely on
NB
approve of
laugh at
look into
shout at
call in comment on
listen to look after
look upon mock at
talk about think of
deal with
look at
operate on
Verbs followed by a preposition in passive structures
take the preposition immediately after them.
The patient was operated on yesterday.
Every detail will be looked into.
This book is being much talked about.
Slide 83. Verbs with two objects that
can be used in two passive
structures.
ask give
grant lend
refuse
send
show
offer pay
teach
promise
tell
Verbs which take two objects, direct and indirect, can be used in two passive
structures.
Active: His brother has given him (1) money (2) to help him get married.*
Passive: (1) He has been given money to help him get married.
(2) Money has been given to him to help him get married.
* (1) is an indirect object; (2) is a direct object
NB
1. The first passive structure is more common.
2. In the second passive structure, the preposition ‘to’ is often used
before the indirect object.
Slide 84. Verbs with two objects that
can be used in one passive
structure.
announce
point out
devote
describe
propose
dictate
explain
suggest
Verbs which take two objects, direct and prepositional, can only
be used in one passive structure.
Active:
The teacher explained the rule (1) to the students (2).*
Passive: (1) The rule was explained to the students.
(2) Impossible!
* (1) is a direct object; (2) is a prepositional object
Slide 85. The definite article.
The Particulars (I).
THE+ADJECTIVE.
We use the definite article with adjectives
(without a noun) when we talk about groups of
people the same way we talk about some
nationalities:
the British the French the Spanish the Dutch
the young the rich the unemployed the sick
the old
the poor the homeless
the dead
The meaning is always plural: the disabled =
disabled people (in general), but a disabled
person.
Slide 86. Common verbs used to
introduce Reported Speech.
Statements
say, tell, explain, add,
continue, answer, reply,
admit, complain, mention,
remark, warn, state, stress
to report ideas: think,
decide, imagine
Questions
ask, want to know, enquire They asked why I did not
(formal),
want to go back.
wonder (спросить себя)
I wondered what she was
doing there.
a) Commands
a) tell, order, command,
forbid
b) ask, beg (умолять),
urge
(настоятельно
просить, настаивать)
b) Requests
She said she knew what she
was doing.
We never imagined that the
forest would be destroyed.
The judge ordered them to
learn to speak English.
I begged him to do me this
favour.
Slide 87. REPORTED STATEMENTS.
Direct Speech
Reported Speech
1. “Clothes are important to me,”
said Max.
2. She said, “I’m dating James now.”
3. The minister said, “I have recently
raised the question with the
government.”
4. Mary said, “I didn’t sleep at all last
night.”
5. May said, “I was taking myself too
seriously five years ago.”
6. “I had finished all that was
required of me by yesterday,” he said.
7. She told me, “I’ll call you
tomorrow.”
1. Max remarked that clothes were important
to him.
2. She said she was dating James at that time.
3. The minister stated that he had recently
raised the subject with the government.
4. Mary explained she hadn’t slept at all the
previous night.
5. May admitted she had been taking herself
too seriously five years before.
6. He said (that) he had finished all that was
required of him by the previous day.
7. She told me she would call me the
following day.
Slide 88. REPORTED QUESTIONS.
Direct Speech
Reported Speech
“Do you have any
questions,
comments, or
suggestions?”
asked the
chairman.
Special questions “Why did Max
wear this strange
outfit ?” she
asked.
The chairman asked
if we had any
questions, comments,
or suggestions.
General (yes/no)
questions
She wanted to know
why Max had worn
that strange outfit.
Slide 89. REPORTED COMMANDS
AND REQUESTS.
Direct Speech
Commands “Play quietly,” she said
to the children.
“Don’t ask any
questions,” said the man.
Requests
“Please wait outside,”
the secretary said to me.
“Please don’t mention
this to anyone,” said
Mary.
Reported Speech
She told the children
to play quietly.
The man forbade me
to ask any questions.
The secretary asked
me to wait outside.
Mary begged me not
to mention that to
anyone.
Slide 90. REPORTED SPEECH.
The Particulars. Pattern 1.
Verb + clause
admit, agree,
announce, believe,
boast, comment,
complain, conclude,
confess, decide, doubt,
exclaim, insist,
observe, point out,
predict, repeat, report,
respond etc.
“I’m not sure security
is good.”
