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Минобрнауки России
Федеральное государственное образовательное учреждение
высшего профессионального образования
Санкт-Петербургский государственный технологический институт
(технический университет)
Кафедра иностранных языков
И.В. Лобода, С.Б. Теремязева
Английский язык
для студентов заочной формы обучения
механического факультета
Методические указания
Санкт-Петербург
2012
1
УДК 802.0 /075.8/.
Лобода И.В. Английский язык для студентов заочной формы обучения
механического факультета : методические указания /И.В.Лобода, С.Б.
Теремязева - СПб.: СПбГТИ(ТУ), 2012. - 24 с.
Методические указания составлены в соответствии с учебной программой
и содержат информацию по основным разделам дисциплины «Иностранный
язык». В них последовательно рассмотрены все основные темы, входящие в
учебный план.
Учебное пособие предназначено для студентов 1 и 2 курса заочной
формы обучения механического факультета.
Рецензент: Климова С.В.
кандидат филологических наук, доцент,
зав.кафедрой иностранных языков
Санкт-Петербургского университета
технологии и дизайна
Утверждены на заседании учебно-методической комиссии факультета
экономики и менеджмента
Рекомендовано к изданию РИСо СПБГТИ(ТУ)
2
Содержание
LESSON 1
MEASUREMENTS…..…………………………………………………..….....…4
LESSON 2
THE WEIGHT OF A BODY ……………………………………………………..5
LESSON 3
SPECIFIC GRAVITY…………………………………………………………......7
LESSON 4
The Participle………..………………..……………………………………….…...8
LESSON 5
The Gerund. Forms of Gerund …………………………………………………...11
LESSON 6
The Infinitive…………………..…………...………..……………………………13
КОНТРОЛЬНЫЕ РАБОТЫ..……………………………………………………16
TEXTS FOR RETELLING …...……………………………………………...…20
3
LESSON 1
MEASUREMENTS
Every physical body has length, width and height. The length and height of a
body are its dimensions. The length, width and height of one body may be quite
different from the corresponding dimensions of another body.
If we want to know the size of a body, we can measure it. In order to
measure the size of any body we compare it with another size of the same kind
which we take as a unit of measure. Most countries have accepted the metric
system of weights and measures. We shall see that this system has become almost
universal in scientific work.
1. Ответьте на вопросы:
1. Does a physical body have length, width and height?
2. What are the dimensions of a body?
3. May the dimensions of one body be different from the corresponding
dimensions of another body?
4. What can we do if we want to know the size of a body?
5. What do we do in order to measure the size of a body?
6. What system of weights and measures have most countries accepted?
7. What is the unit of measure in the metric system?
8. Has the metric system become universal in scientific work?
II. Вставьте пропущенные слова:
Length, width, height, dimensions, body, size, to measure, metric.
1. The dimensions of a body are …, … and … .
2. The length and height of a … are its dimensions.
3. The width of a body is one of its … .
4. In order to know the size of a body we can … it.
5. We can compare the … of different bodies.
6. The … system is universally accepted.
III. Переведите на английский язык:
Физическое тело; длина, ширина, высота; размер; измерения; измерять;
отличаться от; сравнивать; единица измерения; метрическая система.
IV. Определите времена глагола и переведите на русский язык следующие
предложения:
1. We know that every body has length, width and height. 2. Most countries have
accepted the metric system of weights and measures. 3. When the students were
4
measuring the length of an object they took meter as a unit of measure. 4. They
had already repaired the machine when I offered my help. 5. I will tell you the
dimensions of this body as soon as I have measured it. 6. Have you measured this
body? Do you know its dimensions? 7. In text №3 we shall deal with the weight of
a body. 8. We carried on an important scientific work last year.
V. Переведите на английский язык следующие предложения:
1. Студенты изучали этот предмет в прошлом году. 2. Они уже измерили это
тело. 3. Они сейчас проводят эксперимент. 4. Мы скоро будем изучать эту
тему. 5. Он всегда помогает своему другу.
LESSON 2
THE WEIGHT OF A BODY
It is known that all bodies which are located on earth have weight. The
weight of one body may be greater, the weight of the other one may be less.
The weight of a body is often spoken of, but some people do not really
understand the precise meaning of this term. We are also often told about the mass
of the body. But some of us have no clear idea about the precise meaning of this
word.
