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V.E. Ostashev, E.F. Lebedev, A.V. Ul’yanov, and V.M. Fedorov

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Poster Session
Radiators of Powerful UWB Pulses Developed by AIHT of RAS
V.E. Ostashev, E.F. Lebedev, A.V. Ul’yanov, and V.M. Fedorov
Associated Institute for High Temperature of Russian Academy of Sciences (AIHT of RAS)
13/2, Izhorskaya str., Moscow, 127412, Russia
Phone: 8(495) 485-7944, E-mail: [email protected]
Abstract – The description of six experimental
models of UWB radiators with excitement's generators of the semiconductor type is presented. Duration of radiation pulse is from 70 ps to 1 ns, pulse
repetition rate is from 100 to 3  105 pps, effective
radiated pulse power is up to 400 MW, and effective average power – up to 90 W. The measured
E-fields and calculated energy spectrums of the
radiations are presented. Values of effective parameters of radiation for considered models are
presented for the interval of effectively radiated
frequencies.
1. Introduction
The object of the proposed study is UWB radiator.
The questions of the creation and practical use such
radiators are discussed long ago and broadly. The
physical problem when creation of any energy converter is an achievement to high efficiency of her
transformation. The purpose of the work consisted in
creation different models of UWB radiators, presentation local and efficient parameters of the radiation and
comparison of the models on these parameters.
The generators excite the antennae of aperture
type. All antennae join to generator directly, without
additional feeder. Limiting parameters of radiators
with the use of these generators are discussed in [2].
The converter of a strip line type was used as a
sensor of E-field strength in free space [3].Typical
sensor sensitivity was 0.3...0.5 V/(kV/m). Possible
time of sensor registration was 4 ns and it self rise
time 20...30 ps. Registration of the voltage from sensor of pulsed E-field was conducted with the use of
pulsed and stroboscopic digital oscilloscopes with
frequency band up to 18 GHz.
Model M1. The main parameters of the generator
of excitement of antenna were: amplitude 10 kV
(2 MW on 50 Ohm load), front of the pulse 50...60 ps,
pulse repetition rate up to 105 pps. The average power
of generator consumption on maximum frequency was
240 W.
The antenna of radiator was horn type (four horns
connected in parallel). Input impedance of antenna is
equal to nearly 50 Ohm, size of the full aperture –
16  16 cm. The view of M1 is shown in Fig. 2.
2. Laboratory models of UWB radiator produced
by AIHT of RAS
The general feature of models. Models contain generators of the pulsed voltages of the semiconductor type
of
the
development
“FID-Technology”
(www.fidtechnology.com; [1]). Typical curve of voltage for the used generators is shown in Fig. 1.
10
8
Fig. 2. Model M1. Antenna (16  16 cm) and generator of
excitation with a peak power 2 MW
Ug, kV
0.9
Measured pulse of E-field strength and energy
spectrum of this signal are shown in Fig. 3.
9.5 kV
100 ps
On figure of spectral density q (f) there is shown,
4
as density of energy of the radiation pulse is defined in
0.1
the given spectral interval f . Here, for example, the
2
interval of effectively radiated frequencies was cho00
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
sen. This interval has been defined on level in a half of
Time, ns
the amplitude of the spectral density.
Fig. 1. Typical curve of the unipolar pulse of the voltage for
Model M2. The main parameters of the generator
the generators of “FID-Technology”
of excitement of antenna were: amplitude 10 kV
The typical amplitudes of output pulse for these (2 MW on 50 Ohm load), front of the pulse nearly
generators are 1...100 kV; the pedestal of the pulse is 100 ps, FWHM 370 ps, pulse repetition rate up to
10...20% from its amplitude. The pulse repetition rate 105 pps. The average power of generator consumption
is 103...106 pps and the average power consumption is on maximum frequency was 250 W.
Antenna of radiator is of horn type, aperture is
equal to 200…300 W. The efficiency of energy transformation is not worse than 40%.
equal to 14  27 cm. The view of M2 is shown in Fig. 4.
455
6
7.6 kV
High Pover Microwaves
2
0
–2
–4 0
2
0.1
g, nj/m2 MHz
8
7
6
f
5
4
 3
2
1
0
2 4 6 8 10 12 14
Frequency, GHz
1.6
1.2
0.8
0.4
0
0.2
0.3
Time, ns
0
Fig. 6. Model M3 of UWB radiator
Fig. 3. Model M1. Pulse of E-field strength in 3 meters from
antenna's aperture and energy spectrum of this pulse
Measured pulse of E-field strength and energy
spectrum of this signal are shown in Fig. 7.
