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O.O. Dobrenko
EFFECT OF UKRAINE ACTING QUALIFICATIONS FOR
PROFESSIONAL LABOR MARKET
Summary. The article deals with the modern system of education and implementation of
competence-based approach for young workers. It was found that no proper educational
infrastructure for the organization and implementation of lifelong learning and its obsolescence;
low participation of employers in shaping education in professions and trades. The necessity of
strengthening the role of staff training in enterprises in the course of their employment.
Key words: competence, competence, competence approach, continuity of education,
vocational training.
Formulation of the problem. In today's environment to the forefront the
problems associated with the establishment of the correspondence between the
development of production and services and the requirements of employers to the
quality of the workforce; modernization of higher and professional education;
ensure their relationship with the development of professional labor market;
consistency between systems of vocational qualifications, higher and postgraduate
education; professional standards, improving the state educational standards,
bringing them in line with international requirements.
Effectively address these problems through the establishment of a national
system of qualifications that will provide expanded reproduction of skilled labor.
The purpose of the article - The modern system of education and
implementation of competence-based approach in relation to young workers, and
find out why no proper educational infrastructure for the organization and
implementation of lifelong learning and the low participation of employers in
shaping education in professions and trades.
The main material. Implementation of national qualifications frameworks in
the world started at the end of the last century, found its continuation in
Copenhagens and the Bologna process, decisions of the European Commission and
working in different countries of the European Union. These and other decisions of
the European institutions launched a need for a national qualifications frameworks.
Ukraine is one of the countries that joined in the development and
improvement of the qualifications. But the realization of this problem requires
solving a number of problems associated with dramatic changes in the legislation
on education and work; development of an appropriate institutional arrangements;
significant changes in the existing classifications and standards; creation of
effective mechanisms for forecasting needs of professional labor market in their
respective professions, qualifications and competence.
Despite the fact that the current system of qualifications in Ukraine to some
extent based on international experience, yet it due to reasons of different nature
poorly adapted to international requirements. In addition, it does not meet the
domestic labor market, because behind the development of many sectors of the
economy, including its priority areas. This creates a number of problems associated
with the formation, distribution and use of labor, including low competitiveness of
graduates of vocational and higher education in the professional labor market
mismatch level training needs of employers, an excess of certain professions and
specialties and other deficiency in professional labor market.
One of the main problems existing in Ukraine qualifications to the most
important are:
1. Lack of market qualifications.
The current education system continues to be based on obtaining diplomas,
which are based on mandatory student mastery (student) necessary knowledge for
a specific list of subjects. The main additional documents Diploma is a certificate
that the completeness of study corroborates knowledge disciplines largely common
to all sectors of economic activity content.
As a modern professional labor market places new demands on job seekers
(the ability to act in unpredictable situations, decision-making, critical thinking,
commitment to professional development, teamwork, cooperation, etc.), the
companies need creative workers ready to respond quickly to change. That is the
current needs of employers formed not only from the perspective of knowledge
that have the property of becoming more and more obsolete as the ability to
achieve high production yields by their competencies and skills. Now to the
national system of qualifications raises the question of a change of emphasis in
getting credentials. Instead of the present market it is advisable to introduce market
certificates of qualifications based on competence, or more accurately on
competence.
Moreover, there are several options competency characteristics (competence,
competency), suggesting that this approach covers a lot of personal settings
(motives, identity, ability, etc.) to identify and evaluate possible that only later, as
is a person [1].
Application of the competency approach requires the introduction of
modular forms of educational process, that gradually separate areas of study in
education, in industrial or organizational activities that must end with the receipt of
the document. In the present study national practice so far these approaches have
just started to use.
Based on this, the introduction of competence-based approach for young
worker has formed, starting with training in vocational schools. Therefore it is
important to organize the active support career aspirations of graduates and create
career competence on the part of organizations - employers and by universities.
This higher education institution must assume a social responsibility for the
successful launch professional way young professionals.