It is known that objects fall downwards to the earth if nothing prevents them
from falling. They fall because the earth pulls to itself all bodies which are located
on it. This well known fact will be referred to by us in one of the next texts when
we shall deal with the case of falling bodies. The force that pulls a body
downwards is called the force of gravity. All objects are acted upon by
gravitational forces. All objects are pulled downwards to the earth.
I.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Ответьте на вопросы:
Do all bodies which are located on the earth have weight?
What is often spoken of?
Does everybody understand the precise meaning of the term ―weight‖?
Is it known that objects fall downwards to the earth?
Why do the bodies fall?
When will this well known fact be referred to?
What force pulls a body downwards?
What forces are all bodies acted upon?
Are all objects pulled downwards to the earth?
5
II. Вставьте пропущенные слова:
Bodies, pulls, forces, precise, meaning, weight, objects.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
All … have weight.
The … of a body is often spoken of.
Some people do not really understand the … … of the term ―weight‖.
It is known that … fall downwards to the earth.
The earth … to itself all bodies which are located on it.
All bodies are acted upon by gravitational … .
III. Переведите на английский язык:
Тело; предмет; вес; притягивать; падать; земля; точное значение; масса; сила
тяжести.
IV. Определите времена глагола и переведите на русский язык следующие
предложения:
1. All bodies which are located on earth have weight. 2. The weight of a body is
often spoken of. 3. All bodies are pulled by the earth. 4. Gram has been accepted as
the unit of weight. 5. It is known that the unit of volume is the volume of a cube. 6.
The metric system is being widely used now. 7. Length, width and height are
called the dimensions of a body. 8. The precise meaning of the term ―weight‖ will
be defined in the next text.
V. Сравните предложения:
1. a) We measure length in centimeters.
b) Length is measured in centimeters.
2. a) Most countries have accepted the metric system.
b) The metric system has been almost universally accepted.
3. a) They compared the dimensions of the objects.
b) The dimensions of two bodies were compared.
6
LESSON 3
SPECIFIC GRAVITY
That bodies of the same size but of different materials have different weight
is well known. Thus, the weight of a body depends on the material of which it is
made. A piece of iron, for example, is heavier than that of wood equal to it in
volume. If we compare an object made out of aluminium with an article of the
same size but made out of cast iron, we shall see that the former is lighter than the
latter. It occurs due to the fact that the weights of one cm3 (cubic centimeter) of
different materials differ.
The weight of 1 cm3 of a substance in grams is called the specific gravity of
the given substance. The specific gravity of a substance is one of its properties. In
order to determine the specific gravity of a given substance it is necessary to divide
the weight of that substance in grams by its volume in cubic centimeters. On the
other hand, in order to determine the volume of any substance, we have to divide
the weight of the substance by its specific gravity.
I.
Ответьте на вопросы:
1.
2.
3.
4.
What fact is well known?
What does the weight of a body depend on?
What shall we see if we compare a piece of iron with that of wood?
Which of the two objects is lighter – an object made out of aluminium or that of
cast iron?
5. What is the specific gravity of the given substance?
6. Is specific gravity one of the properties of a substance?
7. How can we determine the specific gravity of a substance?
8. What have we to do in order to determine the volume of a substance?
II.
Вставьте пропущенные слова:
In order to; specific gravity; determine; the former; the same; the latter; different;
compare, depend on.
1. That bodies of … size but of … materials have … weight is well known.
2. The weight of a body … the material of which it is made.
3. If we … an object made out of aluminium with an article of … size but made out
of cast iron, we shall see that … is lighter than … .
4. The weight of 1cm3 of a substance is called the … of the given substance.
5. … … the specific gravity of a substance it is necessary to divide the weight of
that substance in grams by its volume in cubic centimeters.
7
III. Переведите на английский язык:
Одинаковый; определять; удельный вес; сравнивать; вес; первый…
последний (из вышеупомянутых); лѐгкий – легче; тяжѐлый – тяжелее;
различный; вещество; объѐм; кубический сантиметр; для того, чтобы… .
IV. Определите времена глагола и переведите на русский язык:
1. Knowing the weight and the specific gravity of a substance we can determine
its volume. 2. The bodies compared were equal. 3. When lifting a body we do
work. 4. When heated ice melts. 5. Metals do not melt until heated to a definite
temperature. 6. If placed in water iron sinks. 7. The forces acting between atoms
within a molecule are very strong. 8. The greater the force the greater will be the
effect.