→ He
doubted that security
was good.
“Significant progress
has been achieved on
key issues.” → The
Minister announced
that significant
progress had been
achieved on key
issues.
Slide 91. REPORTED SPEECH.
The Particulars. Pattern 2.
Verb + object
+ clause
assure, inform,
reassure, remind,
warn
“The school will be
conducting a leadership
training camp.” →
The letter informed the
students that the school
will be conducting a
leadership training camp.
Slide 92. REPORTED SPEECH.
The Particulars. Pattern 3.
Verb + infinitive
agree,
guarantee,
offer,
promise,
refuse,
threaten
“I’m ready to resign.” →
The chairman of the board
offered to resign.
Slide 93. REPORTED SPEECH.
The Particulars. Pattern 4.
Verb + object
+ infinitive
advise, allow, ask,
beg, encourage,
forbid, force, instruct,
invite, order, permit,
persuade, remind,
request, tell, urge,
warn
“Always think for
yourselves.” → Their
father
encouraged
them to think for
themselves.
“Be careful with the
motor-bike!” → She
warned him to be
careful
with
the
motorbike.
Slide 94. REPORTED SPEECH.
The Particulars. Pattern 5.
Verb + -ing
form
admit, apologise for
smth (to smb), decide
on, deny, mention,
recommend, regret,
report, suggest
“Sorry, I told a lie,”
he said. →
He apologised for
telling a lie.
“Let’s go out for
lunch.”
→
She
suggested going out
for lunch.
Slide 95. REPORTED SPEECH.
The Particulars. Pattern 6.
Verb + object
+ preposition
+ ing-form
accuse smb of,
blame smb for,
congratulate smb
on, thank smb for
“It's your fault that you
aren't succeeding in
sales.” → The manager
blamed me for not
succeeding in sales.
Slide 96. INFINITIVE.
Forms.
Active
Passive
Simple
To do
To be done
Perfect
To have done
Continuous
To be doing
To have been
done
____________
Perfect
Continuous
To have been
doing
____________
Slide 97. Common Structures with
the Infinitive.
Pattern 1: Infinitive phrase after the adjectives expressing
someone's feelings.
delighted
fortunate
glad
happy
(un)lucky
(dis)pleased
proud
sorry
surprised, etc.
You can use a to-infinitive if the subject is the same in both clauses.
If the subjects are different, you must use a that-clause.
To-infinitive: He is glad to have been invited to the party.
Он рад, что его пригласили на вечеринку.
That-clause: He is glad that his girlfriend was invited to the party.
Он рад, что его девушку пригласили на вечеринку.
Note: The most common infinitives used in this pattern are: find,
learn, hear, see, say, tell, inform.
e.g. I was pleased to hear/see/learn that I'd passed my exam.
Slide 98. Common Structures with
the Infinitive.
Pattern 2: 'Of-phrase' with the Infinitive expressing praise or criticism.
You use the structure 'of someone + to-infinitive' after the
following adjectives:
clever /sensible
kind
silly/stupid
good
nice
typical/characteristic
generous
(im)polite wrong/bad, etc.
e.g. It’s very kind of you to help us.
Очень мило с вашей стороны
помочь нам.
It was typical of him to be late for
classes.
Ему было свойственно (для
него
типично) опаздывать на
занятия.
Slide 99. Common Structures with
the Infinitive.
Pattern 3: Infinitive used after adjectives describing personal
opinions.
When you want to express an opinion about someone or
something, you often use an adjective followed by 'to'infivitive.
easy
hard
(un)pleasant
difficult
interesting (un)safe , etc.
dangerous
(im)possible
e.g. The problem is hard to solve.
She was interesting to talk to.
Note: In this function you always use the Active Infinitive. (to solve,
to talk, etc. NOT ‘to be talked, to be solved, etc.’)
NB
Slide 100. Common Structures with
the Infinitive.
Pattern 5: Infinitive used to express purpose.
The infinitive in this function is always used with to.
e.g. We must make every effort to find a diplomatic solution to the
crisis.
To keep warm at night, you should buy an electric blanket.
In a more formal style you can use 'in order to' or 'so as to'
e.g. She started to cry in order to arouse pity from her parents.
We are doing a research so as to keep up with the market needs.