E, kV/m
10
2
8
1
Fig. 4. Model M2 with the device of repetition rate control
6
0
4
–1
2
–2 0
Measured pulse of E-field strength and energy
spectrum of this signal are shown in Fig. 5.
0
–1
–2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
Time, ns
g, nj/m2 MHz
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
00
f
1
2 3 4 5
Frequency, GHz
1.4
1.2
1
0.8
 0.6
0.4
0.2
6 70
2
3
Time, ns
50
4
25
10
20
8
15
f
10
6

4
5
0
2
0
0,5
1
1,5
Frequency, GHz
2
0
Fig. 7. Model M3. Pulse of E-field strength in 7.3 m from
antenna's aperture and energy spectrum of this pulse
Density of energy, mcJ/m2
1
1.4
1,2
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.8 0
1
g, nj/m2 MHz
Density of energy, mcJ/m2
E, kV/m
2
Density of energy, mcJ/m2
4
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0.40
Density of energy, mcJ/m2
6
(16 MW on 50 Ohm load), front of the pulse nearly
100 ps, FWHM 1 ns, pulse repetition rate up to
104 pps. The average power of generator consumption
on maximum frequency was 300 W.
Antenna of radiator is of dipole type, unidirectional (with reflector) with impedance 50 Ohm. The
choice of such antenna was conditioned by need to
displace the energy spectrum of the radiation in low
frequency area. The size of aperture is equal to
50  50 cm. The view of M3 is shown in Fig. 6.
Density of energy, mcJ/m2
E, kV/m
Density of energy, mcJ/m2
8
Fig. 5. Model M2. Pulse of E-field strength in 6.6 m from
antenna's aperture and energy spectrum of this pulse
Model M3. The main parameters of the generator
of excitement of antenna were: amplitude 28 kV
Model M8. The main parameters of the generator
of excitement of antenna were: amplitude 45 kV
(40 MW on 50 Ohm load), front of the pulse nearly
120 ps, pulse repetition rate up to 200 pps. The average power of generator consumption on maximum
frequency was 40 W.
Antenna of radiator was similar model M2. The
view of pulse generator of M8 is shown in Fig. 8 and
measured pulse of E-field strength and energy spectrum of this signal are shown in Fig. 9.
Eight such models built in active antenna array
with electronic device of the automatic support the
synchronism [4]. Far-field voltage factor of this array
456
Poster Session
repetition rate up to 3  105 pps. The average power of
generator consumption on maximum frequency was
170 W.
Density of energy, mcJ/m2
was 455 kV and effective radiated power nearly
7 GW.
E, kV/m
30
250
20
200
10
150
0
100
–20 0
Fig. 8. Pulse generator for model M8
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
00
0.3
1.2 1.5
f
1
2 3 4 5
Frequency, GHz
7
6
5
4
 3
2
1
6 70
0.2
0.4 0.6 0.8
Time, ns
10
g, nj/m2 MHz
1.4
1.2
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
250
200
f

150
100
50
2 3 4 5 60
Frequency, GHz
Fig. 11. Model G70. Pulse of E-field strength in 5 m from
antenna's aperture and energy spectrum of this pulse
Density of energy, mcJ/m2
0.6 0.9
Time, ns
g, nj/m2 MHz
0
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Density of energy, mcJ/m2
E, kV/m
3
2
1
0
–1
–2
–3
–4
50
Density of energy, mcJ/m2
–10
0
1
Antenna of radiator was similar model M2. The
view of pulse generator of G500 is shown in Fig. 12.
Fig. 13 shows the local parameters of radiation.
Fig. 9. Model M8. Pulse of E-field strength in 16 m from
antenna's aperture and energy spectrum of this pulse
Model G70. The main parameters of the generator
of excitement of antenna were: peak power 65 MW on
50 Ohm load, front of the pulse nearly 130 ps, pulse
repetition rate up to 100 pps. The average power of
generator consumption was 40 W.
Antenna of radiator is of horn type, aperture is
equal to 27  27 cm. The view of G70 is shown in
Fig. 10.
E, kV/m
0.6
100
0.4
80
0.2
60
0
40
–0.2
20
0
0.2
0.4 0.6
Time, ns
0.8
10
100g, nj/m2 MHz
4
100
3
80
2
1
Measured pulse of E-field strength and energy
spectrum of this signal are shown in Fig. 11.