To this end, universities should conduct market research work in the
educational market, flexibility to rebuild the main areas of training, ie high school
must take an active part in the management of its graduates for career
advancement. Improving the effectiveness of promoting employment graduates of
local universities requires an adequate mechanism for the formation of the system
of higher education institutions to promote employment of graduates,
establishment of centers promoting employment graduates association centers
promoting employment graduates Ukraine.
In managing the career of young professionals should be involved and
employers: from the most active and successful senior students they can form a
kind of "talent pool" for their organizations, preparing future graduates to specific
professional activities with: in association with an educational institution
composed job practical; order to perform the thesis that has real practical value for
a particular production or activity of the market; organization of training in the
workplace; funding targeted training of future specialists [2].
2. Miss system of continuous vocational training.
The country with developed market economies face the task of forming
scientific and technological capacity, adequate challenges of global technological
development, on which it is able to raise their quality of life, national security and
high economic growth. All this confirms the necessity of training in innovation and
professional education. This innovative system of education should be seen not as
an end in itself but as an effective tool saturation economy highly qualified
personnel.
One of the mechanisms for achieving these goals is the development of
lifelong learning. His undoubted advantage is that such education makes labor
more productive each person; highly qualified staff have increased ability to
perceive and use in practice of new scientific ideas, technical means and methods
of production and management, which means they not only work more efficiently,
using more sophisticated means of labor, but also better disposes resources.
Thus, continuous education serves as a necessary element as one of the
factors accelerating NTP and increase social productivity of labor, the formation of
a knowledge economy countries. In other words, the benefits of lifelong learning
are obvious. However, in Ukraine the development of vocational training in
manufacturing has significant features in comparison with developed market
economies. Thus, the decline in GDP in the 1990-1999 biennium., The growth of
hidden and open unemployment in Ukraine negatively affect the quality of labor
potential. Number of employees who have been trained in the production of new
professions for years 1985-1999. Decreased from 1265 thousand. Persons in 1985
to 278.3 thousand. Persons in 1999, or almost 4.5 times.
Termination of the economic crisis in 2000 and the first signs of recovery to
stable economic growth interrupted this negative trend. Real GDP growth in the
2000-2008 biennium. Largely caused some increase in professional training
organizations. Meanwhile, training of personnel for this period became one of the
most important factors to increase productivity, ensure producing globally
competitive products and services, integration into the world economic
community.
Despite the fact that from 2000 to 2007 there was a tendency for an increase
in training in the workplace, the situation in recent years has not changed
significantly for the better. For example, in Ukraine in 2007 the proportion of
persons undergoing vocational training in the workplace, accounting for the total
number of full-time workers was only 11.9%. Compared to 2000 this indicator in
2007 increased by only 3.2 percentage points. However, in countries with
developed market economies professional training each year covered by the
majority of employees.
Stagnation professional training in manufacturing was one of the reasons
why the Ukraine in 2008-2010. Felt so keenly the effects of the global financial
and economic crisis, as this helped to maintain stagnation of obsolete equipment
and technology base in domestic enterprises, hampered the development of the
national innovation systems.
The said crisis also had a negative impact on the development of vocational
education. For example, in Ukraine the number of employees who received
training in PTZO from 2001 to 2007 had a stable trend in the increase, but since
2008, a decrease of this category of workers. In 2010 compared to 2008 decreased
by 21.6 thousand. Persons and was only 48.3 thousand. Persons or 28.2% of the
total number of persons who received training in 2010 (172 004 people) [2n, p
204]. The structure of the total number of people who have passed vocational
training by type of training in 2001-2010 years. Has undergone significant
changes. For example, in 2010 in most training took place through training,
representing 85.2% of the total number of persons who received training compared
to 21.2% in 2001. Important type of learning "retraining", it can be stated as
decline. This suggests that this process is holding back innovation economy, where
more and more need retrain experts in connection with the introduction of new
tech.
Nicky and technology. This fact affected the formation of professional labor
market (Fig. 1).