In negative sentences, 'so as not to' is usually used. (NOT
'not to' alone)
e.g. We left early so as not to be late.
Slide 101. Common Structures with
the Infinitive.
Pattern 6: Infinitive used to express result.
Adjective/adverb + enough + infinitive
too + adjective/adverb + infinitive
She’s old enough to do some work.
NB
He was driving slowly enough to enjoy
the view.
She’s too old to do any work.
He was driving too fast to enjoy the view.
Note: It is important not to put an object after the infinitive in this structure.
Compare:
The bag is too heavy (for
me) to carry. → (NOT ‘to
carry it’)
The bag is very heavy.
I can't carry it.
The bag is so heavy
that I can't carry it.
The bag is light enough
The bag is quite light. I
(for me) to carry. → (NOT can carry it.
‘to carry it’)
The bag is so light that
I can carry it.
Slide 102. COMPLEX OBJECT.
1. Verb + noun/pronoun + infinitive (with to)
You can use this verb pattern after some verbs of wanting
and liking: want, wish, expect, (would) like, (would)
love, (would) prefer, (would) hate.
I'd like you to come
back soon.
He didn’t want his
son
to
study
abroad.
Did you expect this
to happen?
I would hate anyone
to think I'm a liar.
Я бы хотел, чтобы ты
поскорее вернулся.
Он не хотел, чтобы его
сын учился за границей.
Вы ожидали, что это
произойдёт?
Мне
бы
ужасно
не
понравилось, если бы ктонибудь
считал
меня
Slide 103. COMPLEX OBJECT.
2. Perception verb + noun/pronoun +
infinitive (without to)/ -ing form
The verbs of perception see, hear, watch, notice, feel, observe can be followed
either by an infinitive without 'to' or present participle (-ing form).
Complete action
(infinitive without ‘to’)
Action in progress
(-ing form)
Succession of actions
( infinitive without ‘to’)
I saw him lock the door.
I saw him coming up the
stairs.
I saw her wash the dishes and
put them in the cupboard.
Я видел, как/что он закрыл Я видел, как он
дверь.
поднимался по лестнице.
Я видел, как/что она вымыла
посуду и положила её в буфет.
Notes: 1. The verb smell is usually used with an -ing form.
2. The -ing form is not usual for very short actions.
e.g. I heard him cough. (once)
I heard him coughing. (repeatedly)
Slide 104. COMPLEX OBJECT.
The verbs of perception see, hear, observe
are often used in the passive followed by an
–ing form or an infinitive with ‘to’.
e.g. They were seen to enter the (complete action)
building.
They were seen unlocking (action in progress)
the door.
Slide 105. COMPLEX OBJECT.
You CANNOT use the Complex Object if the verbs see, hear,
notice, feel change their lexical meaning and are no longer
verbs of perception. You must use a that-clause.
e.g. I see (=think, understand)
I’ve heard/hear*(=have learnt)
you're going out tonight.
he donates a lot of money to charity.
He noticed (=realized)
She felt (=believed)
that she was in a bad mood.
that he no longer loved her.
* I hear = I've heard, I heard
The Present Simple often replaces the Past Simple or Present Perfect in
expressions like ‘I see/I hear’ used to talk about things one has found out.
Slide 106. Mustn't versus Not have to.
Absence of
necessity
Prohibition
Emphatic
Advice
You don't have to tell
her. She knows the
news already.
You mustn't * tell her.
/You can't tell her. The
news may upset her.
You mustn't get
upset.
Вам не нужно (нет
необходимости)
сообщать ей
новость. Она её уже
знает.
Нельзя сообщать ей
новость. Она её может
расстроить.
Ну не
расстраивайся!
* Note: In spoken English must not is usually avoided when you speak to or
about another adult. Can't is normally used instead.
e.g. You can't leave until I say so.
Slide 107. ABSENCE of NECESSITY:
Present.
Modals
Needn’t
Uses
Examples
1. The speaker expresses his
personal opinion that something
is not necessary.
We needn't hurry. We have
plenty of time.
2. The speaker gives permission
not to do something.
You needn't come if you are
busy.
The speaker talks about a general
Don’t need to necessity.
You don't need to have a visa to
go to Turkey.
He does not need to pay the
fare.– He is an old age
pensioner.
Slide 108. ABSENCE of NECESSITY:
Past.
