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‘Proper words in proper places,
make the true definition of a style’
Jonathan Swift, Letter to a young clergyman
End-focus
‘is based on the general fact that different
parts of utterances have different
communicative values … and that normally
new or important information is reserved for
the end … e.g. Good food costs less at
Sainsbury’s’
Katie Wales, Dictionary of Stylistics, p. 144
Ours was the marsh country
??The marsh country was ours
End-weight:
‘…complex or “heavy” constituents will
tend to follow simpler or lighter ones.’
Katie Wales, Dictionary of Stylistics, p. 145
Ours was the marsh country, down
by the river, within, as the river
wound, twenty miles of the sea.
??The marsh country, down by the river,
within, as the river wound, twenty miles of
the sea, was ours.
The small bundle of shivers
growing afraid of it all and
beginning to cry, was Pip.
??Pip was the small bundle of shivers growing
afraid of its all and beginning to cry.
… that this bleak place overgrown with nettles
was
the churchyard;
and that Philip Pirrip, late of this parish, and also
Georgiana wife of the above,
were
dead and buried;
and that Alexander, Bartholomew, Abraham,
Tobias, and Roger, infant children of the aforesaid,
were
dead and buried;
and that the dark flat wilderness beyond the
churchyard, intersected with dykes and mounds
and gates, with scattered cattle feeding on it,
was
the marshes;
and that the low leaden line beyond
was
the river;
and that the distant savage lair from which
the wind was rushing
was
the sea
and that the small bundle of shivers growing
afraid of it all and beginning to cry,
was
Pip.
the sea
the marshes
Ours was the marsh country, down by the
river
the dark flat wilderness
the distant savage lair...
the small bundle of shivers...
NP1 was NP2
that dark flat wilderness beyond
the churchyard... was “the
marshes”
Viewpoints
• The viewpoint of the author (Dickens)
addressing the reader
• The viewpoint of the adult Pip
• The viewpoint of the young Pip
The end approaches……….
The end is here.
1/--страниц
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