100,0
21,2
27,6
improve skills
33,8
80,0
38,6
54,0
60,3
68,4
79,3
60,0
76,7
85,2
retrained
55,2
49,8
44,3
42,5
40,0
31,5
27,3
22,2
20,0
23,6
22,6
studied for the first time
14,3
21,9
18,9
14,5
16,3
11,5
12,4
9,4
6,4
7,0
2008
2009
3,3
0,0
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2010
Figure. 1 Structure of the number of people who have been training in 2001 2010 (by training)
Source: compiled by the author according to the Statistical Yearbook of
Ukraine.
Ukraine has a number of limiting factors for the implementation of
continuous professional learning arising from the current financial and economic
crisis and the implementation of training deficiencies. These should include.
Lack of prerequisites for professional training, meaning small rate of
innovation implementations in the areas of economic activity, low focus on
improving the country's economy research intensity, slow-developing high-tech
economy.
Lack of proper training and technical basis for the organization and
implementation of lifelong learning (Postgraduate Institute, training centers,
courses re-training, vocational schools, colleges and technical schools), its
obsolescence.
Removal from the problems of the state system of continuous training, lack
of financial support for this study from the state. Enterprises engaged in continuous
learning, usually at their own expense, which does not encourage employers and
employed adult population study in progress.
Specific mentality of some segments of the population to the effect that the
diploma in vocational schools or universities enough to ensure a decent work and
earnings for life.
3. Low participation of employers in shaping education in professions and
trades.
According to the research scientists, is cooperation with many business
schools is minimized because the business ceases to believe in the current system
of vocational education, which is not ready for effective collaboration, since it does
not create the institutional environment for business and seek new forms of
interaction with him. Employers have little effect on the formation of criteria for
the quality of training. For this reason, in terms of traditional business education is
ineffective. For example, in 2005 two-thirds of companies refused to cooperate
with universities [3].
Key unresolved issues that impede raise the level of cooperation between
employers and educational institutions in training staff in professions and
specialties affect their optimality and meeting the needs of the professional labor
market, are as follows:
- Decline training system (Manufacturing Practice) students and students in
business and the need to restore it. Moreover, the effectiveness of these measures
will be important if production practices covered as students who study at the
expense of the state budget, and with their own funds and funds of legal entities;
- Lack of understanding of the necessity of joint participation between
employers and educational institutions in the evaluation of educational programs
and teaching methods;
- No practice representative schools in the admission committees of workers
to work for the company;
- Essential to increase cooperation should measures of financial support as
schools and businesses with professional training. In particular, it is necessary to
raise the question more sharply to the relevant central executive bodies of
expediency support enterprises that cooperate with educational institutions. This
issue was raised repeatedly at the concerned ministries and agencies, but it is not
brought to its logical conclusion. In addition, there is a need to raise the question of
whether entities providing scholarships to students who are actively collaborating
with companies in which employers have an interest.
Some of these measures apply foreign companies [4]. For us it is a positive
experience. And most importantly, that ex 4 The need to strengthen the role of staff
training in enterprises in the course of their employment.
Now in the formation of the national qualifications framework focuses on
the development of education through schools, while the role of training
employees of companies not significantly estimated.
The main problems that hinder is to increase the efficacy of vocational
training in enterprises in the workplace employees are:
- Not fully resolved the issue of the legal framework reproduction of skilled
labor enterprises, institutions and organizations that would meet the needs of
professional labor market. Yes, has not been approved by the Verkhovna Rada of
Ukraine of the draft Law of Ukraine "On the professional development of
employees", which aims to solve the issue of formation of scope of vocational
training in professions and specialties, they are meeting the needs of the
professional labor market, increasing the rise as workforce issues funding for this
sector, and other issues;
- Lack of interest of employers to invest in training workers in enterprises
because the mechanism does not work its promotion in the form of reduced taxes
training employees at the expense of the organization;
- Unresolved issues regarding the use of certain sanctions for employees
who were trained at the expense of businesses and not practiced some time for the
company after graduation, which leads to inefficient spending entities to study the
structure and reduce the quality of employees;
- Limited percentage deductions from the wage fund, which is aimed at
training personnel. These expenses deductible expenses amounting to only 3.0% of
the wage fund of the reporting period, forcing employers, especially successful
incumbents with large human resources and scientific and technological advances
to apply transparent scheme to increase the amount of training;
- Stacking licenses for training in careers and occupations that are highly
specialized and necessary for the enterprise;
- The lack of an effective system for evaluating the quality of training at the
institutional level. This issue is extremely important because the current system of
evaluation staff training when staff of the institution, teachers or masters of
industrial training, engaged in the learning process themselves and appreciate its
quality, too old. So now without an effective system for evaluating the quality of
training is difficult to solve the issue of increasing the efficiency of the teaching
staff in schools or vocational training in enterprises.