Didn't need to
Needn’t have done
Something was not necessary
and usually it was not done
Someone did something which
was not necessary
I didn't need to cook any food. I
was leaving that night.
I needn't have cooked so much
food.
My friends called and said they
were not coming.
Напрасно (зря) я приготовил
столько еды. Друзья позвонили
мне и сказали, что не придут.
Мне не надо было (не было
необходимости) готовить еду.
Вечером того дня я уезжал.
Slide 109. BE + ‘to’-infinitive.
Uses
Example
Arrangements A seminar is to
for the future be held in
October.
They were to
get married in
June.
Orders and
instructions
Translation
Семинар должен
состояться в октябре.
Они должны были
пожениться в июне.
This form is to Анкету нужно
be filled in and заполнить и сдать в
returned within течение 10 дней.
10 days.
Slide 110. INDIRECT COMMANDS.
She says that such people
are not to be trusted.
(strict prohibition )
I was to destroy the
document as soon as I’d
read it.
Она говорит, что таким
людям нельзя доверять.
Я должен был (был
проинструктирован)
уничтожить документ
сразу же после прочтения.
Slide 111. Common Structures with the
Infinitive.
Pattern 4: Infinitive used as Attribute to replace Relative clauses.
After ordinal numbers
the first, the second, etc.
He was the first to leave/ to be given a prize.
After the next, the last, the only
She was the last (guest) to arrive at the party.
He was the only person/ one to complain.
After the superlatives
the best, the most suitable, etc.
The best place to see is Stanley Park.
You are the most suitable man to carry out
the task.
After nouns
George is just the man to vote for.
There’s some work to do/ to be done.
I have letters to write.
After pronouns
something/anything/nothing;
someone/anyone/no one;
a lot, much, little, etc.
I’ll have something to dream about.
We’ve got so much to learn.
Slide 112. COMPLEX OBJECT after
Causative Verbs.
Causative verb + noun/pronoun + infinitive (with or without ‘to’)
Verb + infinitive without 'to'
make I made him do his homework. (заставлять, принуждать)
have
let
Equivalents
-force
Jane has her son clean his room on Sundays. (велеть, поручить,
распорядиться)
– tell, order,
instruct
We had them postpone the discussion. (добиться)
-persuade
I won't have you say such things in my presence. (не позволять,
не допускать)
-won’t allow/let
Let him go home. (позволить, пусть)
I'm letting you stay up late just this once. (позволять,
разрешать)
Let's go out to dinner, shall we? (Давайте/Что если ...)
Let's not argue.
–suggest/Why
not...
/How about...
Slide 113. COMPLEX OBJECT after
Causative Verbs.
Causative verb + noun/pronoun + infinitive (with or without ‘to’)
get
Verb + infinitive with 'to'
I must get John to help me with the
computer. (попросить)
You'll never get me to do scuba
diving. (убедить)
Equivalents
-ask
– persuade
Slide 114. Modals.
ABILITY: can, could, be able to
Time reference +
meaning
Affirmative
cannot (can’t) = am/is/are not
able =am/is/are not able =
He can run fast. = He is able am/is/are unable
He cannot (can't) run fast. = He
to run fast
is not able (is unable) to run fast.
Present
ability/inability
can = am/is/are able
Past
ability/inability
could
He could run fast. = He was
able to run fast.
Past ability + successful
performance of an action
on one occasion
Negative
was/were able
He was finally able to set a
record.
= could and did set a record
could not (couldn’t) =was/were
not able = was/were unable
He couldn't stop laughing.
= He was not able (was unable)
to stop laughing.
__________________________
Slide 115. Modals.
Permission.
Asking for
Permission
Asking for
Assistance
Can/Could/May I please use your cell phone?
Do you think I could possibly leave early
today?
Would it be all right if I bring/brought my bike
inside?
I wonder if I could/ might borrow this book?
Can / Could / Will/ Would you please open the
window for me?
I’m sorry to trouble you, but could you please
lend me some money?
Would you mind taking a photo of us?
Slide 116. Modals. OBLIGATION:
must, have to/have got to
modals
uses
examples
must
1. obligation that comes from the speaker I must give up smoking.
(I want to)
2. public notices and documents
Application forms must be
returned to the office within
expressing commands
15 days.