V. Переведите на английский язык:
1. Чем больше вы читаете, тем больше знаете. 2. То, что тела одинакового
размера, но из разного материала, имеют различный вес, хорошо известно. 3.
Это вещество легче, чем то. 4. Мы должны определить удельный вес данного
вещества. 5. Сравнивая два объекта, мы определили их размеры. 6.
Необходимо узнать массу данного вещества. 7. Чтобы определить объѐм,
нужно разделить массу вещества на его удельный вес. 8. Сегодня мы узнали,
что вес одного кубического сантиметра у разных материалов разный.
LESSON 4
The Participle.
Формы причастия
Indefinite Participle I
Perfect Participle I
Participle II
Active
Discussing
having discussed
—
Passive
being discussed
having been discussed
discussed
Функции
Функции Participle I (active) и его перевод на русский язык.
Discussing
having discussed
8
обсуждающий (определение)
обсуждая (обстоятельство)
обсудив ( обстоятельство)
Participle II может выполнять функцию определения и обстоятельства:
discussed
discussed
определение:
обсуждаемый
обсужденный
обсуждающийся
обсуждавшийся
обстоятельство:
(с союзами if, when)
при обсуждении
The Weight of a Body
We have already said that all objects are acted upon by gravitational forces.
All objects fall with one and the same value of acceleration which is about 980
cm/sec² (centimeters – per – second, per second). This value of the acceleration of
any freely falling body is referred to so often that we shall use a special symbol for
it «g». The gravitational force acting on a body is called its weight.
Any body found on earth has weight. It is known that the more the body is
pulled to the earth the greater will be its weight. In everyday life the term «weight»
is often used instead of the term «mass». But they must not be confused. While
defining the meaning of the word «mass» we may say that it is the measure of
inertia of the body.
Inertia is the property due to which a body resists a change in its state of rest
or motion. The weight of a body depends on something outside the body. Mass is
the property of the body. We know that all bodies expand when heated and
contract when cooled but the mass of the body remains unchanged.
1.Ответы на вопросы:
1. What are all objects acted upon?
2. Is the value of acceleration of all objects the same?
3. What is the value of acceleration?
4. Do we use a special symbol for the value of acceleration?
5. What is weight?
6. What is mass?
7. What is inertia?
8. What does the weight of a body depend on?
1. Определите, к каким частям речи относятся следующие слова:
weight, gravitational, value, fall, acceleration, use, special, force, earth, know,
confuse, property, measure, define.
9
2. Переведите на английский язык:
величина, ускорение, около, особый, путать, свойство, сопротивляться,
зависеть от, оставаться, изменять, охлаждать, нагревать, расширять, сжимать.
3. Переведите на русский язык:
One and the same, freely falling body, the more… the greater, everyday life, due
to, state of rest, state of motion, on the other hand, itself, instead of.
4. Переведите и определите функцию причастий:
1. If placed in water iron sinks.
2. The forces acting between atoms within a molecule are very strong.
3. When heated ice melts.
4. The bodies compared were equal.
5. Bodies falling downwards acquire velocity very rapidly.
6. When lifting a body we do work.
7. The gravitational force acting on a body is called its weight.
8. Gold does not rust even when heated.
9. While defining the size of motion we must use the word «speed».
10. Let us study the acceleration of a freely falling body.
5. Выберите правильную форму причастия и переведите предложения:
1. (Knowing, having known) the weight and the specific gravity of a substance we
may determine its volume.
2. The acceleration of a (giving, given) body is proportional to the force (caused,
causing) it.
3. The acceleration of a body when (falling, having fallen) is constant.
4. The temperature of the liquid (obtained, obtaining) remained constant for some
time.
5. Metals do not melt until (heating, heated) to a definite temperature.
6. While (having calculated, calculating) the weight of a body we multiply its
specific gravity by its volume.
7. The sum of the forces (pulling, pulled) up must equal the sum of the forces
(pulled, pulling) down.
8. It is evident that the body while (exerted, exerting) the force is itself acted upon
by some force.
9. The force (exerting, exerted) on that body changed its form.
10. Bodies (charged, charging) with different kinds of electricity attract each other
10
LESSON 5
The Gerund. Forms of Gerund
Active Indefinite reading
Perfect having read
Passive being read
having been read
В русском языке нет форм, соответствующих формам герундия,
поэтому вне предложения они не могут быть переведены на русский язык.
