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Q….In questionnaire development stage, if researcher is not aware of about respondents’ inability to
answer certain questions then that questionnaire cannot generate desired results. What parameter should
researcher keep in mind to overcome respondent’s inability to answer the questions?
Q.We want to obtain mean age of a magazine subscriber at 99% level of confidence is 2.58 . We want our
result to be ± 2 of the true mean age. Suppose standard deviation is 5. What should be the sample size?
given data:
We know that:
n= S2Z2/e2
put the value in formula
Formula used for determining sample size is:
n = S2 Z2 / e2
After using this formula, the answer obtained about the sample size might be in
Examples for Determining Sample Size
Example I
We want to obtain mean age of a magazine subscriber at 99% confidence level. We
want our
result to be ± 2 of the true mean age. Suppose standard deviation is 5. What should be
the sample
e= ±2
z = 2.58
n = s2 z2 / e2
n = (5)2 (2.58)2 / (2)2
n = 41.6 or n = 42
A MS student gave a questionnaire to his supervisor for review. After completing the review, supervisor
has underlined many questions and has given a common comment i.e. “leading questions; modify it”.
What is a leading question? Explain with examples.
Q.“The only difference between interval scale and ratio scale is that true zero exists in interval scale”. Is
this statement true? If not, give reason to justify your answer.
3. Interval scale
One problem with the ordinal scale is that it defines the order of the objects but it does
not tell
about what is difference (or distance) between the objects. Interval scale shows that as
the interval
between the numbers on the scale represent equal increments of the attribute being
measured, the
differences can be compared. A difference between 25 and 26 is the same as between
26 and 27
which is same as between 27 and 28. The most common example of interval scale in
life is that of
thermometer. But as you know two types of thermometer, Celsius and Fahrenheit do
not have a
fixed or true zero or freezing point. Both the zeros and units of measurements are
although the amount of heat in various intervals on each thermometer will be same. Let
illustrate it with figures. Amount of heat between 88o and 89o on Fahrenheit is same as
91o-92o but amount of heat between 88o and 89o on Fahrenheit is different from amount
of heat
between 88o and 89o on Celsius.
© Copyright Virtual University of Pakistan 37
Marketing Research (MKT611) VU
Statistical techniques that are used in nominal and ordinal scales can also be used in
interval scale.
In addition to that, statistics like mean, standard deviation, product moment correlation
etc. can
also be used in interval scale.
4. Ratio scale
Ratio scale is one in which a true zero exist. True zero or absolute zero means that
number zero is
assigned to the absence of the characteristic being measured. Thus we can compute
ratio of scale
values. For example, it is possible to say how many times greater or smaller one object
is than
another. This is the only type of scale that allows making comparison of absolute
quantities. We
can say that market share of company A is twice as much as of company B. In market
data on number of customers, costs, sales, market share and some other marketing
variables are
measured on ratio scales.
All statistical techniques can
Q.Discuss the measurement problems associated with the semantic differential scale?
ANSWER :Semantic Differential Scale
This scale has been borrowed from another area of research called “semantics”. This
scale contains
a series of bipolar adjectives from the various characteristics of the object under study
respondents indicate the impression of each characteristic by indicating the appropriate
place on
the continuum. It is usually seven point rating scale having two poles (adjectives) e.g.
unfriendly” “high quality-low quality” “convenient-inconvenient” or “dependableundependable”.
Having seven separators between two poles is mandatory. While using the semantic
scale, the respondent marks the blank that is closer to his rating. Look at the following
Please indicate your impression about Restaurant A by marking the line that best
describes your
Quick service ------- slow service
High prices ------- low prices
Good quality ford ------- low quality ford
Limited variety of ford ------- wide variety of ford
Poor location ------- good location
Semantic Differential Scale is gaining popularity because of its versatility. This scale is
extensively in comparing different brands, company images or stores. Mean is the
statistics which
is used in Semantic Differential Scales.
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