(written and formal English)
You must see the Picasso
3. strong recommendation, emphatic
exhibition.
advice
have to
obligation that comes from 'outside'
have got to single actions!
(informal English)
I have to give up smoking.
(My doctor wants me to)
I've got to see a doctor.
Have you got to leave now?
I haven't got to work
tomorrow.
Slide 117. PAST PERFECT.
Действие или ряд
действий, которые
совершились:
1. раньше другого
действия в прошлом,
выраженного формой Past
Simple
2. к определённому
моменту в прошлом
Состояние, длившееся
некоторое время до
определенного момента
или другого действия в
прошлом
Когда я позвонил, он When I called, he had already
уже ушел.
left.
К июню (к тому By June ( that time, etc.) I
времени и т.д.) я уже had completed the research.
закончил
это
исследование.
Её звонок не удивил
его. Он знал Лори
более четырех лет по
совместной работе.
The call didn’t surprise him.
He had known Laurie for
more than four years as a
colleague.
Slide 118. The use of tenses with
by the time … expressions
Tense
Use
Examples
Past Simple
state
By that time, he knew he
wanted to be a geologist.
Past Continuous
action in progress
By the time he put the key
into the lock, his heart was
thumping in his chest.
Past Perfect
completed action
By the time he reached his
hotel, Craig had caught a
chill.
Past Perfect
Continuous
action which had been
going on for some time
By the time he reached
harbour, he had been
sailing for two nights
without sleep.
Slide 119. ARTICLES.
The Basics.
“a”
“0”
“the”
The indefinite article is
used to speak about
somebody or
something the speaker
sees as unknown or
indefinite.
There is a man to see
you.
You can buy a
newspaper here.
The zero article is
used to speak about
people or things the
speaker sees as
unknown or
indefinite.
There are _0_ men to
see you.
You can buy _0_
newspapers here.
The definite article is
used to speak about
somebody or something
already known to the
speakers or definite in
their minds.
The man who wants to
see you is our customer.
The men who want to
see…
I read the newspaper(s)
with great interest.
Slide 120. Meanings conveyed by
the articles.
“a”
“the”
one of many,
some/any =
некий,
какой-то
They went to a party.
A Mr. Smith phoned you.
He is a journalist with the
BBC.
this/that = тот
самый.
these/those= те
самые
They enjoyed the
party (they went to).
The Smith from the
BBC phoned you.
The flowers in your
garden look pretty.
one = один
We’ve got an apple tree and the only =
many strawberry beds in our единственный
garden.
Our life depends on
the sun.
Russia is the largest
country in the world.
any =
любой,
каждый
A child can do it.
his/her/its/their She lived alone and
she never left the
Books can be borrowed from /etc = чей-то
конкретно
house.
a library.
He took her by the
Choose a career you like.
hand.
Slide 121. The use of articles with
geographical names (I).
The article “the” is used with the names of:
oceans
seas
rivers
channels
canals
gulfs
the Arctic Ocean
the Black Sea
the Volga
the English Channel
the Suez Canal
the Gulf of California
groups of lakes
groups of islands
peninsulas
mountain ranges
deserts
the Great Lakes
the British Isles
the Cola Peninsula
the Urals
the Sahara Desert
Slide 122. The use of articles with
geographical names (II).
The zero article is used with the names of:
planets
continents
countries*
states, provinces and
counties
cities
Mars, Venus
Australia BUT the Americas
Great Britain BUT the Russian
Federation
Texas, Alberta, Sussex
Moscow, New Orleans BUT the Hague
bays
an island (singular)
a lake (singular)
a mountain
capes
Hudson Bay
Sicily
Lake Baikal
Mount Everest
Cape Cod, The Cape (= The Cape of
Good Hope)
Slide 123. The article with
uncountable nouns.
The basics.
Nouns
Material
Food and drink
Abstract idea
Activity
Area of Study/Language
Disease
“0”
“the”
The zero article is used to
speak about the substance,
idea, or thing in general.
e.g.
_0_ Coffee keeps one
awake.
_0_ Life is impossible
without _0_ water
.
_0_ Hunting was the main
occupation of prehistoric
men.
The definite article is used
to speak about a particular
amount of the substance, a
particular idea or thing
e.g.
The coffee was horrible.
The life of survivors was
hard.
The water found on the
island was undrinkable.