На русский язык герундий переводится: существительным; инфинитивом;
деепричастием; глаголом в личной форме.
Например:
Swimming is useful for your health. – Плавание полезно для здоровья.
The meeting is far from being ended. – Встреча далека от завершения.
After saying this he left the room. – Сказав это, он вышел из комнаты.
I am fond of reading. – Я очень люблю читать.
Герундиальная конструкция
В некоторых случаях действие, выраженное герундием, может иметь
субъект (подлежащее). В этом случае перед герундием может стоять: 1.
существительное в общем падеже; 2. существительное в притяжательном
падеже; 3. притяжательное местоимение.
Герундиальная конструкция переводится на русский язык
придаточным предложением с союзом что (чтобы), как правило,
следующим за местоимением то. Герундий переводится личной формой
глагола.
Например: We didn’t know about his being sent to the business-trip. – Мы
не знали о том, что его отправили в командировку.
The teacher knew about the students’ having gone to the research laboratory.
– Преподаватель узнал о том, что студенты ушли в исследовательскую
лабораторию.
The students read about an important discovery having been made in the
field of nuclear physics. – Студенты прочитали о том, что в области ядерной
физики было сделано важное открытие.
Прочитайте и переведите следующий текст.
ELASTICITY
Pulling a rubber band increases its length. However, if we cease pulling it
and release one of its ends, the rubber band will quickly return to its original shape
and size. Solids in greatly differing degrees resist being changed in shape, i.e.
resist deformation. Some of them, like a rubber band or a steel spring, are called
elastic because they return to their original size and shape after having been
11
stretched or compressed. Others are known as elastic because they straighten after
having been bent. Gases and liquids are perfectly elastic. In spite of their having
been compressed they return to their original volume after the removing of the
applied force. Air, for instance, is perfectly elastic. If it is compressed and then
allowed to return to its original pressure and temperature, it returns exactly to its
original volume. We may define an elastic body as one tending to return to its
original shape and size when the deforming force is removed. On the contrary,
bodies that are not very elastic do not show the tendency of returning to their
original form. Thus, elasticity is the tendency to return to the original condition
after deformation.
I. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
What does pulling a rubber band increase?
What will happen if we cease pulling it?
Why a rubber band or a steel spring is called elastic?
Are gases and liquids elastic?
And what about air? Is it elastic?
How can we define an elastic body?
So, what is elasticity?
II. Переведите на английский язык следующие слова и словосочетания и
запомните их:
Однако; между; сравнительно; наконец; затем; несмотря на; потому что; то
есть; как и; после того, как; другой; как, например; такой, как…; больше не;
до тех пор, пока.
III. Образуйте пары синонимов следующих слов:
To apply, action, shape, to use, to come back, effect, form, various, to return, state,
varying, condition, to cease, quickly, very, to stop, to call, fast, at last, because,
greatly, instead, since, to define, condition, to determine, body, finally, object.
IV. Переведите на английский язык следующие слова:
Длинный, длина; сопротивляться, сопротивление; устойчивый; изменяться,
изменение, изменчивый; постоянный; иметь склонность, стремление;
деформировать, деформация, деформированный; применять, применение,
применяемый; эксперимент, экспериментировать.
12
V. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на герундиальную
конструкцию.
1. The students didn’t know of their specimen having been measured before. 2. We
were informed of their experiment having been successfully performed. 3. In spite
of its having been compressed the gas returns to its original volume as soon as the
applied force is removed. 4. Their doing this experiment at once is very important.
5. Speaking of thermometers, one must make reference to the pyrometer. We know
of the latter being used for measuring temperatures that are too high for mercury
thermometers. We also know of its finding a wide application in industry. 6. In
certain cases friction becomes a helpful necessity instead of being a difficulty
causing only wear and losses. 7. The machine broke on account of its having been
made of brittle material. 8. We know of copper being used as a conductor owing to
its suitable characteristics.
Итоговое задание.
Переведите следующие предложения:
1. Some solids instead of being plastic are brittle. 2. Any body which is capable of
doing work possesses energy. 3. Increasing the velocity of molecules can be
accomplished by raising the temperature. 4. Due to its being simple and
convenient, the metric system is adopted in most countries of the world. 5. Being
very sensitive to temperature changes, Galileo’s air thermometer was not sensitive
at all to changes of atmospheric pressure. 6. We spend energy in lifting the object.