Model G500. The main parameters of the generator of excitement of antenna were: amplitude 3 kV,
front of the pulse nearly 120 ps, FWHM 500 ps, pulse
Density of energy, mcJ/m2
–0.4
Fig. 10. Model G70: pulse power of excitation is equal
65 MW, aperture of horn antenna 27  27 cm
Density of energy, mcJ/m2
Fig. 12. Pulse generator for model G500
60
 40
20
2 3 4 5 6 7 80
Frequency, GHz
Fig. 13. Model G500. Pulse of E-field strength in 6.6 m
from antenna's aperture and energy spectrum of this pulse
457
00 1
f
High Pover Microwaves
3. Parameters of the radiation of models in band
of effectively radiated frequencies
Some results with corresponding to explanations are
shown in Figures 14–17.
Value of field-distance production is basically defined by voltage of excitement of antenna and the size
of its aperture (Fig. 14).
is equal to frequency of pulses repetition), average
within the range of effectively radiated frequencies.
This power is connected with the power of EM radiation in effective frequency interval and the quantity of
spectral lines in given interval which is equal to pulse
ratio.
2.5
120
2
100
E  R, kV
PL, mW
1.5
80
1
60
110
40
20
0
11
М2
15
М3
0
M8 G70 G500
0.4
1
2
0.2
0.1
M1
M2
M3
M8 G70 G500
Fig. 15. Attitude of efficient power of the radiation to power
consumption: 1 – for full radiated power; 2 – for power in
band of effectively radiated frequencies
The model M1 was the best on effective power of
EM radiation but the model M3 has been characterized the maximum value of average spectral density
(Fig. 16). The model M1 is the best on effective power
of EM radiation but the model M3 is characterized of
the maximum value of average spectral density of
radiation (Fig. 16). The last was connected with the
comparatively narrow frequency band (nearly
400 MHz for the model M3 vs 4 GHz for model M1).
120
100
1, W
2, mW/MHz
80
60
40
20
0
М1
М2
М3
М1
М2
М3
M8
G70 G500
Fig. 17. Power of the EM radiation in single spectral line,
average within the range of effectively radiated frequencies
The model M1 was the best on efficiency of the
energy conversion to EM radiation (Fig. 15).
0
1.6
1.2
0.0003 0.0003
3,3
Fig. 14. Field-distance production
0.3
1.7
0.5
56
19
М1
2.4
M8 G70 G500
Fig. 16. Effective power of EM radiation in the band of effectively radiated frequencies (1) and her average spectral
density (2)
Figure 17 shows power of the EM radiation in single spectral line (or into the frequency interval which
4. Conclusion
Six models of radiator with generators of excitement
of the semiconductor type with pulsed power from 0.2
to 65 MW have been created. The parameters of pulse
of radiation for these models and their effective parameters are presented. These parameters are the base
for designing UWB radiators with semiconductor generators for antenna excitation.
The alike modules of radiators can be timed and
form the powerful antenna arrays.
The models can be used for study radio and electronic equipments on resistance to influence the
pulsed EM radiation.
References
[1] V.M. Efanov, P.M. Yarin, and A.V. Kricklenko
“New Generation of High Voltage Picosecond
Generators Based on FID Technology”, in Proc.
of the IEEE AP-S Intern. Symp. on UNSC/URSI
and AMEREM Meetings, 2006, p. 72.
[2] V.Ye. Ostashev, A.V. Ul'yanov, and V.M. Fedorov, “The Limiting Possibilities of Generating
UWB Radiations with the Use of Powerful Semiconductor Generator Excitement”, in Proc. 9th
All-Russian scientifically-practical conf. “Actual
problems of protection and safety”, 2006, p. 329.
[3] S.A. Podosenov, K.Yu. Sakharov, Ya.G. Svekis,
and A.A. Sokolov, “Linear Two-Wire Transmission Line Coupling to an External Electromagnetic
Field. Part II: Specific Cases, Experiment”, IEEE
Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility 37,
566 (1995).
[4] V.M. Fedorov, I.V. Grekhov, E.F. Lebedev et al.,
“Active Antenna’s Array with Control and Stabilization of Regimes of Synchronizing for UWB
Video-Pulses”, Izvestiya Vuzov (Physics) 11, 405
(2006).
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