The Hunting of the
President has become a
bestseller.
Slide 124. The use of articles with
proper nouns.
The zero article is used with the names of:
streets
roads
squares
avenues
boulevards
lanes
parks
bridges
Oxford Street but the Strand, the Mall
Charing Cross Road
Washington Square
Fifth Avenue
Sunset Boulevard
Park Lane
Green Park
Tower bridge but the Brooklyn Bridge (and many others!)
airports
stations
universities
Heathrow Airport
Paddington Station
Columbia University
Slide 125. The use of articles with
proper nouns.
The zero article is also used:
In two-word names if the first word
is the name of a person or place
With a possessive noun before the
name
if the names of hotels, banks, shops,
etc. begin with the name of their
founder and end in -s or –‘s
Buckingham Palace,
Windsor Castle
St Paul’s Cathedral
Tailors Hotel, Lloyds
Bank, Selfridges,
Igg’s
Slide 126. The use of articles with
proper nouns.
The article “the” is usually used with the names of:
motorways/freeways
hotels
theatres
cinemas
museums, galleries
buildings
N
B
the A 11
the Hilton
the Palladium
the Odeon
The Natural History Museum, the National
Gallery
The White House, the Millennium Dome
Note: All names which include of are used with
the definite article
e.g. the University of York, the Palace of
Westminster
Slide 127. The definite article.
Revision.
The Basics.
The definite article is used to speak about
somebody or something already
known to the speakers or
definite in their minds.
e.g.
The man who wants to see you
is our customer.
The men who want to see…
I read the newspaper(s) with
great interest.
a particular amount of the
substance, a particular idea or
thing
e.g.
The coffee was horrible.
The life of survivors was hard.
The water found on the island
was undrinkable.
The Hunting of the President has
become a bestseller.
Slide 128. The definite article.
The Particulars (II).
We usually use the definite article with the
following nouns (countable and uncountable)
when we use them in a general way : the
country(side), the earth ( = the world we live
in), the environment, the future,* the
ground, the past, the public*, the sea*, the
seaside, the sky, the weather, the world, etc.
Slide 129. The definite article.
The Particulars (III).
We also say, the cinema, the theatre, the radio
(BUT television) unless we mean a particular
thing
e.g. 1. Most people prefer to go to the cinema in
company rather than alone.
2. Every Greek town had a theatre.
Slide 130. The definite article.
The Particulars (IV).
The definite article is used with nouns which are
followed by a limiting, defining phrase
(ограничивающее определение) such as ofphrase or which-phrase.
e.g.
She married the son of a butcher.
He pointed at the map which was hanging on the
wall.
N
B
Slide 131. TILL/UNTIL & UNLESS.
Note: Remember that till/until and unless have a
negative meaning and avoid double negation.
Until you make a decision you really won't
know if it is a good one or a bad one.
Пока вы не примете решение, вы не узнаете,
хорошее оно или плохое.
Unless she works hard, she won’t get a
promotion.
Если она не будет много работать, она не
получит повышения по службе.
Slide 132. Many and much in
positive sentences.
Many and much are often used in positive sentences:
a) in a formal style
Many features of the early American cultures were
based on maize.
Much of Britain is densely populated and intensively
farmed.
b) when they are modified by so/too/very
I’ve got so many problems at the moment.
I’m afraid I spend too much time on my research.
Slide 133. Modal Verbs in Reported
Speech (I).
can → could
“I can’t make a decision without knowing the
facts.” → He said he couldn’t make a decision
without knowing the facts.
can → would be “I can fix the problems next week.” → She
able
said she would be able to fix the problems the
following week.
may → might
“We may choose not to have children at all.”
→ A fifth of the women surveyed said they
(possibility)
might choose not to have children at all.
shall → should “Where shall I sign up?” → She asked where
she should sign up.
Slide 134. Modal Verbs in Reported
Speech (II).
must → must/had to
(obligation)
“You must have surgery as soon as
possible.” → The doctor said I must/
had to have surgery as soon as possible.
“You must be mistaken.” → He said I
must be mistaken.
must → must
(должно быть)
needn’t → didn’t “You needn’t worry about cooking any
need to/didn’t have to more.” → He said I didn’t need
to/didn’t have to worry about cooking
any more.
N
B
Note: ought to, should, could, might, had better
do not change when reported.