7. By adding heat we cause a greater motion of the molecules. 8. One cannot
transform water into steam without heating it. 9. The barometer is an instrument
for determining atmospheric pressure. 10. On studying the nature of that new
phenomenon, they were not satisfied with the results obtained and started testing
various engines. 11. His having obtained good results was a great success.
LESSON 6
The Infinitive.
Формы инфинитива
Indefinite
Continuous
Perfect
Perfect Continuous
Active
to ask
to be asking
to have asked
to have been asking
Passive
to be asked
—
to have been asked
—
13
Сложное подлежащее (The Complex Subject)
Существительное или
личное местоимение в
им. падеже
Глагол-связка
Сказуемое
Инфинитив
в любой форме
логическая связь
сложное подлежащее
1. D. I. Mendeleyev is known to be a great Russian chemist.
Известно, что Д. И. Менделеев великий русский химик.
2. The students were seen to play tennis in the sports ground.
Было видно, как студенты играют в теннис на спортивной площадке.
3. This law is said to be used in science universally.
Говорят, что этот закон применяется повсеместно в науке.
4. This method is likely to be useful.
Вероятно, этот метод будет полезным.
Mass
The term «mass» refers to that property of matter which in everyday
language is described by the word «inertia». We know from experience that an
object at rest will never start to move by itself – a push or a pull must be exerted on
it by some other body. In more technical language, an external force is required to
accelerate the body, and the force is said to be needed because the body has inertia.
It is also a well known fact that a force is required to slow down or to stop a
body which is already in motion, and that a sidewise force must be exerted on a
moving body to deviate it from a straight line. In these cases the force is known to
be necessary because the body has inertia.
In every case the body is accelerated. The inertia is considered to be that
property of matter because of which a force must be exerted on a body in order to
accelerate it.
To have a numerical value of the inertia of a body, we take as a standard
some body whose inertia is taken as unity, and state the inertia of all other bodies
in terms of this standard. The inertia of a body, when stated in this quantitative
way, is called its mass. Mass is a quantitative measure of inertia.
The mass of a body is an invariant property of the body, independent of its
velocity, acceleration, position on the earth’s surface it differs from the weight of
the body, which varies with position and elevation.
14
1. Ответьте на вопросы:
1. What property of matter does the term «mass» refer to?
2. Will an object at rest start to move by itself?
3. What kind of force is required to accelerate, to slow down or to stop the body?
4. Why is the external force necessary in all these cases just mentioned?
5. What is the inertia of a body?
6. What is the mass of a body?
7. What is the difference between the mass and the weight of the body?
2. Определите, к каким частям речи относятся следующие слова:
property, describe, experience, object, technical, acceleration, force, motion,
accelerate, external, unity, quantitative, measure, necessary.
3. Переведите не английский язык:
ссылаться, свойство, вещество, предмет (тело), двигаться, требовать,
ускорять, сила, движение, инерция, эталон, единица, мера.
4. Переведите на русский язык:
at rest, by itself, an external force, a moving body, in these cases, in order to, a
numerical value, in terms of.
5. Переведите и определите функцию инфинитива:
1. The mechanical systems are often too simple to be of any practical interest.
2. To drive machines requires power.
3. To observe is the primary rule of any experiment.
4. An electric current is known to be a stream of electrons in motion.
5. When the currents to be detected and measured are very small, one should use a
galvanometer.
6. To stop the flow of current is to break the circuit in some point.
7. Various switches are generally used to open or close the circuits.
8. A battery is the simplest device to produce direct current.
9. This device proved to be useful for our tests.
10.Electronic equipment is likely to find an ever growing application.
11.An electron is said to move in an orbit.
12.The bodies are said to have the same mass when they have the same weight.
15
КОНТРОЛЬНЫЕ РАБОТЫ
Test Paper
Var. I
1. Translate the text:
While speaking about a force doing work on a body, we know that in reality
it is some other body that exerts the force and does the work. Any moving body has
capacity for doing work due to its being in motion, and due to its possessing inertia.
This capacity is called energy. In order to distinguish it from another form of
energy, we call this energy of motion kinetic energy. But everyone knows that
bodies that are not in motion often have great capacities for doing work. For
example, water above a dam can do work if it is allowed to turn a water wheel. A
bent or compressed spring can do work in being released. Compressed air in an
automobile tire can do work, though not desirable work, by causing the tire to
burst. In all such cases bodies have capacity for doing work or energy because of
their positions or relative positions of their parts and the forces that act on them.
