close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

код для вставкиСкачать
Risks of Russian Economic Reforms:
Lack of Theoretical Economic
Knowledge
Svetlana Kirdina
Institute of Economics, Russian
Academy of Science,
Russia, Moscow
1
Knowledge and Society, 2006,
September, 21-22, Madrid, Spain
Main idea of presentation
 to show that the theoretical basis of the
reforms conducted in the society is of
paramount importance;

2
Russia as an example.
Knowledge and Society, 2006,
September, 21-22, Madrid, Spain
Presentation structure
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
3
The situation in the field of theoretical economic knowledge
in our country during the disintegration of the Soviet Union
(1980-1990)
Which economic theories did our reform-makers address to
and why.
Neo-institutional program of economic reforms in Russia
Neo-institutional program performance: unexpected risks
The development of Russian institutionalism
Russian institutionalism on economic reforms program:
alternative project
Reforms’ results
Conclusion
Knowledge and Society, 2006,
September, 21-22, Madrid, Spain
The situation in the field of theoretical
economic knowledge during the
disintegration of the Soviet Union



4
Political economy of socialism, as the dominant
domestic economic theory, failed to foresee
economical and political crisis in the USSR in the
1990th
The trust to domestic economic theoretical
knowledge was compromised
Foreign economic theories, neo-institutionalism
especially, became the theoretical basis for Russian
reforms
Knowledge and Society, 2006,
September, 21-22, Madrid, Spain
Why did Russian reform-makers
address to neo-institutional economic
theory (neo-institutionalism)?




5
The creation of new market institutions became the essence of the
reformation process (economic institutions are the main subject of
neo-institutionalism);
Neo-institutional theories pay a special attention to formal contracts
between economic actors. The task of Russian reform was to
formulate clearly vague property rights and economic duties of actors;
Neo-institutional theories consider the transaction costs minimization
as a criteria for creation of new institutions. Russian economy needed
efficient new rules in order to decrease total economic expenses;
Young economists (Yegor Gaydar, Anatholy Tchubays and others)
were at the head of the reforms. They all had negative attitudes to
political economy of socialism but they knew foreign economic
theories. At that time neo-institutionalism was popular. Thus Nobel
Prize winners for economics in early 1990th were neo-institutionalists,
e.g. Douglass C. North, Ronald H. Coase.
Knowledge and Society, 2006,
September, 21-22, Madrid, Spain
Neo-institutional (liberal) program
of economic reforms in Russia




6
The support of market privatization/ That means:
- the separation and further merger of property among
responsible economic actors,
- the spread of competition and contract relations
with profit motivation as the main economic criteria;
The transparency of financial flows in economic
activity, because otherwise it is impossible to define
the responsibilities and duties of economic actors;
The development of the economic legislation basis;
Broad participation of citizens and all hierarchic levels
actors in the reform process.
Knowledge and Society, 2006,
September, 21-22, Madrid, Spain
Neo-institutional program
performance: unexpected risks



7
political end economic efforts and expenses of
reforming process are extremely high. Nevertheless
the declared targets were not achieved;
reproduction processes are broken, branch and
regional structure of production is distorted, which
leads to the decries of economic safety of Russia;
economic reforms provoke long-term and permanent
reduction of social development parameters
including degradation of human potential, the
deepening of income inequality, criminalization and
corruption.
Knowledge and Society, 2006,
September, 21-22, Madrid, Spain
The development of
Russian institutionalism
the institutional theory of Russian economic
evolution (by O. Bessonova);
 the theory on institutional basis for different
economic forms (by N.Lebedeva and N.Drozdova);
 the institutional matrices theory (by S. Kirdina).
Using some modern ideas of neo-institutionalism,
these concepts creatively developed the traditions of
political economy of socialism and Marxist sociology.

8
Knowledge and Society, 2006,
September, 21-22, Madrid, Spain
The institutional matrices theory (one
of Russian institutionalism example)
was already being presented:



9
The first workshop of the ESA Social Theory
Research Network, Copenhagen, 2000 (“Main
provisions of the institutional matrices theory”);
The 5th Conference of the ESA "Visions and
Divisions: Challenges to European Sociology",
Helsinki, 2001 (“The Institutional Matrices Theory in
the Context of Modern Sociology”);
XVth World Congress of Sociology, Brisbane, 2002
(“The institutional matrices of society”) etc.
Knowledge and Society, 2006,
September, 21-22, Madrid, Spain
Main differences between
Russian institutionalism and
neo-institutionalism


10
interpretation of the term “institution”. Russian
institutionalism pays more attention to historical
components of institutions and their dependence on
the environment and cultural context, where socium
is being developed. That is material and
technological conditions, geography and other
parameters:
Russian institutionalism studies some non-market
institutions neither the deviation from normal
reproduction process nor as “institutional traps” but
as some separate natural and rational phenomena.
Knowledge and Society, 2006,
September, 21-22, Madrid, Spain
Russian institutionalism on
economic reform program:
alternative project



11
Modernization rather than revolutionary change of
institutional structure;
Market transformation doesn’t mean the
replacement of existing institutions by the new ones,
but it means that these new market institutions fill in
the gapes in institutional structure typical for Russia;
The specifics of external limits of economic
development such as natural, geographical and
technological is also taken into account.
Knowledge and Society, 2006,
September, 21-22, Madrid, Spain
How does neo-institutionalism interpret
the results of Russian reforms?


12
revolutionary process of economic structure
change is going on in Russian society;
traditional paternalistic values of Russian
population prevent the in-depth development
of market economy.
Knowledge and Society, 2006,
September, 21-22, Madrid, Spain
How do the theories of
Russian institutionalism explain
the results of Russian reform?


13
There is the modernization of inherent
economic, political and ideological
institutions into new forms;
The institutional structure complemented with
new institutions so that to ensure the
necessary variety of political, economic and
social life. The lack of such institutions in the
former USSR contributed to its collapse.
Knowledge and Society, 2006,
September, 21-22, Madrid, Spain
Conclusions (1)
14
The same trends which were typical for the
Russian society development at that transition period
were reflected in the development of theoretical
economic knowledge.
On the one hand, foreign institutions were
actively implemented, such as market economy,
federal state structure and new values of personal
rights and freedom.
The same process was observed in the economic
theory. New methodology was developed on the
basis of American and west-European neoKnowledge and Society, 2006,
institutionalism.
September, 21-22, Madrid, Spain
Conclusions (2)
On the other hand, in 1990-2000th there was
modernization of inherent Russian institutions and their
adjustment to the global world challenges. That is why,
state regulation and entrepreneurship were renewed;
hierarchic vertical of power in Russian unitary state was
modernized and became stronger; traditional
communitarian values expressed themselves in new
ideological forms.
The same process took place in the economic theory.
The Russian institutionalism based on domestic
achievements in political economy and Marx’ sociology,
starts to develop rapidly.
15
Knowledge and Society, 2006,
September, 21-22, Madrid, Spain
Conclusions (3)
At present the balance of trust between external
and internal innovations both in economy, politics,
ideology and social science as well starts to shift
from foreign to Russian ones. In practice, it means
that domestic theoretical works are in more demand.
That is why risks and expenses of Russian
reforms can be reduced. And we will see that “there
is nothing more practical than a good theory”.
16
Knowledge and Society, 2006,
September, 21-22, Madrid, Spain
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа