Alfred Nobel University, Dnipropetrovsk INTERNATIONAL LABOUR MIGRATION Nadiya Dunduk IE-11 Outline 1. The essence, factors and forms of international migration. 2. Reasons for international labor migration. 3. Ukraine and international labor migration. Today, it is estimated that 105 million people are working in a country other than their country of birth. 3 % of the world's population One of every 31 people in the world is a migrant. International migration • is defined as the movement of people from one country to another for the purpose of living. Forms of migration External (International Migration) Emigration s the act of leaving one's native country. i Internal migration refers to human migration within one geopolitical entity, usually a nation. Immigration is the movement of people into a country to which they are not native in order to settle there. Kinds of migration • permanent migration • temporary migration • seasonal migration • push-pull migration Reasons for migration International labour migration • is defined as the movement of people from one country to another for the purpose of employment. • The number of people living outside their country of birth has increased from 75 million in 1960 to nearly 214 million in 2010. Factors of intensity of international labour force migration National differences in wages and salaries Country The USA Canada Japan Germany France The UK Italy Russia Ukraine average wage, per month $3,000 2,650 2,700 2,030 2,350 2,250 2,150 500 300 Brain Drain • Brain drain or human capital flight is an emigration of trained and talented individuals to other nations or jurisdictions. Feminization of labour migration • The term “Feminization of labour migration” must not be misunderstood: Women have always migrated. The proportion of women in global migration flows has not significantly fluctuated over the past 50 years (around 46.6% in 1960; 49% in 1990; and 49% in 2010). Population of Ukraine (1990-2012) mn. people 52 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2006 2004 2002 2000 1998 1996 1994 1992 1990 40 Labor emigration from Ukraine • The main countries for Ukrainian emigrants are Russia, Israel, the USA, Germany, Belarus, Czech republic, Canada, Poland and Australia. The emigrant flows include two segments: • highly-qualified labour force interested in fuller realization of their potential and higher payment for their work; • poorly-skilled labour force for whom emigration is an alternative to unemployment. The emigration of highly-skilled population and scientists from Ukraine has reached threatening scope. • Ukraine loses about $ 1 bln annually due to brain-drain. • From 1991 to 2005 more than 600 doctors of science and 1107 candidates of science emigrated from Ukraine. • From 1997 to 2005 99,777 people having higher education emigrated from Ukraine Conclusion Migration is a common phenomenon. The world is shrinking. The world is becoming a global village. Country boundaries and barriers no longer restrict people’s movement.