Energy of this kind might be called static energy to distinguish it from kinetic
energy, but a different term potential energy has become established.
2. Translate the sentences:
1. It is possible to use a spring balance as an instrument for measuring forces.
2. A series of experiments was carried on in order to distinguish between the two
mechanisms.
3. These methods are to be described later.
4. They were watching the moving particles.
5. Having been warmed ice began to melt.
6. When heated to 100˚ water boils.
7. The acceleration of a body when falling is constant.
8. If represented by arrows the forces can be easily computed.
9. Falling is a case of motion at constant acceleration.
10. The expansive force of water in freezing is enormous.
16
Test Paper
Var. II
1. Translate the text:
Electrons are minute negative charges of electricity. As these minute charges
move along a wire, that wire is said to carry an electric current. In other words, an
electric current is the flow of electrons through a metal conductor, these electrons
flowing along a wire much the same as water runs through a pipe.
As previously stated, the electric current is considered to flow from the positive to
the negative terminal though the electrons really move from minus to plus.
In order to have a steady current, we must have a completed circuit that is also
called «closed circuit» and a continuous supply of electric charge.
Another important factor to be taken into consideration is that current strength is
equal at all points of a series circuit.
As mentioned above, the electric current flows if there is a completed circuit. Thus
current starts flowing at the very moment when we close the circuit, for instance, as
soon as we turn on the light in our room.
2. Translate the sentences:
1. The potential of a charged body is by no means the potential energy of the
charge on that body.
2. The machine age is considered to depend upon the technology of metals.
3. Every substance proves to be elastic to some degree.
4. There must be some driving force to cause the electrons to move through the
metal conductor.
5. The force acting on a body is zero, it is not accelerated and is in equilibrium.
6. There are several ways of defining the meaning of force.
7. The acceleration of a body is proportional to the force causing it.
8. The particles attracted to the anode are anions.
9. The effect is too small to be detected.
10. To explain this fact is not easy.
17
Test Paper
Var. III
I. Translate the following text using a dictionary.
THE HEATING EFFECT OF AN ELECTRIC CURRENT
Whenever a current is flowing through a conductor, there is always some
opposition to its flow because of the fact that electrons or ions, if the conductor is
electrolytic, will collide with each other as well as with the ions or molecules of
the conductor. The energy which is supplied by the generator or battery in order to
overcome this opposition is known to be transformed into heat within the
conductor. The heat produced per second depends both upon the resistance of the
conductor and upon the amount of the current flowing through it.
If some current flows through a thin wire and then the same amount of
current is sent through a thicker one, a different amount of heat will be developed
in both these wires. When the current is passed through the wire which is too thin
to carry it freely, that is, the wire whose resistance offers greater opposition to its
flow, more electric energy will be converted into heat than in the case of the thick
wire carrying a small current. (1100 п. зн.)
II. Translate the following sentences:
1. On being heated magnetized steel will lose its magnetism because heating
makes the molecules move around rapidly and expands the metal.
2. The voltage being increased, the field becomes strong to cause the electrons to
produce additional ions by collision.
3. To measure the current strength and the voltage is not difficult.
4. The current is known to flow when the circuit is complete.
5. The farad is too large a unit to be used for practical work.
6. Landing on a planet is a problem to be solved in the nearest future.
7. The idea of using machines for purposes of teaching is of great importance.
8. His research followed by a report resulted in a new discussion.
9. This aircraft has proved to be very useful for pilots’ training.
10.The breaking of the circuit causes the magnetic field to disappear.
18
Test Paper
Var. IV
I.
Translate the following text using a dictionary.
HOW TO GENERATE ELECTRIC CURRENT
… To produce a current by thermal action heat is applied to two unlike
metals soldered together in two points. The apparatus which causes such a current
to be generated is called a thermo-electric couple or thermocouple for short. The
reason the thermocouple generates a current is due to the fact that the heat makes
the electrons tear off of the negatively charged metal at the point of joint. It is these
electrons that form the current flowing through the circuit. Now there exist semiconductor thermo-elements which without any machinery allow thermal energy to
be converted into electrical energy. Falling on a special kind of cell, light can cause
an electric current to flow. The device making use of this phenomenon so as to
produce electricity is called a photoelectric cell.
Finally, to generate a current by magnetic action, a wire is made to pass
through a magnetic field, the latter being set up either by a permanent magnet or an
electromagnet, the devices which make the electric current be generated in this
way are called ―magneto‖ and ―dynamo‖ machines. (1100 п. зн.)
II. Translate the following sentences:
1. This kind of electrolyte used has no effect on the electromotive force.
2. Further analyses have proved these particles to be doubly charged helium
atoms.
3. Being designed with the help of transistors electronic devices consume little
power.
4. One of the most valuable uses of ultra-violet rays in industry is testing the
quality of equipment.
5. The image being televised is picked up by the TV camera.
6. Our purpose is to determine the effect of X-rays on this substance.
7. The instrument for measuring the temperature of hot flowing metals is similar
to that used in our laboratory.
8. Comparing the data obtained by our tests is the only means of solving this
problem.
9. Having invented the lightning conductor, Franklin continued working at the
problem of atmospheric electricity.
10. Experiments showing the changes in substances are very important for
industry.
19
TEXTS FOR RETELLING
Saint-Petersburg State Institute of Technology
(Technical University)
Saint-Petersburg State Institute of technology was founded on the 28 th of
November, 1828.
It was the first and for a long time the only technological institute training
technical specialists, engineers and managers of factories. In 1896 the institute was
renamed the Technological Institute. Its growth was closely connected to the
development in industry and science. In 1949 a department of nuclear engineering
was added. In 1992 the institute became Technical University.
A lot of famous scientists worked and took part in education of engineers
and technologists at the institute, among them the creator of Periodic System of the
Elements D.I. Mendeleyev, the founder of the modern science of metals D.K.
Chernov. At the institute museum one can see original documents, books and
articles by outstanding scientists which were published during their life.
Today the institute is a large educational and scientific centre. The institute
trains specialists at 8 full time faculties: technology of inorganic materials, fine
organic and microbiological synthesis, engineering and cybernetics, basic organic
synthesis, high technologies, ecology, economics and management, information
and control systems. The institute also offers part-time and correspondence courses
of education.
Academicians, associate members of Russian and international Academies,
assistant professors and candidates of science are among the teaching staff. The
institute is headed by the Rector Professor A.S. Dudyrev, a doctor of chemical
science. Dr. Dudyrev is also the head of the department of explosives.
The academic year is divided into two terms. There is a winter and a summer
vacation period. The institute has well–equipped auditoriums, computer and TV
centres, numerous research and educational laboratories. The institute library is our
pride; its total collection numbers around one million volumes.
To receive a diploma an undergraduate has to submit a paper or a project and
defend it before State Examination Board. The best students have the possibility to
become postgraduate students.
20
Saint-Petersburg
Saint-Petersburg is the second largest Russian city after Moscow. The city is
situated in the north-west of Russia. It lies on the both sides of the Neva and on the
coast of the Gulf of Finland, on the site of the former marches. The Neva is a wide
river but not very long. It runs from the Lake of Ladoga into the Baltic Sea. There
are a lot of small rivers and canals in the city, that’s why the area occupied by the
city is divided into 42 islands. Hundreds of bridges cross the rivers and canals in
Saint-Petersburg.
Saint-Petersburg is one of the most beautiful cities in the world. There are
many places of interest in the city. The Peter and Paul Fortress is one of them. The
fortress was built in 1703 by the order of Peter the Great to protect the lands along
the banks of the Neva from Sweden. The foundation day of the Peter and Paul
Fortress is considered to be the birthday of the city.
Palace Square is the main square of the city. It reminds us of many important
historical events. The ensemble of Palace Square was designed to glorify the
victory of Russia over Napoleon. It owes its name to the Winter Palace, the former
residence of Russian Tsars. Now the State Hermitage exhibits its collection in the
Winter Palace. The Hermitage is one of the world’s largest art galleries and
museums of history and culture. The State Russian Museum houses its outstanding
collection of Russian art works.
The city has always played a great role in developing science and culture
both in Russia and abroad. The first Russian Academy of Science and the first
Russian University were set up there. It was in this city that the Russian scientist
D.I. Mendeleyev devised the famous periodic table of chemical elements.
Saint-Petersburg continues to be one of the most important cultural,
scientific, financial and industrial centres of Russia. The city is the destination for
many tourists from all over the world.