Slide 135. The Indefinite Article.
The Basics. Revision (II).
Meanings conveyed by the indefinite article
one of many, e.g. They went to a party.
some/any = A Mr. Smith phoned you.
некий,
He is a journalist with the BBC.
какой-то
one = один
e.g. We’ve got an apple tree and many
strawberry beds in our garden.
any = любой, e.g. A child can do it
каждый
Books can be borrowed from a library.
Choose a career you like.
Slide 136. SAY AND TELL.
Patterns
Examples
SAY
1. SAY THAT
2. SAY TO SMB (THAT)
3. SAY a word/a name/
a sentence/a phrase
1. She says that someone is
waiting for you.
2. And do you know what
they said to us?
3. The next day at school,
Sam didn't say a word to
Mel.
TELL
1. TELL SMB (THAT)
2. TELL SMB TO DO SMTH
3. TELL the truth/a lie/
a story/a joke
1. You never told me that
you don’t like football.
2. He told the students to
work hard and revise for
the exams.
3. Do you think he told the
truth?
Slide 137. SPEAK AND TALK.
Uses
SPEAK
1. physical ability to speak
2. knowledge and use of
languages
3. one-way communication
4. formal lectures
(to speak on a subject)
5. on the phone
TALK
1. conversational exchanges
2. informal situations
3. informal lectures
(to talk about a subject)
4. talk sense/nonsense
Examples
1. He hasn't been able to speak for about a week
now.
2. California alone has 5.5 million people who
speak Spanish at home.
3. I feel embarrassed when I have to speak to
my boss.
4. Today we are welcoming the Premier of
Ontario, who is going to speak to us on Canada
and the Constitution.
5. Hello. Could I speak to John Martin, please?
1. Everybody was talking and laughing and
telling stories of their youth.
2. Valerie, could I talk to you in the kitchen?
3. This is Mr John Nolan, who is going to talk
to us about the upcoming holiday season.
4. Now you're talking sense! That's a good boy.
Slide 138. EVERY, EACH, ALL.
Uses
Examples
EVERY
(Shows that 3 or
more objects are
considered
together as a
group.)
1. with singular
nouns
EVERY individual is responsible for their* actions.
A Polish proverb suggests that EVERY error has its
excuse.
Stop changing television channels EVERY five
minutes!**
EACH
(Shows that 2 or
more objects are
considered
separately.)
1. with singular
nouns
ALL
1. with plural
nouns
2. with
uncountable
nouns
2. with plural
nouns
2. with plural
pronouns
EACH student will demonstrate their skills during the
contest.
EACH plan has its advantages.
We EACH*** know when we're free and when we're not.
EACH of us knows the lyrics to a thousand pop songs.
ALL (the)**** girls are lovely.
ALL of my/these/the/etc. CDs are from my elder brother.
ALL money has been stolen.
ALL of the champagne we have is from France.
Slide 139. ELSE, OTHER and
ANOTHER.
Pattern
Examples
ELSE
1. what (who, where, 1. What else did he tell you?
when, how) else
How else can you explain all this?
2. I didn't see anything else that caught my interest at the
store.
2. something
Some of these species are found nowhere else on earth.
(anything, nothing,
etc.) else
OTHER
1. what other + noun What other benefits can credit cards offer?
2. some (any, no)
other
ANOTHER another few (two,
five, etc.) + plural
noun
Sorry, I’ve got no other ideas.
He’s coming back in another few days.
Follow this road for another five miles or so.
Slide 140. ANOTHER, the OTHER,
(the) OTHERS.
Number
singular
Indefinite
pronouns
another*
the other
plural
others / other
+ pl N
Russian
Examples
1) еще один
2) (какойнибудь)
другой
другой (из
двух)
1. Could I have another look at the map?
2. Could I have another test instead of an
x-ray?
другие
Some college students prefer to live
alone. Others / other students prefer to
live with roommates in a dormitory.
the others /
остальные
the other + pl
N
When Eric heard Sam on the other end of
the line, he hung up.
One of the young men is played by a real
actor; the others / the other actors are
non-professionals.
Slide 141. DO vs MAKE.
1. Activity vs result.
DO
Use
Examples
1. indefinite activities (with
something, anything, nothing,
everything, thing, what)
2. repeated or regular
activities (work, job, hobbies)
3. in the structure do +
some/the …ing
1. Have you ever disliked anyone who has
done nothing to you?