In Ukraine in the framework of the Bologna process in 2008 decided to start
the formation and development of skills. In July of that year, developed a plan of
activities. These primarily include the drafting of the concept of national
qualifications framework and the draft Law of Ukraine "On the National
Qualifications Framework", in which considerable attention is paid to issues of
teaching quality evaluation system. But these instruments need further
development, including research, the roles of assessing the quality of education in
the national qualification system and its impact on the balance between supply and
demand in the market of educational services and professional labor market.
The said draft Concept anticipated that the implementation of its provisions
will be phased in during 2008-2012 according to the Cabinet of Ministers of
Ukraine approved the action plan. However, the Government of Ukraine approved
the said action plan, so that was not improved current regulatory framework has
not been implemented structural changes in the system of vocational education and
training is undertaken in full efforts to reform higher education according to the
Bologna process. Therefore, the proposed project Concept requires substantial
revision.
Reforming the National Qualifications affects not only education, but also
the world of work and production, services and interests of employers and
employees. Therefore, the development and implementation of the National
Qualifications Framework should be based on deeper conceptual basis.
Conclusions. In today's environment to the forefront the problems associated
with the establishment of the correspondence between the development of
production and services and the requirements of employers to the quality of the
workforce; modernization of higher and professional education; ensure their
relationship with the development of professional labor market; consistency
between systems of vocational qualifications, higher and postgraduate education;
professional standards, improving the state educational standards, bringing them in
line with international requirements. Effectively address these problems through
the establishment of national qualification system that will provide expanded
reproduction of skilled labor.
Before the national system of qualifications raises the question of a change
of emphasis in getting credentials. Instead of the present market it is advisable to
introduce market certificates of qualifications based on competence or more
accurately on competence. Application of the competency approach requires the
introduction of modular forms of educational process, that gradually separate areas
of study in education, in industrial or organizational activities that must end with
the receipt of the document. In the present study national practice until such
approaches are not available.
There is the removal of the state from the problems of development of lifelong learning; enterprises carry out continuous training, usually at their own
expense, which does not encourage employers and employed adult population
study in progress. We need more urgently to question the relevant central executive
bodies of expediency support enterprises that cooperate with educational
institutions. This issue was raised repeatedly at the concerned ministries and
agencies, but it is not brought to its logical conclusion. In addition, there is a need
to raise the question of whether entities providing scholarships to students who are
actively collaborating with companies in which employers have an interest.cept for
financial matters), does not require much effort.
Literature
1.
Кейнс Дж. Общая теорія занятости, процента и денег / Дж. Кейнс
// Антология экономической мысли. – Т.2. – М. : Эконов-Ключ, 1993. – С.
111, 137, 141, 336, 337, 341, 429.
2.
Общая теорія занятости, процента и денег : Классика
экономической мысли : Сочинения. / [Петти В., Смит А., Рикардо Д., Кейнс
Дж., Фридмен М.]. – М. : ЭКСМО-Пресс, 2000. – С. 480-786.
3.
Розпорядження Кабінету Міністрів України «Про розроблення
Концепції Загальнодержавної цільової соціальної програми забезпечення і
розвитку трудового потенціалу України на період до 2017 року» від 22 липня
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