21
Russia
Russia is the largest country in the world. It is almost the size of the USA
and Canada combined. It’s about 8 000 km from East to West and crosses
different time zones. Its total area is about 17 million square km. Russia is
situated both in Europe and Asia. The European and Asian parts of the country
are separated by the Ural Mountains. The Urals are not very high mountains.
Russia’s largest mountains, the Caucasus, are on its southern borders. The
country is washed by 12 seas and 3 oceans: the Pacific, the Arctic and the
Atlantic. In the South Russia borders on China, Mongolia, Korea, Kazakhstan,
Georgia and Azerbaijan. In the West it borders on Norway, Finland, the Baltic
States, Belarus and the Ukraine. It also has a sea-border with the USA. There is
hardly a country in the world where such a variety of scenery and vegetation can
be found. There are steppes, plains and forests, tundra and taiga, mountains and
hills. There are over 2 mln rivers in Russia: the Volga, the Amur and others. The
climate of Russia varies from arctic in the North to subtropical in the South; the
climate in the middle of the country is temperate and continental.
Russia is very rich in oil, natural gas, coal, iron, copper, nickel and other
mineral resources.
Russians make up the large majority of the population and Russian is the
official language but there are more than a hundred of other nationalities and
languages. The population of Russia amounts to 150 million people.
Russia is a parliamentary republic. The three branches of the state power
are legislative, executive and judicial. Each of them is controlled by the
President who is the head of the state.
The legislative power is vested in the Federal Assembly, it consists of
two Chambers. The Upper Chamber is the Council of Federation. The Lower
Chamber is the State Duma. The two Chambers make laws which must be
signed by the President; the President may veto the bill.
The executive power belongs to the Government which is headed by the
Prime Minister.
There are a lot of political parties and blocks, e.g. the United Russia, the
Liberal Democratic Party, the Communist Party and others. Most of them are in
confrontation.
The economic situation in Russia is not stable; the global economic
crisis hit Russia hard. For most of the past decade, Russia experienced persistent
inflation. Tighter credit, collapsing global demand and global uncertainty have
hurt investment and consumption in Russia (which have been the main drivers
of GDP growth in recent years).
In spite of all the difficulties, Russia is sure to overcome them due to a
great human and natural potential.
22
Great Britain
Great Britain is an island country in the northwest of Europe. It has only
about 1 per cent of the world’s total population; the population of the country is a
little more than 60 million people. Yet for hundreds of years it has been one of the
world’s most important countries.
The official name of the country is the United Kingdom of Great Britain and
Northern Ireland, often abbreviated to the United Kingdom, or just the UK. The
United Kingdom comprises Great Britain (England, Scotland, Wales) and Northern
Ireland.
Great Britain is separated from the mainland Europe by the North Sea on the
east and by the English Channel on the south – separation that has held shape the
independent character of the British people.
Britain is comparatively small but the landscape of the country varies very
much. It is mainly low-lying meadows and forests, but there are mountains in
Scotland and Wales, deep lakes in Scotland. There are also a lot of rivers in Britain
but they are not very long. The Severn is the longest while the Thames is the
busiest one.
The climate of Great Britain is mild: the summers are cool and rainy, winters
are not very cold.
The United Kingdom is a monarchy but the powers of monarch are limited
by the British Parliament. The British Parliament consists of two Chambers, the
House of Commons and the House of Lords. Every thing is done in the name of
the Queen but the Prime Minister is responsible for the policy conducted by the
Government.
London, the capital of the United Kingdom and England, is one of the oldest
and largest cities in the world. Its population is about 7 mln. people. The City of
London is one of the biggest and most important financial centres in the world.
There are a lot of places of interest worth seeing in London.
Great Britain has its own customs and traditions which play a really
important role in the life of the British. The British people are very proud of their
traditions and carefully keep them up.
23
Кафедра иностранных языков
Методические указания
Английский язык
для студентов заочной формы обучения
механического факультета
Ирина Владимировна Лобода
Светлана Борисовна Теремязева
__________________________________________________________________
Отпечатано с оригинал-макета. Формат 6090. 1/16
Печ.л. 1.5 Тираж
экз.
__________________________________________________________________
Санкт-Петербургский государственный технологический институт
(Технический университет)
190013, Санкт-Петербург, Московский пр., 26
Отпечатано в типографии издательства технологического института,
тел. 49-49-365
24
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