MAKE Emphasizes the end product,
or result, of an action rather
than the activity itself.
2. The firm has been doing the work for
more than 15 years.
3. Most travelers go to Fiji to do some
swimming, snorkeling or diving.
Janett did all the talking. I mostly listened
to her talk.
I’d be happy to make you a cup of tea or
coffee.
He plans to set up a small workshop to
make carpets.
At that time the workers were making a fire
to cook their dinner.
Slide 142. DO vs MAKE.
2. Common fixed expressions.
DO
one’s best
business
one’s duty
(an) exercise
a favour
good
MAKE
one’s hair
harm
homework
housework
research
sport
an attempt
arrangements
a decision
an effort
an exception
a fire
a fortune
a fuss
a mistake
money
a noise
peace
a plan
a profit
progress
a suggestion
Slide 143. Saying “NO”.
Use
V+Noun
decline smth (an offer,
an invitation, a request,
etc.)
отклонить
V+Infinitive
DECLINE
(fml)
to refuse
politely
REFUSE*
in a decisive, or refuse
smth
(an refuse to do
even rude way invitation, an offer, a отказаться
drink, etc.)
отказаться
REJECT
to refuse
strongly
reject smth (an
argument, an idea, a
plan,etc.)
отвергнуть
decline to do
(= be unwilling to do)
отказаться
_________
Note: Chris refused an offer (NOT Chris refused from an offer).
Slide 144. THIS/THESE and
THAT/THOSE (I).
this/these
that/those
people and things
close to the speaker in time and more distant from the speaker in
space
time and space
Do you know this little boy?
Who's that little boy that's looking
I love these shoes! They felt great at me?
right out of the box.
It would be interesting indeed to
look back on all those shoes we
have worn over time.
attitudes
interest, positive attitude
dislike, critical attitude
Well, I would certainly like to meet Now, tell those friends of yours to
these friends of yours sometime.
empty out their pockets too.
Slide 145. THIS/THESE and
THAT/THOSE (II).
this/these
that/those
situations and experiences
which are going on or are about to which have just finished or are
start
more distant in the past
I like this music!
Do you remember that festival in
Copenhagen?
I wonder what happened at that
I’m so sad that I won’t be at this
party.
party.
on the telephone
to identify yourself
Hello, this is Jim Rockford. At the
tone, leave your name and
message.
to ask about the hearer’s identity
Hello? Is that the pizza delivery
service?
Slide 146. AS and LIKE.
Meaning
Pattern
Examples
AS
‘in the role of’
(в качестве)
as + noun
Now, as your elder brother,
I advise you to go to bed! (I
am your brother.)
LIKE
‘similar to’, ‘in
the same way
as’
(подобно)
like +
noun/prono
un
Like your brother, I think
you should go to bed. (I am
not your brother, but I have a
similar attitude.)
NOTE: As is also used in comparisons in the following patterns:
as + clause Nicholas will spend those two weeks, as he does every summer, in
Brighton.
as + prepositional phrase In 2004, as in 2000, The Republicans won the elections in
the US.
Slide 147. FIRST and AT FIRST.
FIRST
AT FIRST
Use
Examples
1. first item or point on the First I went to New York
list
City for a day, and then to
Atlanta, Georgia.
2. before anything or John arrived there first and
waited outside.
anyone else
3. for the first time
He first saw Philip in 1998.
to contrast two different
situations in time (often
followed by but)
At first Max didn’t realize
what had happened, but
when he did he started to
cry.
Slide 148. OFFER and SUGGEST.
Russian
Pattern
OFFER
1. предлагать =
давать что-л.
2. предлагать =
вызываться
сделать что-л.
1. offer sth
SUGGEST
1. предлагать =
подавать идею
1. suggest sth
2. предлагать чтол. сделать кому-л.
(a) или вместе (b)
Examples
1. They offered me some
money for the work.
2. offer to do sth 2. He offered to help me
with the translation.
1. The Minister suggested a
programme of economic
reform.
Someone suggested the
Hotel Bernardi.
2. a) My friend suggested
2. a) suggest
that I should complain to
that sb should
the manager of the hotel.
do sth
b) Tom suggested eating
b) suggest doing out.
sth
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