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Alfred Nobel University,
Dnipropetrovsk
INTERNATIONAL LABOUR
MIGRATION
Nadiya Dunduk
IE-11
Outline
1. The essence, factors and forms of international
migration.
2. Reasons for international labor migration.
3. Ukraine and international labor migration.
Today, it is estimated
that 105 million
people are working in
a country other than
their country of birth.
3 % of the world's population
One of every 31 people in the
world is a migrant.
International migration
• is defined as the movement of people from one country
to another for the purpose of living.
Forms of migration
External (International
Migration)
Emigration
s the act of leaving
one's native country.
i
Internal migration
refers to human migration within
one geopolitical entity, usually a
nation.
Immigration is the
movement of people into a
country to which they are not
native in order to settle there.
Kinds of migration
• permanent migration
• temporary migration
• seasonal migration
• push-pull migration
Reasons for migration
International labour migration
• is defined as the movement of people from one
country to another for the purpose of employment.
• The number of people living outside their country of
birth has increased from 75 million in 1960 to nearly
214 million in 2010.
Factors of intensity of international
labour force migration
National differences in wages and salaries
Country
The USA
Canada
Japan
Germany
France
The UK
Italy
Russia
Ukraine
average wage, per month
$3,000
2,650
2,700
2,030
2,350
2,250
2,150
500
300
Brain Drain
• Brain drain or human capital flight is an
emigration of trained and talented individuals
to other nations or jurisdictions.
Feminization of labour migration
• The term “Feminization of labour migration” must
not be misunderstood:
Women have always migrated.
The proportion of women in global migration flows has
not significantly fluctuated over the past 50 years (around
46.6% in 1960; 49% in 1990; and 49% in 2010).
Population of Ukraine (1990-2012)
mn. people
52
51
50
49
48
47
46
45
44
43
42
41
2012
2011
2010
2009
2008
2006
2004
2002
2000
1998
1996
1994
1992
1990
40
Labor emigration from Ukraine
• The main countries for Ukrainian emigrants
are Russia, Israel, the USA, Germany,
Belarus, Czech republic, Canada, Poland and
Australia.
The emigrant flows include two
segments:
• highly-qualified labour force interested in fuller
realization of their potential and higher payment for
their work;
• poorly-skilled labour force for whom emigration is
an alternative to unemployment.
The emigration of highly-skilled population and
scientists from Ukraine has reached threatening
scope.
• Ukraine loses about $ 1 bln annually due to brain-drain.
• From 1991 to 2005 more than 600 doctors of science
and 1107 candidates of science emigrated from
Ukraine.
• From 1997 to 2005 99,777 people having higher
education emigrated from Ukraine
Conclusion
Migration is a common phenomenon. The
world is shrinking. The world is becoming a
global village. Country boundaries and
barriers no longer restrict people’s
movement.
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